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A Physical Property Summary for Fluoride Mixtures

Description: This report presents a summary of certain physical properties that have been determined experimentally on the fluoride mixture that have been formulated at ORNL (Rers. 1, 2). These properties include the density, enthalpy, heat capacity, heat of fusion, thermal conductivity, viscosity, Prandtl number, electrical conductivity and surface tension. In addition to the experimental data, values have been predicted for the heat capacity and density of the other mixtures from the correlations of these properties. Estimates of the viscosity have also been made for a number of the mixtures on which no experimental data were available.
Date: September 5, 1956
Creator: Cohen, S. I.; Povers, W. D. & Greene, N. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic Gamma-Ray Data for ART Heat Deposition Calculations

Description: In order that fairly accurate thermal stress calculations can be made on the ART, it is necessary to have a reasonable picture of the temperature distribution in the reactor. To get the temperature distributions, and to determine cooling requirements in various parts of the reactor, one must know the heat deposition rates due to alpha particles, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutrons in all parts of the reactor. The present report contains only the basic physical data necessary to determine the heat deposition rates due to gamma rays. Neutron fluxes in the core and reflector regions of the ART are to be obtained from two-dimensional multigroup calculations (performed by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation). These fluxes, in conjunction with the neutron absorption cross sections, determine the neutron capture and inelastic scattering rates in the core and in the reflector. The data in this report permit the calculation of the number of gamma rays originating at various energies at every point in the core and reflector.
Date: October 3, 1956
Creator: Bertini, H. W.; Copenhaver, C. M.; Perry, A. M. & Stevenson, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending June 10, 1956 [Secret Version]

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes summaries of project activities in: aircraft reactor test design, ART physics, ART instruments and controls, component development and testing, procurement and construction, ART, ETU, and in-pile loop operations, phase equilibrium studies, chemical reactions in molten salts, physical properties of molten materials, production of fuels, compatibility of materials at high temperatures, chemistry, analytical chemistry, metallurgy, dynamic corrosion studies, general corrosion studies, fabrication research, welding and brazing investigations, mechanical properties studies, ceramic research, nondestructive testing studies, heat transfer and physical properties, radiation damage, fuel recovery and reprocessing, critical experiments.
Date: September 4, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cromer, S. J.; Miller, A. J. & Savelainen, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending June 10, 1956 [Declassified Version]

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes summaries of project activities in: aircraft reactor test design, ART physics, ART instruments and controls, component development and testing, procurement and construction, ART, ETU, and in-pile loop operations, phase equilibrium studies, chemical reactions in molten salts, physical properties of molten materials, production of fuels, compatibility of materials at high temperatures, chemistry, analytical chemistry, metallurgy, dynamic corrosion studies, general corrosion studies, fabrication research, welding and brazing investigations, mechanical properties studies, ceramic research, nondestructive testing studies, heat transfer and physical properties, radiation damage, fuel recovery and reprocessing, critical experiments.
Date: September 4, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cramer, S. J.; Miller, A. J. & Savelainen, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Thorex Pilot Plant Radiation Exposures During 1955

Description: The Thorex Pilot Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was operated during 1955, processing reactor-irradiated thorium slugs to recover U233 and thorium and 12 MTR fuel elements to recover U235 and Np237. The radiation exposure received by operating personnel during this period averaged 60 mrcp/man-week. Most radiation exposure was received in areas that were intended to be only slightly or nonradioactive. However, because insufficient decontamination of process solutions was achieved and equipment surfaces became contaminated from equipment failures, these areas became primary sources of personnel exposure. The installation of additional shielding where needed and the prompt removal of surface contamination successfully reduced the radiation levels and exposures in these areas. Remote control of processing equipment and sampling of very radioactive solutions from process equipment was successfully accomplished, and assisted in the reduction of exposure to operating personnel.
Date: November 16, 1956
Creator: McCarley W. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HRT Reactor Hazards

Description: Several potential hazards that have been recognized and anticipated in the design and fabrication of the pressure vessel in the Homogeneous Reactor Test are discussed. These hazards results from the high operating pressure and temperature of the reactor, the exposure of the reactor vessel material to potential embrittlement and other affects of fast-neutron irradiation, and the need for containment of corrosive flowing liquids. The steps taken in recognition of these hazards are also discussed. The applicability of present codes to the reactor vessel fabrication is considered. Additional fields are suggested where recommended practices developed by code writing bodies could assist in development-type reactor design and fabrication.
Date: August 3, 1956
Creator: Miller, E. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Metallurgy Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending April 10, 1956

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Metallurgy Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes a summary of scholarly output and summaries of general corrosion, dynamic corrosion, mechanical properties, nondestructive testing, welding and brazing, fabrication, physical chemistry of corrosion, HRP metallurgy, the package power reactor program, APPR absorber, metallurgical materials and processing, metallography, ceramics, fundamental physico-metallurgical research.
Date: November 2, 1956
Creator: Frye, J. H., Jr.; Manly, W. D. & Cunningham, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Metallurgy Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending October 10, 1955

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Metallurgy Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes a summary of nondestructive testing, physical chemistry of corrosion, fundamental physico-metallurgical research, HRP metallurgy, process metallurgy, metallurgical materials and processing, metallography, and ceramics research.
Date: June 14, 1954
Creator: Manly, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operation of the ORNL Graphite Reactor and the Low-Intensity Test Reactor — 1955 LITR Flux Traverses

Description: The ORNL Graphite Reactor operated very well during 1955. The downtime was low, only 8.6%. The fuel in the bonded slugs did not perform as well in 1955 as in 1954. Much of the trouble was undoubtedly due to growth of slugs which were not beta-transformed. It is known that some slugs had grown over 1/2 in. The automatic central system installed in 1954 continued to operate satisfactorily. The cooling system gave minor trouble when one of the 900-hp fan meters had to be replaced because of shorts in the rotor. The high radiation in the canal was the largest source of trouble. Approximately 55 tons of slugs discharged from the reactor in 1952 was sent to the Metal Recovery Plant. Enough slugs had raptured, due to their long exposure in the canal and reactor, to badly contaminate of water. Most of the contamination was removed by the end of the year, but the radioactivity which had soaked into the canal wells was enough to give high radiation fields. A solution to this problem was being sought at the end of the year. A study is under way on the possibility of increasing the flux of the ORNL Graphite Reactor by reloading with enriched uranium fuel. Results of the study appear to be promising.
Date: September 10, 1956
Creator: Rupp, A. F. & Cox, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analytical Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending April 20, 1954

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Analytical Chemistry Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work in ionic analyses, analytical instrumentation, radiochemical analyses, activation analyses, spectrochemical analyses, inorganic preparations, optical and electron microscopy.
Date: July 5, 1956
Creator: Kelley, M. T.; Susano, C. D. & Raaen, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The ANCO System for Boron Isotope Enrichment Progress Report for Period Ending September 20, 1955

Description: A new gas-liquid countercurrent system (the ANCO system from Anisole-Complex) for the enrichment of boron isotopes has been developed. It is believed that use of this systems will result in a considerably lower unit cost for enriched boron-10 than was previously possible. The system utilizes the exchange reaction between BF3 (gas) and BF3·anisole (liquid) to concentrate boron-10 in the liquid phase. The single stage isotopic separation factor for this system has been found to vary from 1.039 at 0°C to 1.029 at 30°C. The isotopic exchange reaction has been shown to be rapid. Vapor pressures of the complex as a function of temperature have been measured and the heat of formation of the complex determined. Laboratory experiments show that quantitative removal of the BF3 from the complex can be accomplished by heating. A complete miniature ANCO plant was constructed and operated in the laboratory to test the feasibility of the system. The system was found to operate efficiently with a minimum of attention, and to enrich the isotopes of boron as expected. Based upon the experience obtained with the laboratory ANCO unit, a pilot plant large enough to utilize a 6-inch diameter exchange column was designed. The design calculations of the major pieces of equipment are presented.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Healy, R. M.; Joseph, K. F. & Palko, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-Thermal-Conductivity Fin Material for Radiators

Description: This report is the result of a study to develop heat-resistant fin materials possessing a high thermal conductivity for air radiators. Since an economical and commercially feasible product was desired, the investigation was restricted primarily to a study of electroplated copper, clad copper, and copper alloys. Sheet material 0.008 to 0.010 in. thick was evaluated for fabricability and for metallurgical stability and thermal conductivity at 1500°F. From the results of the rests it was concluded that: (1) electroplates were unsatisfactory; (2) clad-copper fins possessing a thermal conductivity of 50% of that of copper are commercially feasible; (3) copper-aluminum alloys possessing a thermal conductivity approaching that of copper at 1500°F are possible. Service tests of clad copper and the copper-aluminum alloys indicate that the choice of materials will be dictated by the requirements of the radiator, since each presents some unique problems.
Date: January 24, 1957
Creator: Inouye, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending March 10, 1956

Description: This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of the research on circulating-fuel reactors and ether ANP research at the Laboratory under its Contract W-7405-eng-26. The report is divided into three major parts: I. Reactor Theory, Component Development, and Construction, II. Materials Research, and III. Shielding Research.
Date: June 13, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cromer, S. J. & Miller, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biology Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending February 15, 1956

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biology Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes a summary of scholarly output from the division and departmental activities in cytology and genetics, mammalian genetics and development, microbial protection and recovery, mammalian recovery, pathology and physiology, general physiology, biochemistry, enzymology and photosynthesis, microbiology, plant biochemistry, and biophysics.
Date: April 20, 1956
Creator: Hollaender, Alexander & Carson, Stanley F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thorex Thorium Nitrate Product Specifications

Description: Activity and ionic impurity specifications are presented for Thorex thorium nitrate products. Two sets of specifications are given, one set for direct handling during refabrication of production reactor thorium metal slugs and the second for refabrication of future power reactor thorium metal elements by semi-remote technics. Consideration was given to the health hazard problems associated with each process step between the Thorex process and final refabricated source material in order to arrive at these specifications.
Date: May 24, 1956
Creator: Arnold, E. D. & Wischow, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending December 20, 1955

Description: Semiannual Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemistry Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work in inorganic and physical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, chemical physics, chemistry of separation processes, radiation chemistry, and reactor chemistry.
Date: April 13, 1956
Creator: Taylor, E. H. & Bredig, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of Trivalent Uranium in Fluoride Salt Mixtures by the Modified Hydrogen Evolution Method

Description: The hydrogen evolution method for the determination of uranium trifluoride which was developed by Manning, Miller and Rowan has been used for the determination of trivalent uranium in this laboratory for the past three years. The method has been applied to many different sample types supposedly pure UF3, mixtures of UF3 and UF4 and the large variety of mixtures of fluoride salts that have been investigated as possible nuclear fuels. These mixtures contained alkali metal, beryllium and zirconium fluorides. Several modifications have been made that have substantially improved the performance and ease of operation of the method. These improvements include the use of (1) an inexpensive, long-lasting source of pure carbon dioxide, (2) vacuum to assist in purging the system of gases that are insoluble in potassium hydroxide solution, (3) deaerated acid that has an extremely low quantity of non-absorbable gases, (4) slower flow rates of purging gas, (5) a sampling technique to minimize contamination, and (6) more dilute absorber solution to reduce film error. It is the purpose of this report to show the effect of these modifications and the applicability of the method various sample types that contain uranium trifluoride.
Date: February 26, 1956
Creator: White, J. C.; Meyer, A. S., Jr.; Vaughan, W. F.; Ross, W. J. & Manning, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bulk ThO2, a Reactor Material

Description: Thorium, a fertile material, is of interest to the Reactor Program in the production of U233. Thorium can be extracted and processed to a very pure bulk metal for fabrication into solid fertile elements. There are advantages, technical and economic, for using fabricated bulk thorium dioxide rather than the metal in some applications. It is the purpose of this paper to point out these advantages and to present briefly the technology related to fabrication, radiation damage and chemical processing of ThO2.
Date: May 24, 1956
Creator: Johnson, J. R. & Warde, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HRP Radiation Corrosion Studies

Description: A fifth in-pile loop experiment, L-4-8, was completed. The loop operated in-pile for a total of 1637 hr, during which time the LITR energy output was 4377 Mwhr. The average fission power in the loop based o cesium analyses was 622 w when the LITR was at full power (3 Mw). Based on oxygen data, the generalized corrosion rate for the first 300 hr was 4.0 mpy; the rate for the remaining 1357 hr was 0.7 mpy. The nickel data gave parallel results. The corrosion of the type 347 stainless steel, Zircaloy-2, and Ti-55AX [unintelligible] exposed in the core and in in-line holders was generally consistent with that observed in previous in-pile loop experiments. Some differences with steel were attributed to the fact that this was the first loop containing steel specimens operated with 0.04 m H2SO4 present in the uranyl sulfate charge solution (0.17 m UO2SO4, 0.03 m CuSO4). Stress specimens, made from the alloys Zircaloy-2, type 17-4 PH stainless steel, and Ti-C-130-AM, were exposed in care, in-line, and pressurizer locations. Microscopic examination and average weight loss gave no indication of effects attributable to the stressed condition of the specimens.
Date: August 21, 1956
Creator: Baker, J. E.; Bradley, N. C.; Jenks, G. H.; Olsen, A. R.; Savage, H. C. & Walter, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fission Product Activities in Irradiated Natural Uranium, Enriched Uranium, and Thorium

Description: Calculated data and graphs describing the effects of batch thermal-neutron irradiations on the buildup of fission products in natural uranium, enriched uranium, and thorium are presented together with empirical equations and plots correlating total fission product activities and/or decontamination factors. Fluxes of 1012-1015 are considered.
Date: March 28, 1956
Creator: Arnold, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Combined Distillation-Electrochemical Method for Recovery of Hydrofluoric Acid

Description: Electrodialysis in an ion-exchange membrane cell was shown to be technically feasible for the concentration of an azeotropic mixture of HF and water. A flowsheet is presented for recovery of anhydrous HF by distillation and electrodialysis of the azeotropic residue. In the electrodialysis step, 2.6 kwhr of energy per pound of anhydrous product was consumed, with electricity at 1¢ per kilowatt-hour, the total operating cost of the electrodialysis equipment alone, including amortization, would be 6¢ per pound of HF.
Date: May 25, 1956
Creator: Marinsky, J. A. & Giuffrida, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography of ORNL-BSF Reports Pertinent to Swimming Pool Type Reactor Design (Revised)

Description: Much of the shielding work carried out with the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) has yielded data of particular interest for the design of swimming pool type reactors, However, it is often difficult for a reactor designer to locate such data since it may be recorded in a report primarily concerned with shielding problems. Therefore, this memorandum presents a bibliography of reports from the Bulk Shielding Facility arranged according to the application of data to the various aspects of reactor design.
Date: April 13, 1956
Creator: Maienschein, F. C. & Johnson, E. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electronuclear Research Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending September 20, 1955

Description: The installations of the beam deflector in the ORL 86-inch Cyclotron is sufficiently complete to allow initial testing the system permits the optional use of high-current internal targets. A survey of [illegible] cross sections made with 14-Mev neutrons indicates qualitative agreement with statistical theory. An internal-conversion ion spectrograph and a fission-fragment spectrograph were built and put in operation. The [illegible] functions severed proton-induced reactions of possible use in isotope production were measured. A capsule-type target is being used for the irradiation of chemical compounds. Nuclear physics research with 26-Mev nitrogen lens from the ORNL 63-inch Cyclotron concerned the following: a theoretical interpretation of elastic nitrogen-nitrogen scattering a detailed investigation of some nitrogen-nitrogen nuclear reactions; the measurement of reactions across sections in boron and aluminum; and the identification and the energy spectre of protons and alpha particles resulting from nitrogen-induced reactions with light elements. A study is being made of the practicality of a fixed-frequency cyclotron to accelerate protons to about 1 [illegible] for application in [illegible] research. Phase compensation would be obtained with an unusual magnetic-field configuration which has eight [illegible] cycles with about 72 deg of spiral, Also, a proposal was made to convert the 44-in. proton cyclotron a new 48-in. magnet would permit the acceleration of heavy ions to energies up to 81 Mev.
Date: November 1955
Creator: Livingston, Robert S. & Howard, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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