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Detailed Procedure for K Reactors Rear ace Decontamination by Chemical Flush or the Rear Crossheaders, Pigtails and Nozzles as Authorized by the Production Test Authorization IP-239-N.

Description: The purpose of this procedure is to present a detailed, chronological presentation of the preliminary decontamination and post decontamination steps necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Production Test Authorization IP-239-N. The procedure attempts to present the required operation in sufficient detail to successfully accomplish the intent of the test. Certain procedures involve operations of a standard nature and have not been elaborated upon to any great extent, as it is expected that the reactor operations and radiation monitoring personnel will implement these instructions according to standard operating procedures.
Date: February 25, 1959
Creator: Crossman, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effect of Moderator Height on Reactor and Vertical Flux Distribution in PRTR

Description: Primary control of the PRTR is achieved by regulating the level of the heavy water moderator which is held in the reactor vessel by a helium gas balance system. Emergency shutdown is effected by a gas-balanced moderator dump system which drain the moderator from the calandria at a rapid rate. This report presents a quantitative appraisal of the reactivity effects due to moderator level changes in controlling or scramming the reactor. In conjunction with the reactivity calculations, solutions were obtained which yield an evaluation of vertical flux or power distributions for any positioning of the moderator level. Coupled with the radial distributions for a given fuel loading, this information is useful in obtaining the value of the maximum specific power associated with a given power of operation and moderator height. The calculations were made using VALPROD, a one dimensional, multigroup diffusion theory reactor code programmed for the IBM-650 computer.
Date: March 3, 1959
Creator: Reginmbal, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Stability of Three Base Metal Thermocouples in Helium-Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Dioxide and Air at 300 C

Description: In support of an in-reactor thermocouple stability testing program now in progress, laboratory studies were made relative to the stability of thermocouple bundles similar to those projected for in-reactor use. Two sets of chromel-alumel, copper-constantan and iron-constantan thermocouples were held for extended periods at 300 C in successive atmospheres of 75% helium-25% carbon dioxide. 100% carbon dioxide and air. Thermocouple stability was verified by measuring emf's at the freezing point of lead. The results of these tests are to be used to evaluate data obtained from like thermocouples subjected to condition similar to the laboratory tests with the added facet of reactor irradiation.
Date: April 14, 1959
Creator: Sako, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Random Loading of E-Metal Dissolver

Description: Nuclear safety in the dissolution of irradiated 0.95 U235 enriched fuel has been investigated. In particular, critical conditions of fuel of this enrichment in a 52-inch diameter dissolver crib were studied. Since a crib this size is not safe by geometry, dissolution procedures as well as maximum safe batch sizes were analyzed. Uranium-water lattices are normally studied in systems in which rods are uniformly dispersed in the moderator. The results of such a study for 1.34-inch diameter solid rods as well as I. and E. fuel having a 1.37-inch O.D. by a 0.48-inch I.D. have already reported.
Date: February 25, 1959
Creator: Ketzlach, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Quarterly Report- July, August, September 1958 Plutonium Fuels Development Plutonium Metallurgy Operation

Description: Examination of Al- 1.65w/o Pu and Al- 12 w/o Si- 1.65 w/o Pu capsules irradiated 55- 60% burnout of the plutonium atoms revealed a 1.4% volume increase and no apparent microstructural changes. A four rod cluster containing Al-8 w/o Pu and Al-12 w/o Si-8 w/o Pu alloy cores is currently under irradiation in Loop 3 of KE Reactor at a water temperature of approximately 230C. A second cluster has been fabricated an is scheduled for charging late in 1958. Two seven-rod clusters for irradiation in KER are also being fabricated.
Date: February 24, 1959
Creator: Wick, O.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Use of Tetravalent Uranium and Hydrazine as Partitioning Agents in Solvent Extraction Process for Plutonium and Uranium

Description: In solvent extraction purification processes such as are used at Hanford, the fuel elements or "slugs" from the reactor containing uranium, plutonium, and fission products are dissolved in nitric acid, adjusted to the required feed composition, and pumped to the solvent extraction columns. Figure 1 in a schematic diagram of such a solvent extraction process. In the A column, the uranium and the plutonium are extracted into an organic phase while the bulk of the fission products remain in the aqueous phase and leave as waste with the column raffinate.
Date: February 1, 1959
Creator: Buckingham, J.S.; Colvin, C.A. & Goodall, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radionuclides in High Temperature In-Reactor Loops

Description: A progress is in progress at the Hanford atomic Products Operation to obtain basic information about radionuclides found in in-reactor recirculating loops. This paper is concerned with the identity, amount, and source of radioisotopes found in Hanford loops.
Date: 1957-XX
Creator: Perrigo, Lyle D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Concentration and Final Purification of Neptunium by Anion Exchange

Description: It is anticipated that neptunium will be recovered in the Purex process by solvent extraction or ion exchange methods as a nitric acid solution of greater than 0.1 g. Np/1 and containing varying amounts of fission products, plutonium, uranium, and thorium, including Th234 (UX1). At the present time this solution is thermally concentrated in the Purex L-cell package to several grams of neptunium per liter. In this operation the solution is contaminated rather badly with plutonium and stainless steel corrosion products. The present specifications are for the neptunium final product to contain less than 0.1 weight percent plutonium, to be relatively free of gross metallic contaminates, and to be low enough in fission product game activity and Th234-Pa234 (UX1-UX2) beta activity to be handled without resorting to remote techniques.
Date: February 10, 1959
Creator: Ryan, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radial Thermal Flux Traverses in Natural Uranium - Graphite Lattices

Description: The spatial distribution of thermal neutrons in a reactor lattices cell is of fundamental importance for many reasons. First of all, this information allows the determination of the relative absorption rates in each component of the cell which in turn enables a determination of the thermal utilization, and the diffusion length of the lattice. In addition, the observed spatial distributions of thermal neutrons in the lattice cell is of major interest in testing various approximations to the solution of the transport equation such as the P1 and P3 solutions.
Date: May 25, 1959
Creator: Nilson, R. & Oakes, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Nuclear Safety of Fissile Materials

Description: Whenever fissile materials are handled in significant quantities such as in fuel element fabrication, separation processes, or in exponential and/or critical experiments a potential criticality hazard exists. The usual procedure which is followed by those persons conducting critical mass experiments is to either place the potential reactor in a heavily shielded cell or to conduct the experiments remotely in which case distance provides a measure of safety in the event of an unscheduled radiation outburst. In considering potential critically incidents, especially for the personnel not specifically engaged in critical mass studies, it is very likely that at the time of the incident neither the conditions of shielding nor distance will prevail for the personnel involved.
Date: 1959-02-11?
Creator: Clayton, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Decontamination of Reactor Cooling Water with Aluminum

Description: The discharge of cooling water from the Hanford reactors introduce radioactive contaminants to the Columbia River. These materials may subsequently bring about exposure to human populations either through the direct use of the water for sanitary purposes or transfers of the radioisotopes into the food chains. It is therefore desirable to keep to a minimum the amounts of radioisotopes released to the river.
Date: January 28, 1959
Creator: Silker, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Composition of Solids from Purex LWW

Description: The solids in Purex lww were first observed during flowsheet tests for recovery of fission products from plant wastes. Since the nature of this solid was not apparent from the flowsheet composition of lww, some work was performed to characterize this material. Although this work has been conducted over a period of about one year, it has been subordinate to the main one of testing flowsheets for fission product recovery. The solids have been observed in each of about six samples of plant lww that have been studied, and the centrifuged volume of solids has been about four percent in each case.
Date: January 22, 1959
Creator: Van Tuyl, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Flow Decay After an Electrical Power Outage in the PRTR

Description: Previously, W. S. Figg and T. W. Ambrose (HW-51767 Rev) have investigated the problem of flow decay following electrical power loss to the PRTR primary coolant pumps. However, since the time of their study many reactor piping changes have been made in the design; therefore, it has become advisable to re-examine the problem incorporating these changes.
Date: February 6, 1959
Creator: Muraoka, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Division of Reactor Development Programs Monthly Report- December 1958

Description: Two Zircaloy-clad capsules (GKH-14-19,20) containing two compacts each of high density PuO2-UO2 mixed crystal oxides were shipped to the MTR in December 2, 1958. The compacts contain 0.026 a/o PuO2, have densities of 91 percent of the theoretical value, and will generate the same specific power as an Al-1.8w/o Pu alloy rod of the same diameter would produce. Two capsules (GKH-14-21,22) have been prepared and contain three compacts each of low density, about 65 percent of the theoretical value, PuO2-UO2 mixed crystal oxides. It is tentatively planned to ship the last two capsules during January 1959.
Date: January 15, 1959
Creator: McEwen, L.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experimental Techniques for Determining Surface Energies of Solid Metals- A Literature Survey

Description: A knowledge of the surface tension of metals is a valuable tool in many aspects of physical metallurgy. Surface tension is a prime factor in such phenomena as swelling, nucleation and growth, and corrosion by liquid metals, and is also of importance in brazing. casting, and sintering. This survey was initiated to facilitate the selection of an experimental technique for determining the surface tension of uranium in support of current swelling studies of irradiated uranium. It is believed that swelling in uranium in support of current swelling; studies of small bubbles of fission gases (krypton and xenon), and the forces resisting the expansion of these bubbles are the elastic and plastic flow energies and surface tension of the metal. Experimental techniques for the determination of surface tension of solids are still in the development stage, but three techniques appear to be most feasible. These methods are: (1) the mechanical method, in which a tensile lead is used to counterbalance the contractile force of surface tension; (2) the thermal etching method, involving measurement of the dihedral angle at the root of etched grain boundaries; and (3) the electron diffraction method, which analyzes surface tension by the amount of lattice distortion it effects.-
Date: January 12, 1959
Creator: Laidler, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fluorescent X-Ray Spectrography- A Recent Analytical Technique

Description: Because of the relative simplicity of the X-Ray spectra and recent improvements in instrumentation, analytical applications of X-Ray of spectrography are becoming very popular. The method us applicable to both qualitative and quantitative determinations of all elements heavier than sodium. Elements in multicomponent systems, such as alloys and minerals, and elements such as, W, Pt, Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr, and the rare earths, which are difficult to separate or determine by other methods, can usually be determined directly without special sample treatment. The method is rapid and precision is comparable to wet chemical analyses. It is applicable over the very wide concentration range from parts per 10,000 to 100 percent, and can be applied to the analysis of all kinds of samples- metals, drillings and thin films, powders, glasses, or liquids. The method is described and its advantages and limitations are discussed. Typical analyses are mentioned and sensitivity limits for determination of the various elements are illustrated as a guide to possible uses of X-ray spectrography.
Date: December 17, 1958
Creator: Lambert, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experimental PRTR Moderator Flow Distribution Results

Description: The moderator fluid will be injected into the PRTR calandrin through injectors located between the shroud tubes and at the bottom of the calandrin. It is important that the size and arrangement of the injectors be such that complete mixing of the moderator will occur and prevent hot sports from forming in the moderator. Such hot spots could lead to undesired changes in the moderating characteristics due to boiling within the moderator. Also of importance is the requirement that the injector should not produce excessive turbulence at the moderator surface thereby complicating moderator level control. To determine the extent of moderator mixing within the calandrin, experimental studies were made employing a full scale PRTR calandrin mockup.
Date: January 7, 1959
Creator: Kreiter, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Correlation of Exponential and PCTR Measurements of Cluster Fuel Elements with Theory

Description: Accurate knowledge of the lattice parameters comprised in the four factor formula k∞=η∈Pi are required for optimum designing of reactors. In the special case of cluster fuel elements conventional handbook formulas are of little use. It is the intent of this paper to report the results of some recent improvements in the calculation of these parameters. By the addition of certain refinements in the calculation of these parameters. By the addition of certain refinements to the conventional calculational methods considerable success has been obtained in the correlation of theory with experiment.
Date: December 31, 1958
Creator: Joanou, G. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Heat Transfer in Radiant- Heat Spray Calcination

Description: The fixation of aqueous radioactive wastes in a stable solid media by means of calcination has been the subject of considerable research and development effort. Several methods of doing this on a continuous basis have been devised and a few have been demonstrated to be feasible for the handling of non-radioactive or low activity simulated wastes. Currently an investigation of calcination by means of radiant-heat spray drying is being carried on by the Chemical Research Operation of the Hanford Laboratories Operation. The process consists of atomizing the liquid to be treated into the top of a cylindrical column, the walls of which are maintained at a high temperature. The resultant suspension of droplets in the water vapor formed by evaporation passes through successive zones of drying, calcination, possible chemical reaction or melting, and partial cooling as it proceeds down the tower. Separation of the resultant solids, steams, and uncondensable gas is made by conventional methods.
Date: February 1, 1959
Creator: Johnson, B.M., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Developments in the HLO Bearing Test Program Interim Report

Description: The chemical processing industry relies heavily on the use of rotary pumps to move massive quantities of liquids. The rotating elements of these pumps, generally of the deep-well turbine type, are submerged in the solution being pumped. This singular factor sometimes imposes a severe limitation on the choice bearings because the liquids are frequently corrosive and have poor lubricity. At the Hanford Atomic Products Operation a further complication arises from the effects of radioactivity in the solutions being transferred. Radiation and temperature can and will cause physical damage to many substances, including certain potential bearing materials such as plastics. These factors, coupled with the economics of remote operation and maintenance, have lead to the need for a test program to screen and evaluate potential bearing and journal materials.
Date: January 9, 1959
Creator: Wirta, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Brief Course in Radiation Dosimetry and its Application to Personnel Protection

Description: By radiation dosimetry, we will mean the determination of the energy deposited per unit mass of irradiated material by ionizing radiation. Usually the material of interest in tissue and the results are to be applied to a radiobiological experiment, a radiotherapy treatment, or the protection of personnel from radiation hazards. The same methods, however, are applied to such engineering problems as the production of heat by reactor radiations, the use of radiation in chemical reactions or food processing, etc.
Date: January 23, 1958
Creator: Roesch, Wm. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Plutonium Recovery from Contaminated Materials Project CGC-813-Scope Revision No. 2

Description: An inventory of the contaminated materials accumulated since the initiation of this project in June 1958, revealed a larger variety and quantity of materials that could be burned, than was specified for the initial scope. Therefore, it is desirable to revise the scope to permit handling the majority of these materials with the initially installed equipment.
Date: January 23, 1959
Creator: Doud, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Improved Calibration Facility

Description: Aid in redesign of the calibration facility in order to: 1. Reduce the rate of exposure for calibration personnel below 1 mr/hr; 2. Reduce the rate of exposure outside of the 3745 Building; 3. Reduce the risk of breaking radium sources; 4. Improve the efficiency of calibration procedures by: a. Allowing calibration to be done faster; b. Providing several calibration ranges which can operate simultaneously in the present space allowed; c. Allowing instrument survey work to proceed while calibration work is done. A well-type calibration installation is proposed and a brief description of the required shielding is included.
Date: August 22, 1995
Creator: Roesch, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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