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Radioluminescent (RL) airfield lighting system program

Description: In 1980, the US Air Force Engineering and Services Center (AFESC) at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, requested that the Radioisotope Technology Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) develop large-scale, tritium-powered, radioluminescent (RL) airfield lighting systems. The RL lighting systems possess the advantages of being portable, requiring no electrical power source, having a long shelf life, and being unaffected by environmental extremes. These characteristics make the RL system well-suited for harsh environments where the cost of electrical power production is high and traditional incandescent airfield lighting systems are difficult to maintain. RL lighting is typically a large-surface-area, low-intensity light source that operates 100% of the time. The RL light sources gradually decrease in brightness over time, so periodic replacement (every 6 to 8 years) is necessary. RL lighting functions best in low ambient light, which provides the high contrast ratios necessary for successful use of these devices. 12 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Tompkins, J.A. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Haff, K.W. & Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

Description: The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Judkins, R.R. & Braski, D.N. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and mechanical properties of Fe sub 3 Al-based iron aluminides

Description: Iron aluminides based on Fe{sub 3}Al are ordered intermetallic alloys that offer good oxidation resistance, excellent sulfidation resistance, and lower material cost than many stainless steels. These materials also conserve strategic elements such as chromium and have a lower density than stainless steels. However, limited ductility at ambient temperature and a sharp drop in strength have been major deterrents to their acceptance for structural applications. This report presents results on iron aluminides with room-temperature elongations of 15 to 20%. Ductility values were improved by a combination of thermomechanical processing and heat-treatment control. This method of ductility improvement has been demonstrated for a range of compositions. Melting, casting, and processing of 7-kg (15-lb) heats produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and 70-kg (150-lb) commercial heats are described. Vacuum melting and other refining processes such as electroslag remelting are recommended for commercial heats. The Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides are hot workable by forging or extruding at temperatures in the range of 850 to 1100{degree}C. rolling at 800{degree}C is recommended with a final 50% reduction at 650{degree}C. Tensile and creep properties of 7- and 70-kg (15- and 150-lb) heats are presented. The presence of impurities such as manganese an silicon played an important role in reducing the ductility of commercially melted heats. 7 refs., 60 figs., 12 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.; Howell, C.R. & Baldwin, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A compute-ahead implementation of the fan-in sparse distributed factorization scheme

Description: In this report, we consider a compute-ahead computational technique in the distributed factorization of large sparse matrices using the fan-in parallel scheme. Experimental results on an Intel iPSC/2 hypercube are provided to demonstrate the relevance and effectiveness of this technique. Fortran source code is also included in an appendix. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Ashcraft, C.; Eisenstat, S.C.; Sherman, A.H. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Liu, J.W.H. (York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science) & Peyton, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote maintenance lessons learned'' on prototypical reprocessing equipment

Description: Hardware representative of essentially every major equipment item necessary for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel has been installed and tested for remote maintainability. This testing took place in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) within the Fuel Recycle Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The reprocessing equipment tested included a Disassembly System, a Shear System, a Dissolver System, an Automated Sampler System, removable Equipment Racks on which various chemical process equipment items were mounted, and an advanced servomanipulator (ASM). These equipment items were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the remote handling systems that are available within the cold mock-up area. This paper summarizes the lessons learned'' as a result of the numerous maintenance activities associated with each of these equipment items. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kring, C.T. & Schrock, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the Structural Materials Information Center

Description: The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and other structural material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors are being collected and assembled into a data base. This data base will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Two complementary data base formats have been developed. The Structural Materials Handbook is an expandable, hard-copy reference document that contains complete sets of data and information for selected portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon, and structural steel materials. Baseline data, reference properties and environmental information are presented in the handbook as tables, notes and graphs. The handbook, which will be published in four volumes, serves as the information source for the electronic data base. The Structural Materials Electronic Data Base is accessible by an IBM-compatible personal computer and provides an efficient means for searching the various data base files to locate materials with similar properties. Properties will be reported in the International System of Units (SI) and in customary units whenever possible. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Oland, C.B. & Naus, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactive programs for low-flow frequency analyses for use in regional studies

Description: Seven-day ten-year low-flow values have been used as indices of water availability for regional energy facility siting. This paper describes an automated system for generating low-flow frequency distributions for United States Geological Survey streamflow gaging sites. Since no single frequency distribution will match the low flow frequencies at all stream gaging stations, it is necessary to examine several possible distributions for each station to determine the most useful one. Four representative low flow frequency distributions, Gumbel's limited distribution of the smallest value, the Pearson Type III, the Log-Pearson III, and the Log-Normal distributions, have been chosen for inclusion in an interactive set of programs, named LOFL02. LOFL02 forms one analysis module of the ORNL Water Analysis System (WAS), and when used in conjunction with other WAS programs makes frequency analysis viable on a regional scale by facilitating the handling of large amounts of data for large numbers of stations.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Hyndman, J. R. & Huff, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)

Description: Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Bass, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

End effects in the criticality analysis of burnup credit casks

Description: A study to evaluate the effect of axially dependent burnup on k{sub eff} has been performed as part of an effort to qualify procedures to be used in establishing burnup credit in shipping cask design and certification. This study was performed using a generic 31-element modular cast-iron cask (wall thickness 33.1 cm) with a 1-cm-thick borated stainless-steel basket for reactivity control. Fuel isotopics used here are those of the 17 {times} 17 Westinghouse assemblies from the North Anna Unit 1 reactor. Virginia Power (VP) provided detailed spatial isotopics for the fuel assemblies in-core at beginning-of-cycle 5 (BOC-5) as generated from their PDQ analyses. Twenty-two axial planes were defined in the original VP data. The isotopics used in this study were for a 3.41 initial wt % {sup 235}U and an average burnup of 31.5 GWd/MTU.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Brady, M.C. & Parks, C.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interpretation of engine cycle-to-cycle variation by chaotic time series analysis

Description: In this paper we summarize preliminary results from applying a new mathematical technique -- chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) -- to cylinder pressure data from a spark-ignition (SI) four-stroke engine fueled with both methanol and iso-octane. Our objective is to look for the presence of deterministic chaos'' dynamics in peak pressure variations and to investigate the potential usefulness of CTSA as a diagnostic tool. Our results suggest that sequential peak cylinder pressures exhibit some characteristic features of deterministic chaos and that CTSA can extract previously unrecognized information from such data. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Daw, C.S. & Kahl, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Regulatory Update Table, July 1990

Description: The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A. & Salk, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from the second year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed its second year of operation of ten vehicles for the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; five of the vehicles are fueled with methanol. Over 56,000 miles were accumulated on the vehicles in the second year bringing the total to over 152,000 miles. Energy consumption for the methanol cars was slightly higher than that of the gasoline cars again this year, most likely as a result of shorter average trip lengths for the methanol gas. Iron and lead have accumulated at greater rates in the lubricating oil of the methanol cars. Driver's ratings of vehicles reflected some dissatisfaction with the cold-weather performance of the methanol cars, but the cars have no special provisions for cold weather starting, and the fuel vapor pressure has not been tailored to the season as at other test sites. Otherwise, drivers' opinions of the methanol cars have been favorable. 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: West, B.H.; McGill (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)) & Hillis, S.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring challenges and innovative ideas

Description: Monitoring programs are difficult to design even when they focus on specific problems. Ecosystems are complex, and it is often impossible to predetermine what aspects of system structure or dynamics will respond to a specific insult. It is equally difficult to interpret whether a response is a stabilizing compensatory mechanism or a real loss of capacity to maintain the ecosystem. The problems are compounded in a broad monitoring program designed to assess ecosystem health'' at regional and continental scales. It is challenging in the extreme to monitor ecosystem response, at any scale, to past insults as well as an unknown future array of impacts. The present paper will examine some of the fundamental issues and challenges raised by large-scale monitoring efforts. The challenges will serve as a framework and as an excuse to discuss several important topics in more detail. Following the discussion of challenges, we suggest some basic innovations that could be important across a range of monitoring programs. The innovations include integrative measures, innovative methodology, and creative interpretation. 59 refs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: O'Neill, R.V.; Hunsaker, C.T. & Levine, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the radiological survey at the Granite City Steel facility, Granite City, Illinois

Description: In the late 1950s and early 1960s, uranium ingots were x-rayed for the Atomic Energy Commission at the South Plant facility of the Granite City Steel Company, Granite City, Illinois. The x-ray equipment is still housed in a building on the southern end of the property. At the time of the survey, neither the equipment nor the building had been used for some time. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that such sites are in compliance with current federal guidelines. Because documentation establishing the current radiological condition of the property is unavailable, a radiological survey was conducted by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1989. The survey included: measurement of gamma exposure rates both indoors and outdoors; collection and radionuclide analysis of soil and debris samples; and measurements to determine alpha and beta-gamma surface contamination. 3 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Swaja, R.E. & Cottrell, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

Description: Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I. & White, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

Description: This report is the program and abstracts of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, held on May 7--11, 1990, at Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The symposium, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Institute, Badger Engineers, Inc., Gas Research Institute, and American Chemical Society, consists of five sessions: Session 1, thermal, chemical, and biological processing; Session 2 and 3, applied biological research; Session 4, bioengineering research; and Session 5, biotechnology, bioengineering, and the solution of environmental problems. It also consists of a poster session of the same five subject categories.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Scheitlin, F.M. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Collaborative coal project between the USA and India)

Description: Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification. (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.
Date: October 5, 1990
Creator: Krishnan, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iodine and NO sub x behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX (Iodine Oxidation) systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility

Description: This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NO{sub x} in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NO{sub x} is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Birdwell, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

KWOC (Key-Word-Out-of-Context) index of nuclear energy standards

Description: One major task of the Nuclear Standards Program funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs is to promote and support the use of standards by providing line managers and standards coordinators with data that facilitates their ability to utilize standards requirements. To meet this task, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a Performance Assurance Information Program. The task is carried out in accordance with the principle set forth in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program,'' December 18, 1980, and DOE memorandum, Implementation of DOE Orders on Quality Assurance, Standards, and Unusual Occurrence Reporting for Nuclear Energy Programs,'' March 3, 1982, and with guidance from the DOE-NE Technology Support Programs. The purpose of this information program is to collect, compile, and distribute program-related information, reports, and publications for the benefit of the DOE-NE program participants.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Jennings, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in the detection of single molecules in levitated droplets

Description: This report briefly describes a method for the detection of single molecules of rhodamine-6G in levitated droplets. 4 refs. CBS
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Arnold, S. (Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn, NY (USA)) & Bronk, B.V. (Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser-induced fluorescence of phosphors for remote cryogenic thermometry

Description: Remote cryogenic temperature measurements can be made by inducing fluorescence in phosphors with temperature-dependent emissions and measuring the emission lifetimes. The thermographic phosphor technique can be used for making precision, non-contact, cryogenic temperature measurements in electrically hostile environments, such as high DC electric or magnetic fields. NASA is interested in utilizing these thermographic phosphors for mapping hot spots on cryogenic tank walls. Europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu) and magnesium fluorogermanate doped with manganese (Mg{sub 4}(F)GeO{sub 6}:Mn) are suitable for low-temperature surface thermometry. Several emission lines, excited by a 337 nm UV laser, provide fluorescence lifetimes having logarithmic dependence with temperatures from 4 to 125 Kelvin. A calibration curve for both La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu and Mg{sub 4}(F)GeO{sub 6}:Mn are presented as well as emission spectra taken at room temperature and 7 Kelvin.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Beshears, D.L.; Capps, G.J.; Cates, M.R.; Simmons, C.M. & Schwenterly, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasensitive molecular fluorescence spectroscopy in levitated microdroplets

Description: The extreme sensitivity of fluorescence spectrophotometry results from the fact that a molecule can undergo many excitation-emission cycles before destruction by photochemical degradation. For example, Rhodamine 6G (R6G) can emit in excess of 10{sup 5} photons before photolysis takes place. The fraction of emitted photons collected and converted to countable pulses can be as high as 10{sup {minus}3}, although 10{sup {minus}4} is more readily attainable. Therefore, sufficient signal exists for single molecules to be detectable. Detection limits for molecules in solution have been limited by background signal from solvent Raman scattering and fluorescence. This background signal adds noise to the measurement and has effectively restricted the detectable concentration to about 10{sup {minus}13} M. Over the past decade, advances in detection of fewer molecules have all been made by reducing the measurement volume and/or increasing the measuring time. Given the above concentration detection limit a reduction of the measurement volume to 1 pL leads to a minimum observable quantity of {approx}1 molecule. The ability to detect a single molecule in condensed phase could have many important applications in addition to being an interesting problem. The obvious application of this approach is to situations where small quantities of material are available for analysis. The capability to reliably detect a single fluorophore might also allow the screening and/or sorting of a collection of molecules. Such abilities would have application to many biological problems such as DNA sequencing and detection of DNA adducts.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ramsey, J.M.; Whitten, W.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Arnold, S. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (USA)) & Bronk, B.V. (Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the Integrated Pressurized Thermal-Shock (IPTS) study

Description: By the early 1980s, (PTS)-related, deterministic, vessel-integrity studies sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) indicated a potential for failure of some PWR vessels before design end of life, in the event of a postulated severe PTS transient. In response, the NRC established screening criteria, in the form of limiting values of the reference nil-ductility transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}), and initiated the development of a probabilistic methodology for evaluating vessel integrity. This latter effort, referred to as the Integrated Pressurized Thermal-Shock (IPTS) Program, included development of techniques for postulating PTS transients, estimating their frequencies, and calculating the probability of vessel failure for a specific transient. Summing the products of frequency of transient and conditional probability of failure for each of the many postulated transients provide a calculated value of the frequency of failure. The IPTS Program also included the application of the IPTS methodology to three US PWR plants (Oconee-1, Calvert Cliffs-1, and HBRobinson-2) and the specification of a maximum permissible value of the calculated frequency of vessel failure. Another important purpose of the IPTS study was to determine, through application of the IPTS methodology, which design and operating features, parameters, and PTS transients were dominant in affecting the calculated frequency of failure. The scope of the IPTS Program included the development of a probabilistic fracture-mechanics capability, modification of the TRAC and RELAP5 thermal/hydraulic codes, and development of the methodology for estimating the uncertainty in the calculated frequency of vessel failure.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Cheverton, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department