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Development of Uranium Nitride-Stainless Steel Dispersion Fuel Elements

Description: In research in support of the GCRE, procedures for the fabrication of stainless steel-clad flat-plate fuel elements having a core of 28 w/o UN dispersed in an iron-18 w/o chromium--14 w/o nickel--2.5 w/o molybdenum matrix were developed. The preparation of UN and its compatibility with the components of the matrix alloy were studied. The UN for the program was prepared by nitriding uranium metal at 850 C and then dissociating the U/sub 2/N/sub 3/ produced to UN in a vacuum at 1300 C. In compatibility studies, UN reacted with nickel alone at 1800 F, but no reaction with nickel was observed when the other matrix components were also present. The effects of fabricational variables were evaluated by metallographic examination, longitudinal and transverse tensile tests, bend tests, and corrosion tests. Studies indicated that minus 200 plus 325-mesh UN dispersed in a minus 325-mesh elemental-powder matrix rolled green vith a 30 per cent initial reduction at 2100 F and then annealed 3 hr at 2300 F produced the best fuel core. (auth)
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Paprocki, S. J.; Keller, D. L.; Cunningham, G. W. & Foulds Jr., A. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fabrication of the PRTR Zircaloy-2 High Pressure Process Tubes

Description: Development of a fabrication process and the manufacture of 95 PRTR process tubes demonstrates that the commercial fabrication of high quality Zircaloy-2 pressure tubing is feasible.
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Knecht, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Hard-Core Pinch. I

Description: This report analyzes a linear, hard-core pinch tube built to examine tubes afflicted by small-scale instabilities evident from many observations.
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D. H.; Colgate, Stirling A. & Furth, Harold P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Hard-Core Pinch. II

Description: This report describes a toroidal version of the hard-core pinch and the additional information it can obtain to what the analogous linear pinch can get.
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D. H.; Colgate, Stirling A. & Furth, Harold P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Hard-Core Pinch. Part I

Description: It is well known that a pinch column with internal H/sub Z/ and external conducting shell can be made grossly stable, but that small-scale instabilities persist; especiaily in the tubular region of maximum current density. To investigate further these small-scale instabilities of the stabilized pinch,'' we are using 12-in.-i.d. linear pinch tube with a 3-in.-o.d. insulated center rod. By controlling a current along this rod, as well as a current along external conducting straps, and a third current in an external H/sub z/ coil, it is possible to create many grossly stable pinch configurations. The small-scale stability of the tubular region of maximum current density can thus be studied for a wide range of internal and external magnetic field vectors. The magnetic field distribution in each discharge is obtained by a string of 10 magnetic pick- up loops. The distribution of plasma density is determined by modulating the inner or outer wall current and measuring the radial velocity of the resultant compressional Alfven waves. In one experiment, an initial H/sub z/ is entrapped in plasma by preionization, and then pushed radially outward from the rod by a rising H/sub theta /. The resultant field distribution, in which H/sub theta / everywhere falls more rapidly than 1/r, should have absolute hydromagnetic stability. The persistence of small-scale instabilities, as observed by the magnetic probes, in this inverse stabilized pinch'' suggests that the basic trouble is nonhydromagnetic. It is also found that, when the magnetic field approximates a vacuum field distribution, perfectly smooth and reproducible probe signals can be obtained. The absolute plasma current densities at which nearvacuum field distributions have been found stable are larger than current densities at which the 'stabilized pinch'' and inverse stabilized pinch'' distributions have been found unstable. (auth)
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D.H.; Colgate, S.A. & Furth, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE HARD-CORE PINCH. PART II

Description: The toroidal version of the hard-core pinch tube is created by levitating a ring conductor inside a toroidal shell. The magnitude of induced H/ sub theta / necessary for levi-tation is small in terms of field strengths normally desired for energetic pinches. In a 3-in. glass-and-copper toroid of square cross section a 3/4-in. hollow copper ring has been levitated with a 60- cycle current of 3 kiloamperes. A 12-in stainless steel tube of round cross section is being built. The stability of nearvacuum field hard-core configurations is best investigated in toroidal geometry. At high power levels and low plasma densities, the conventional toroidal stabilized pinch'' is subject to an anomalous plasma energy leakage to the wall, which cannot be explained by the observed ultraviolet radiation alone. A critical question is, therefore, whether the relative stability of some hard-core pinches, as reflected by the smoothness and reproducibility of magnetic probe traces, is reflected by an improved containment of the plasma en-ergy leading to high temperature. A toroidal hard-core tube is also useful in studying the nature of the nonhydromagnetic instabilities observed in the linear inverse stabilized pinch.'' The presence and condition of electrodes appear to have a substantial effect on the magnitude of these instabilities, as would be expected if they were, for instance, of electrostatic origin. In order to complement the plasma study of the hard-core pinch, we have developed an analogue method using sodium tubes to simulate the current-carrying layer. In this way the purely hydromagnetic aspect of the plasma behavior can be isolated. (auth)
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D.H.; Colgate, S.A. & Furth, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Zirconium Diboride, Boron Nitride, and Boron Carbide Compatibility With Austenitic Stainless Steel

Description: The compatibility of zirconium diboride, boron carbide, and boron nitride with type 304 stainless steel was evaluated as a function of temperature (1000 to 12OO deg C), time (1-3 hr). Appropriate loadings of the boron compounds and stainless steel powder were blended and fashioned into a compact powder metallurgically. Each compact was roll clad into a plate and subsequently heat treated at a temperature equal to the initial sintering temperature. Metallographic examination of the fabricated and heat-treated plates demonstrated that none of the systems was metallurgically stable. The instability was generally manifested by the interaction of the discrete boron compounds with the matrix and precipitation of a hypothetically boron-rich phase throughout the stainless steel matrix material. Of the three compounds, boron nitride was relatively the most stable in a stainless steel matrix under the test conditions. (auth)
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Cherubini, J. H. & Leitten, C. F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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REPORT OF FIRE IN LABORATORY HOOD, WING I, BUILDING 4500, MAY 22, 1959

Description: Approximately 16 to 18 liters of isopropyl alcohol in a 20-liter glass carboy in a floor type hood were ignited by infrared heat lamps used to heat the carboy and contents. A technician received several minor lacerations on the hand. (C.H.)
Date: July 30, 1959
Creator: Hungerford, T W & Lain, J E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Review of Potential Radionuclides Produced in Weapons Detonations

Description: ABS>Estimates have been made of what the probable radionuclides produced in weapons detoriations, including fission products and neutron-induced radionuclides in air, soils, and sea water will be. The nuclear and decay properties and some metabolic or biological properties of these nuclides are tabulated where available. Estimates are made of the amounts of the radionuclides produced in weapons detonations. Some radionuclides are discussed with respect to their particular biological interest from the standpoint of the hazard to man. (auth)
Date: July 30, 1959
Creator: Klement, Alfred W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Shutdown heat exchangers

Description: Typical transient temperature curves for the reactor outlet coolant have been obtained for the cooldown period. Additional curves showing the relationship of several variables on the required heat exchanger area were obtained.
Date: July 30, 1959
Creator: Condotta, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes: The Experimental Verification of the Onsager Reciprocal Relations

Description: Report discussing theories of irreversible thermodynamic processes. "The purpose of this review is to collect the presently available experimental data for a variety of quite different irreversible phenomena and to show that this evidence does indeed verify the Onsager Reciprocal Relations."
Date: July 30, 1959
Creator: Miller, Donald Gabriel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes: The Experimental Verification of the Onsager Reciprocal Relations

Description: In the last twenty years a thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes (TIP) has been vigorously developed which has been able to treat irreversible phenomena in a detailed way. The present macroscopic form of the theory was suggested primarily by the statistical mechanical investigations of Onsager. The presently available experimental data are collected for a variety of quite different irreversible phenomena and it is shown that this evidence does indeed verify the Onsager Reciprocal Relations. Thermoelectricity, electro- kinetics, transference in electrolytic solutions, isothermal diffusion, heat diffusion, heat conduction in anisotropic solids, and thermogalvanomagnetic effects are the phenomena considered in detail. (W.D.M.)
Date: July 30, 1959
Creator: Miller, D. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC SOLIDS. I. KINETICS AND MECHANISMOF CONDUCTIVITY OF METAL-FREE PHTHALOCYANINE

Description: Techniques involving the use of high-intensity short-duration light pulses have been applied t o the study of the kinetics of photoconductivity in films of metal-free phthalocyanine. These experiments, in conjunction with measurements of steady-state photoconductivity, are consistent with the following scheme. The principal route for the formation of charge carriers is via the first excited singlet state, although the lowest triplet state can, t o some extent, contribute to charge - carrier production. The mobility of the carriers is low and is concentration-dependent, being lower at higher carrier concentration. The decay of the photocurrent is the result of a diffusion-limited bimolecular recombination, with a capture radius of approximately one molecular diameter. The experiments indicate that carriers produced thermally in the dark do not interact with light-produced carriers.
Date: July 29, 1959
Creator: Tollin, Gordon; Kearns, David R. & Calvin, Melvin.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC SOLIDS. II: EFFECTS OF ADDEDELECTRON ACCEPTOR ON METAL-FREE PHTHALOCYANINE

Description: The addition of ortho-chloranil to the surface of films of metal-free phthalocyanine has been found (a) to increase the dark conductivity of such films by as much as 10{sup 7}, (b) to increase the steady-state photoconductivity by as much as 10{sup 5}, and (c) to result in the formation of unpaired electrons whose concentration decreases reversibly as a result of illumination. These systems exhibit a light-induced polarization, the phthalocyanine layer becoming more positive with respect t o the ortho-chloranil layer. Kinetic studies demonstrate that, upon illumination, a single process (time constant = 40 seconds) results in the increase in conductivity, the decrease in unpaired spins, and the increase in polarization. The results are consistent with the following scheme. An electron transfer from phthalocyanine to ortho-chloranil occurs in the dark at room temperature, producing holes in the phthalocyanine layer and ortho-chloranil negative ion radicals (high conductivity, ESR signal). Illumination results in the transfer of an electron from an excited phthalocyanine molecule to the ortho-chloranil negative ion, producing further phthalocyanine holes and ortho-chloranil double-negative ion (increase in conductivity, increase in polarization, decrease in ESR signal). By equating spin concentration with charge - carrier concentration (phthalocyanine holes) it is possible to calculate a mobility of 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/volt/sec for holes in the phthalocyanine layer. By use of this value, a quantum yield of unity is calculated for the production of charge carriers in doped phthalocyanine. The experiments indicate a quantum yield of less than 10-1 for undoped phthalocyanine. The over-all results of adding a strong electron acceptor to a film of phthalocyanine are thus t o (a) produce charge carriers in the dark, (b) increase the quantum yield for production of charge carriers by light, and (c) increase charge-carrier lifetime.
Date: July 29, 1959
Creator: Kearns, David R.; Tollin, Gordon & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ELECTRON MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF BONDS IN ZIRCALOY-2

Description: Electron microscopy was used to supplement metallographic studies of bonds between Zircaloy-2 interfaces. Treated surfaces before bonding, and bonded sections made by a variety of techniques were examined. Electron micrographs of belt-abraded surfaces exhibited a consistent fine-scale roughness. Chemically pickled surfaces were nearly smooth regardless of prior treatment. Chemically pickled samples and a zirconium oxide-coated sample pressure bonded at 1500 F and 10,000 psi had pitting at bond lines that could have been due to voids or to contaminant at the interface which etchod out. The pitting was almost completely eliminated in one sample by pressing one hour at 500 F and 350,000 psi. This indicated that the bond-line pitting in these samples was due to voids at the interface. Zircaloy-2 samples pressure bonded after coating with carbon chromium, iron nickel, or tin etched in relief along the bond line, indicating the presence of contaminant at the interface. On the basis of the present investigation, it is proposed that grain growth across the interface in chemically pickled samples may have been inhibited by the presence of a thin contaminant film originally present on the Zircaloy surfaces. However, the poor grain-growth characteristics of chemically pickled samples may also be due in part to the surfaces being too smooth. (auth)
Date: July 29, 1959
Creator: Young, A.P. & Schwartz, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Production Test IP-247-A-8-FP, irradiation of 1.47% enriched self-supported I&E fuel elements in ribless process tubes

Description: The objective of the test detailed in this report is to irradiate self-supported fuel elements under conditions of severity comparable in these expected for future loadings of this geometry, to attempt to determine the resistance to corrosion of cooled cladding, the effect of supports on cladding corrosion and coolant flow patterns, and the relative resistance to ``hot-spot`` type attack and rupture of ``projection`` fuel elements and rib supported elements. This test will authorize irradiation of four columns of self-supported and four columns of rib-supported I and E, 1.47% enriched fuel elements until two ruptures are sustained in each group on type demonstrates a significant factor of improvement in rupture resistance over the other.
Date: July 29, 1959
Creator: Hall, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Time Dependence of the Beam in the 86-Inch Cyclotron

Description: The study revealed the bunching of protons to produce a short beam burst on each cycle of the l3.4 Mc/sec accelerating voltage. In addition to the l3.4 Mc/sec structure, there was a 360 cps beam pulse modulation. Oscilloscope patterns are given which show: (l) the envelope of the r-f accelerating voltage; (2) 60 cps line voltage with time scale; (3) beam intensity; and (4) beam intensity at faster oscilloscope sweep. Apparently the beam intensity is critically dependent on the accelerating voltage, but is not a monotonic function of that voltage. (B.O.G.)
Date: July 29, 1959
Creator: Goodman, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CGI-844: 100-K coolant back-up system scope requirements

Description: Several decisions regarding basic project philosophy must be made in order to proceed with scope design and the preparation of equipment procurement specifcations. The purpose of this document is to present as much pertinent data as possible to allow the project representatives to become familiar with the problems involved. A meeting of Representatives is planned for the near future after receipt of project authorization to discuss the scope of this project and its relationship to CG-775. Emergency flow requirements of the K reactors for planned future power levels is approximately 32,000 gpm within 68 sec. A detailed study of the existing high-pressure cross-tie line reveals that a duplicate cross-tie line and five low lift pump operation would be required to provide this flow. The existing emergency generation capacity is not adequate to supply five low lift pumps and all other necessary emergency electrical loads. A possible solution to adequate emergency flows is to connect the proposed steam turbine pump directly to the risers and to consider the turbine pump as the last ditch system. If it is determined that this does not meet the criteria of separate systems, then an alternate solution must be found.
Date: July 28, 1959
Creator: Watson, D. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE HGCR-1, A DESIGN STUDY OF A NUCLEAR POWER STATION EMPLOYING A HIGH- TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR WITH GRAPHITE-UO$sub 2$ FUEL ELEMENTS

Description: The preliminary design of a 3095-Mw(thermal), helium-cooled, graphite- moderated reactor employing sign conditions, 1500 deg F reactor outlet gas would be circulated to eight steam generators to produce 1050 deg F, 1450-psi steam which would be converted to electrical power in eight 157-Mw(electrical) turbine- generators. The over-all efficiency of this nuclear power station is 36.5%. The significant activities released from the unclad graphite-UO/sub 2/ fuel appear to be less than 0.2% of those produced and would be equivalent to 0.002 curie/ cm/ sup 3/ in the primary helium circuit. The maintenance problems associated with this contamination level are discussed. A cost analysis indicates that the capital cost of this nuclear station per electrical kilowatt would be around 0, and that the production cost of electrical power would be 7.8 mills/kwhr. (auth)
Date: July 28, 1959
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Copenhaver, C. M.; Culver, H. N.; Fontana, M. H.; Kelleghan, V. J. & Samuels, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION STUDY INTERIM REPORT FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 1958 THROUGH MAY 1959

Description: Samples of grade A Monel snd grade A nickel were subjected statically in a single reactor to an undiluted atmosphere of gaseous fluorine at pressures up to one atmosphere absolute and temperatures up to 1500 deg F. The grade A Monel was conservatively estimated to have consumed at least 40 times as much fluorine as grade A nickel during the entire period of the investigation. Samples of fused alpha Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- MgO spinel, and alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-NiO--nickel cermet were exposed to undiluted fluorine at one atinosphere absolute pressure at temperatures of 1340 and 1500 deg F. Results indicated that the alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is as good as the Ni in the region of 1300 deg F. Grade A nickel samples coated with nickel fluoride filins of 37,000 and 74,000 A, respectively, were exposed to an absolute pressure of gaseous UF/sub 6/ of 12 cm of Hg at temperatures of 1000 and 1800 deg F. (W.L.H.)
Date: July 28, 1959
Creator: Hale, C.F.; Barber, E.J.; Bernhardt, H.A. & Rapp, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Multiplication Measurements With Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Slabs

Description: A series of neutron multiplication measurements with arrays of 1 by 8 by 10 in. slabs of 93.4% U/sup 235/-enriched uranium metal was made to provide data from which safety criteria for the storage of these fissile units can be established. Each slab contained 22.9 kg of U/sup 235/. A maximum of 125 units was assembled. The arrays studied were cubic lattices of the units and were usually parallelepipedal in shape. Arrays were both unmoderated and Plexiglas- moderated and were surrounded in most cases by a 1-in.-thick Plexiglas reflector. The lattice densities (ratio of fissile unit volume to lattice cell volume) were between 0.023 and 0.06. Unmoderated lattices with a density of 0.06 would require 145 plus or minus 5 units for criticality, while those with a density of 0.023 would require 350 plus or minus 30 units. In lattices in which the fissile units are separated by 1 in. of Plexiglas, approximately 27 units would be required for a critical array with a lattice density of 0.06 and about 75 units for a density of 0.023. Distributing Foamglas (containing 2% boron) throughout a moderated array increased the critical number of fissile units by a factor of 5, while Styrofoam had a small effect. (auth)
Date: July 27, 1959
Creator: Mihalczo, J. T. & Lynn, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Proposed projection fuel testing program 2

Description: Sufficient changes in the original projection fuel testing schedule have occurred to make the original schedules confusing. It is the intent of this document to revise an up-date those schedules so as to be a more realistic guide for associated development programs.
Date: July 27, 1959
Creator: Callen, A. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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