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Decontamination Program Task II. Volume 1, Contamination and Decontamination in Nuclear Power Reactors

Description: Abstract: A survey of the problem of reactor system contamination by radioactive material and methods that have been employed to remove the material was carried out. Following this survey, an investigation of chemical solutions was undertaken to find one which might be successfully employed in the decontamination of a stainless steel steam generator. From a preliminary screening, the most promising chemical method from the view point of minimum corrosion and maximum decontamination is a caustic permanganate treatment followed by and acid rinse.
Date: February 13, 1959
Creator: Zegger, John L. & Pancer, Guyon P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Decontamination Program Task II. Volume III, Recommended Procedure for Decontamination of a Stainless Steel Steam Generator

Description: Abstract: A decontamination procedure for a stainless steel steam generator similar to the APPR-1 using a fill-flush application of a caustic permanganate-citrate combination solution is recommended. The isolation of the steam generator is to be accomplished by means of specially designed plugs at the reactor vessel outlet and at the primary coolant pumps. Anticipated results, including corrosion rates and decontamination factors, are presented.
Date: February 13, 1959
Creator: Pancer, Guyon P. & Zegger, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 (APPR-1) Research and Development Program : Final Report on Short-Lived and Fission Product Activity in the SM-1 Primary Coolant, Task III

Description: Abstract: The primary coolant of the SM-1 (APPR-1) was analyzed for short-lived and fission product activities. Manganese-56 was found to be the predominant non-fission product nuclide contributing to the short lived activity. Fission products were found in the coolant. It is concluded these fission products originate from a defects in the cladding and from surface contamination of the fuel elements.
Date: March 10, 1959
Creator: Brown, William S. & Hasse, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Theory of Asymmetric Arrays of Control Rods in Nuclear Reactors

Description: Introduction: Seldom does the actual arrangement of control elements in a nuclear reactor confers to the ideal and convenient mathematical array. In order to achieve shim control. safety and regulation, it is desirable to design with rods of different sizes and materials. With given fuel element arrangement, typically in square or hexagonal lattice spacing, there will be rods located at different distances form the center of the core and from each other. As the reactor operates, absorbers will be withdrawn, leaving further asymmetries in the location of those remaining. It is the purpose of this report to develop in detail a two-group diffusion theory with as complete generality as possible. The method is as yet restricted to the unreflected core, or to the reflected core by use of reflector savings and bare equivalent geometries.
Date: April 25, 1959
Creator: Murray, Raymond L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Research and Development Program : Final Report on Fission Product Activity in the SM-1 Primary Coolant, Task XIII

Description: Abstract: Fission product measurements were made on the SM-1 primary coolant. The airborne activity observed during the sampling of the primary system was identified. An analysis was made on the primary coolant for alpha activity and on the secondary water for fission production iodine.
Date: June 30, 1959
Creator: Hasse, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Research and Development Program, Activity Buildup Program Task 1 : final report February 1958 to June 1959

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 (APPR-1) performed from February 1958 to January 1959 are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Mathematical equations to describe the activity buildup are derived. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as the predicted radiation levels at the end of core life.
Date: August 10, 1959
Creator: Brown, William S.; Bergen, C. Richard.; Bergmann, Carl A.; Chupak, Julius.; Fitzsimmons, Susanne R. & Grant, Louis G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-1

Description: Abstract: Critical experiment studies were performed, varying the parameters U235, B10 and metal to water ratio, in the SM-2 7 x 7 core configuration with 38 stationary elements and seven control rods of the SM-1 (APPR-1) type. An experimental mock-up of the SM-1 was assembled using the basic SM-2 fuel plates. Excellent agreement between the SM-1 boron loading, determined by chemical analysis, and the SM-1 mock-up boron loading, for equivalent bank positions, was noted. Several SM-2 mock-ups, cold clean and midlife, were assembled and studied with regard to reflector effects, flow divider effects, relative control rod array worths, critical rod configurations, and relative power distributions. The results of these experiments indicate as satisfactory a U235 loading of 36.4 Kg and a B10 loading of 63.4 grams for the SM-2. Attention is drawn to numerous power peaks present in the active core. The open seven control rod array has a slight reactivity advantage over the closed seven array and consequent minor disadvantage with respect to "stuck rod" criteria.
Date: November 30, 1959
Creator: Noaks, J. W.; McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Schrader, E. W. & Weiss, S. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Extended SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-2

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a description and results of a second series of critical experiments performed on the SM-2 core mock-up, as additional to the first series of experiments reported in APAE No. 54. The SM-2 core mock-up contains 36.4 kg U-235 and and estimated 67.9 gm B-10. The equivalent diameter and the active height are about 22 in.; the metal-to-water volume ration is 0.344. Data is presented on activation, reactivity, and stuck rod measurements. All measurements were conducted on the open seven control rod array employing 38 stationary fuel elements. Activation measurements consisted of neutron flux measurements using uranium fission foils for relative power distribution studies, the effect of flux suppressors on reducing power peaks, blocked coolant channel measurements, and gamma ray dose distribution. Reactivity measurements were performed to determine the effect f flow divider, flux suppressors and stimulated high temperature and pressure operation; b-10 loading in the SM-2 core; and core material coefficients. For the later, the worth in cents per gm or cents per cc was determined at simulated temperature of 510 degree F for B-10, U-235, stainless steel, and void. Stuck rod measurements were made to obtain an indication of the criticality margin in the event one or more control rods should stick in the operating position.
Date: June 30, 1961
Creator: McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; Raby, T. M.; Schrader, E. W. & Walthousen, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Reactor Core Inspection at 2/3 Core Life : March 7, 1959 to May 17, 1959

Description: Abstract: This technical report is concerned with the program and results of the SM-1 reactor vessel head removal and core inspection at Fort Belvoir, Virginia from the period March 7, 1969 to May 17, 1959. It covers the operating procedures in detail and records the conditions found and problems encountered in order to make a record for reference in future work of this nature. The major objective of the program, to obtain irradiation data on the SM-1 type core, has been met. The boron control rod elements were found unsatisfactory for full core life, and europium oxide elements were placed in the core for future irradiation stability data. A major problem was experienced with the cracked pressure vessel head studs. The methods developed for the removal of the broken studs are presented. The complete metallurgical study of the stud failure from stress corrosion is included as Appendix B.
Date: January 13, 1960
Creator: Obrist, C. H.; Byrne, B. J.; Connolly, T. F.; Foley, D. D.; Lichtenberger, R. V.; Mackay, S. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DuPont Prototype Safety and Control Rod Drive Testing

Description: Summary: Prototype testing of the safety and control rod drives indicated that both units functioned properly. No major problems were encountered during testing. Seal leakage data collected indicated that the seal units were performing satisfactorily. Scram times during both cold and hot testing were excellent and actually better than expected.
Date: April 25, 1960
Creator: VandeMark, G. M. & Krause, P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Zero Power Experiments for the SM-1 Core II : Task XV

Description: Abstract: An element by element reactivity check for SM-1 Core II fuel elements and control rod absorber sections was performed and the burnable nuclear poison loading in the SM-1 Core II stationary fuel elements was established. An approach to criticality of the SM-1 Core II was performed by the inverse multiplication method and the critical rod bank position obtained as a function of fuel loading up to the full SM-1 Core II loading. Maximum and minimum core reactivity measurements were obtained by selective loading of stationary fuel elements and the total "excess K" for the core established. Power distribution measurements in the region of the core-reflector interface and the fuel-absorber interface in the control rod assemblies were performed. The effectiveness of europium flux suppressors in the top of control rod fuel elements and the power peaking in stationary elements adjacent to water gaps in control rod assemblies were measured. Survey measurements established the worth of spiking cold clean SM-1 cores with SM-2 elements, and of water holes in the SM-1 core which might be utilized as flux traps for materials irradiation.
Date: March 15, 1960
Creator: Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; McCool, W. J. & Schrader, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Research and Development. Task XV, Zero Power Experiments for SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I

Description: Abstract: A zero power experiment on the SM-1 Core II included an element by element reactivity check of fuel elements and control rod absorber sections, and an estimate of burnable nuclear poison loading in stationary fuel elements. An approach to criticality was made by the inverse multiplication method, and critical rod bank position obtained as a function fuel loading up to full core loading. Minimum and maximum core reactivity measurements were obtained by selective loading of stationary fuel elements, and total excess K of the core was established. Power distribution measurements were taken in the regions of the core-reflector interface and the fuel-absorber interface in the control rod assemblies. The effectiveness of europium flux suppressors in the top of control rod fuel elements was determined, and power peaking was measured in stationary elements adjacent to control rod assembly water gaps. Survey measurements established the work of spiking clean, cold SM-1 cores with SM-2 elements and the work of water holes in the SM-1 Core. The reduced scope zero power experiment performed on SM-1A core I included an element by element uniformity check of stationary fuel elements, a core assembly test, comparison of Eu2O3 and B4C absorber sections, and development of initial core loading procedures for the SM-1A plant.
Date: October 12, 1960
Creator: Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; McCool, W. J. & Schrader, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Survey of the Effects of Neutron Irradiation on the Impact and Other Mechanical Properties of Pressure Vessel Steels for the SM-2 Reactor

Description: Abstract: This technical report summarizes the data obtained in a recent literature survey conducted to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the impact and other mechanical properties of both ferritic steels and austenitic stainless steels. The survey was primarily aimed at obtaining sufficient data on the behavior of pressure vessel steels at high integrated neutron flux levels in order that a reference material of construction could be selected for the SM-2 (APPR-1B) reactor vessel. Materials studied in this literature survey included carbon and low alloy steels such as: ASTM A-212B, ASTM A-201, ASTM A-301B (CR-Mo), ASTM A-106 (coarse and fine grained), ASTM A-285, ASTM A-302B (Mn-Mo), ASTM A-353, ASTM A-203 Grade D, E-7016 carbon steel weld metal, USS Carilloy T-1, HY-65 and HY-80. In addition, Types 304 and 347 stainless steels were also investigated as representative austenitic materials which might be used in pressure vessel construction. A careful evaluation was made of the irradiation induced changes in the mechanical properties of the above materials. The ferritic steels were evaluated primarily on the basis of increases in transition temperature due to irradiation and decreases in the amount of maximum energy absorbed prior to ductile failure. Factors such as industrial experience, changes in other mechanical properties and the susceptibility of these materials to temper embrittlement were also considered. Austenitic stainless steels were evaluated on the basis of post-irradiation and low temperature impact strength and on irradiation induced changes in other mechanical properties. Based on available data, it is concluded that austenitic stainless steels are capable of resisting harmful property damage at integrated neutron fluxes > 1 Mev of at least t to 2 x 10(21) nvt. However, with the application of special reactor operating procedures, ASTM A212B will be satisfactory at integrated neutron fluxes up to 5 x 10(19) nvt.
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Kelleman, Richard William.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Control and Dynamics Performance of a Sodium Cooled Reactor Power System

Description: Introduction: Objectives and Method of Approach. High plant efficiencies can be realized without excessively high core temperatures and high coolant pressures by the use of liquid metal coolant. In an attempt to prove the feasibility of liquid sodium as a reactor coolant ALCO Products, Inc., under sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission, is undertaking a design study of three vital system components: the intermediate exchanger, the boiler, and the superheater. Since, in the past programs, the nuclear reactor had been the major focus of attention, the development of the sodium cooled reactor and sodium pumps for this application are thought to need the less development than the heat exchanger equipment. Consequently, parallel design studies of the reactor, pumps, and other system components have not yet been initiated.
Date: 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermal Analysis of SM-1 Core III

Description: Abstract This technical report covers the thermal analysis performed on the SM-1 Core III for both steady state and transient conditions is reported. SM-1 Core III will be used as a test for Type 3 elements in a PM-2A Core. The steady state analysis indicated minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratios (DNBR) for both design and scram conditions above the minimum criteria of 1.5. Local nucleate boiling was noted in the hot internal channels and lattice passage at scram power conditions. Loss of flow transient results indicate DNBR's above 1.5, insuring that the core is safe from burnout. Bulk boiling was noted in the hot channels and lattice passage at scram power condition.
Date: June 29, 1962
Creator: Davidson, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hazards Summary Report for the Army Package Power Reactor : SM-1, Task XVII

Description: Preface. This technical report is an updated and revised version of the original SM-1 (APPR-1) Hazards Summary Report. The original report was issued July 1955, almost two years before construction of the SM-1 plant was completed. During that time interval there were numerous design changes. Consequently, the original report does not accurately describe the plant as built. This revision is written after the SM-1 has been operated 3 years. It describes the as-build plant and includes plant modifications and experience obtained during the first 3 years of SM-1 operation.
Date: May 1960
Creator: Rosen, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Shielding Requirements for the Army Package Power Reactor

Description: Abstract. The design, selection, and calculation of the Army Package Power Reactor shielding are described. The APPR-1, a prototype of a package reactor for remote locations, has a primary shield of iron and water. this shield has been adopted to permit fast erection and to provide low transported weight. economically, including transportation cost, the iron water shield is better than a lead water shield and is competitive with a concrete shield for a remote site. Because of the location at Fort Belvoir,Va., the shielding requirements for the APR-1 are considerably more stringent than those for a reactor at a remote base. Since the secondary shielding which surrounds the entire primary system must provide protection for personnel at any location outside the vapor container, concrete is provided for this need.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Meem, J. L. (James Lawrence). & Fairbanks, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Research and Development Program: Long-lived Induced Activity Buildup During SM-1 Core I Lifetime. Task XVIII, Phase I

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 performed during Core I lifetime (June 3, 1957 to April 28, 1960) are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as mathematical equations used to account for the observed activity levels. The data have shown that Co60 is the major contributor to radiation levels in the SM-1. Co60 activity arises from the cobalt in Haynes 25 alloy flux suppressors, and the cobalt impurity in stainless steel. After 35 months operation at an average power level of 55%, deposited Co60 activity accounted for approximately 83% of the total radiation level (mr/hr) contributed by the long-lived gamma emitting nuclides. The contribution of the primary coolant activity to the total radiation level is insignificant when compared to the contribution of the activity deposited on the walls of the system. The radiation level on the super-heater side of the steam generator was about 1400 mr/hr after 35 months of reactor operation. The percentages of Co60 activity in the coolant and in the deposits were not the same. This indicates either that nuclides are depositing irreversibly on the surface of the system, or that all nuclides are not exchanging at the same rate. The ratio of Co58/Co60 in the deposits shows that a major fraction of the nuclides are irreversibly deposited. Mathematical equations derived during the course of work were used to predict the observed activity buildup on SM-1 primary system surfaces. Certain constants in the the equations were obtained from the experimental data. Calculated values of activity levels based on the equations were in good agreement with the activity levels found on the primary system. The equations may be …
Date: November 30, 1960
Creator: Bergmann, C. A.; Bergen, C.; Cox, J. F.; Chupak, J. & Grant, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 3. Specifications

Description: Introduction: Sodium Components Material Specifications. Twenty-three material, inspection and welding specification are presented for the various parts of both the intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator. Tables indicate the applicable parts and assemblies to which these specifications shall apply. For other parts, where the material requirements are not severe, the ASTM or other indicated specifications shall apply.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 4. Operation & Maintenance

Description: This technical report contains the operation and maintenance specifications for the intermediate heat exchanger and the steam generator. The report contains eight sections: (1) General Information, (2) Shipping and Installation, (3) Operation Procedures, (4) Scram and Casualty Shutdowns, (5) Leaks, (6) Instrumentation and Control, (7) Maintenance, and (8) four Appendixes (a) Boiler Water Chemistry Recommendations, (b) Final Concept Drawings, (c) Industrial Nucleonics Literature on Liquid Level Detector, and (d) Sodium Purity Control Recommendations.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Kanigen, Electroless Nickel Plating for Steam Side of a Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: Introduction: This is a final report on the evaluation of Kanigen electroless nickel plating for surfaces in contact with water and steam i a sodium heated AISI Type 316 stainless steel steam generator. The purpose of the coasting was to afford protection from stress corrosion cracking originating on the water-steam side of the unit. It has been concluded that the kanigen coating does not afford adequate protection for the services condition intended. This work was performed as part of the research and development program for the United States Atomic Energy Commission sodium Components Design Project.
Date: February 15, 1961
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Suitability of Inconel for Corrosion Protection on Water Side of Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: Abstract; The heat exchanger and steam generator for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Sodium Components Project will be constructed entirely of type 316 stainless steel. Because of the susceptibility of this alloy to stress corrosion cracking, it is proposed to clad all areas of the steam generator with Inconel where the stainless steel will be exposed to water and steam. This report includes a discussion of the work by numerous investigators that justify the selection of Inconel for this service. A discussion of Inconel type welding alloys is also included.
Date: March 1, 1961
Creator: Phillips, Laurence E. & Vawter, Frank J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Review of the Corrosion Product Radioactivity Program at the Army Package Power Reactor : Alco R & D report

Description: Abstract: An analysis and a summary are.given of the radioactivity buildup program at the Army Package Power Reactor during the last nine months. · Due to the wide fluctuation of water and crud results, only general interpretations can be made with this data. Metal test coupon data indicate a substantially greater buildup on Croloy 16-1 metal than on Type 304 stainless steel. Coupled with the decreased ability to remove the radioactivity buildup on Croloy 16-1 by conventional descaling techniques, the implication is that this metal might pose a serious problem for use as steam generator material. It was emphasized, however, that results to date ae only preliminary and extensive additional experimentation would be required to reach more definite conclusions.
Date: April 25, 1958
Creator: Medin, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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