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Thermal Radiation From a Nuclear Detonation

Description: No Description Available.
Date: March 1, 1953
Creator: Broido, A.; Butler, C.P.; Day, R.P.; Hillendahl, R.W.; Martin, S.B. & Willoughby, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Blast Loading and Response of Underground Concrete-Arch Protective Structures

Description: Four reinforced-concrete arch structures, with the top of arch crown 4 ft below ground surface, were exposed at high overpressure ranges from Priscilla Burst in order to obtain data on their resistance to blast, radiation, and missile hazards. The four structures received actual air overpressures of 56, 124, and 199 psi and suffered only minor damage, all remaining structurally serviceable. The entranceway used for the structures sealed out the air pressure. It was not designed to attenuate radiation and thus did not provide adequate radiation protection for personnel. There were no missile and apparently no dust hazards in any of the structures. Results of the test indicate that an underground reinforced-concrete arch is an excellent structural shape for resisting the effects of a kiloton-range air burst. (C.H.)
Date: June 1, 1959
Creator: Flathau, W.J.; Breckenridge, R.A. & Wiehle, C.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design and Feasibility Study of a Pebble Bed Reactor-Steam Power Plant

Description: The status of development studies being conducted on a pebble bed power reactor is outlined. The items discussed are fuel element manufacture, stability, and reprocessing, and component development. (D.L.C.)
Date: May 1, 1958
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LITERATURE SEARCH ON LEAD-BISMUTH ALLOYS

Description: BS>The use of a lead-bismuth alloy as a coolant in the removal of heat from power-generating nuclear reactors was considered with the possibility that its ternary alloy with uranium or plutonium might be of use in a reactor of the circulating-liquid-fuel type. Information collected from the literature covering phase-equilibrium studies, physicalproperty data, and reactivity of this alloy toward other substances is presented. (auth)
Date: February 14, 1950
Creator: Lee, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CIVILIAN POWER REACTOR PROGRAM. PART III. CORE-PARAMETER STUDIES FOR SELECTED REACTOR TYPES

Description: A report is presented to provide a tool for evaluating the relative economic incentives for changing reactor core parameters. The cost relations are shown in terms of differential cost in lieu of total cost. A total cost for each reactor described is included so that power costs for a specified set of parameters can be obtained. A description is also included concerning 5 reactor types considered along with a discussion of the effects on power costs of varying the significant core parameters. A listing of basic references is given. (J.R.D.)
Date: January 1, 1959
Creator: Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. & Jackson and Moreland, Inc., Boston
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SRE CONTROL ROD SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS

Description: Data taken on radiation traverse of the Mark 1 control rod were analyzed. Future radiation levels for all SRE control and safety rods were predicted from this. The shielding necessary to ship a complete rod and that necessary to protect a person doing maintenance work on these rods were calculated. The unshielded gamma dose rate 1 cm from the surface of the most highly activated portion of the control rod was calculated to be 5.0 x 10/sup 4/ r/hr 14 days after shutdown following an extended power run of 90 days duration. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 22, 1957
Creator: Whittum, H.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Creep Rupture in the Presence of a Fast Neutron Flux

Description: Possible mechanisms for creep rupture during irradiation are examined. Evidence that the rupture occurs by grain boundary sliding alone, or by vacancy condensation, is compared. It is observed that vacancy condensation is the more probable mechanism, and that this mechanism predicts a reduction in creep rupture life for metals exposed to a fast neutron flux (neglecting effects of radiation annealing). (T.F.H.)
Date: January 14, 1959
Creator: Gregory, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Production of Pebble-Type Fuel Elements

Description: A capillary-drop method of producing spherical shapes of brittle materials less than 0.l00 inch in diameter was developed. It appears to be a feasible means for producing large numbers of pebble-tyne fuel element cores. Coating of pebble-type fuel element cores by the coating-pan technique, though not adequately developed, showed promise. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1955
Creator: Brassfield, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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GCRE-I HAZARD SUMMARY REPORT

Description: The GCRE-I hazard summary report is supplemented in the following areas: geometry and operation of the steam cooling system, the reactor coolant by-pass, and by-pass valving; the means by which by-passed circuits are prevented from remaining unintentionally disabled; design details, and details of procedure for core flooding operations. (A.C.)
Date: March 1, 1959
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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REACTOR FUEL WASTE DISPOSAL PROJECT PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON SALT CAVITIES AND SURVEY OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS STORAGE

Description: It is deemed feasible to store reactor fuel wastes in a salt dome cavity to a depth where the differential in pressure between the soil over-burden pressure and pressure of the fluid inside the cavity does not exceed 3000 psi, and the temperature is less than 400 deg F. Tests at pressure increments of 1000 psi were conducted on a 2" cylindrical cavity contained in a 6-in. long by 6-in. cylindrical salt core. Tests indicate that the cavity exhibited complete stability under pressures to 3000 psi and temperatures to 300 deg F. At temperatures of 100 to 400 deg F and pressures to 5000 psi continuous deformation of the cavity resulted. Initial movement of the salt was observed at all pressures. This was evidenced by vertical deformation and cavity size reduction. It was noted that a point of structural equilibrium was reached at lower temperatures when the pressure did not exceed 5000 psi. A literature study reveals that the most common type of cavity utilized in liquefied petroleum gas storage is either cylindrical or ellipsoidal. A few are pear or inverted cone shaped. There was no indication of leakage for cavities when pressure tested for as long as 72 hr. This indicates that the salt mass is not permeable under conditions of prevailing underground temperature and pressure. Salt specimens tested under atmospheric Pressure and temperature exhibited permeabilities of 0.1 to 0.2 millidarcys. The cost of completing underground storage cavities in salt masses is expected to be approximately 05 per barrel of storage space. (auth)
Date: January 15, 1959
Creator: Brown, K. E.; Jessen, F. W. & Gloyna, E. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MATERIALS PROBLEMS IN THE ROVER PROGRAM

Description: Problems in fuel element development for the Rover program are discussed. Properties of refractory materials which remain solid above 2500 deg C are described. Tensile and compressive creep properties of graphite were deterndined. The compatibility of fuel element materials with the hydrogenous working fluid was also considered. The effect of composition on the properties of graphite is discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: January 1, 1959
Creator: MacMillan, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of Overpressures in Group Shelters on Animals and Dummies

Description: S>Relative biological hazards of blast were studied in two types of communal air-raid shelters during Shots 1 and 8. Dogs, restrained within the shelters during detonation, were studied pathologically and clinically for blast injuries. Two anthropometric dummies were test objects for displacement studies utilizing high-speed photography. Physical data included pressure vs time and air-drag determinations. During Shot 1, animals sustained marked blast damages (hemorrhages in lungs and abdominal organs), three dogs were ataxic. and the dummies were rather violently displaced. In Shot 8, however, no significant injuries were found in the animals, and the dummies were minimally displaced. Analysis of the physical data indicated that blast injuries and violent displacements may occur at much lower static overpressures than previously assumed from conventional explosion data. Furthermore, biological damage appeared to be related to the rate of rise of the overpressure and air drag, as well as the maximum overpressure values. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1953
Creator: Roberts, J. E.; White, C. S. & Chiffelle, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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RADIATION CREEP

Description: Several theories of metal creep and radiation damage are studied, in order to determine whether creep rates under various conditions of irradiation can be predicted theoretically. It is found that if the creep is of the recovery type, and if the diffusion coefficient for radiationinduced vacancies is large enough, creep rates may be increased within a limited temperature range. Otherwise, radiation has no effect on creep rates. (T.F.H.)
Date: December 1, 1957
Creator: Gregory, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of at Atomic Explosion on Group and Family Type Shelters

Description: Two underground shelters (50-man capacity), one open and one closed, were exposed to Apple I shot, and two were exposed to Apple H shot (at 1050 ft). Three basement exit shelters were exposed to Apple I shot at 1350 ft; four were exposed to Apple II shot, two at 1270 ft, and two at 1470 ft. Groups of three aboveground utility type shelters, one of masonry blocks, one of precast reinforced concrete, and one of poured-in-place reinforced concrete, were placed at concrete bathroom shelters were placed in rambler type houses at 2700 and 10500 ft from Apple II shot. Three types of basement shelters were constructed in two frame houses at 5500 and 7800 ft, and two types of basement shelters were constructed in two brick houses at 4700 and 10500 ft from the same burst. On neither shot was structural damage sustained by the large underground personnel shelters. Occupants of the closed shelter would not have been disturbed by blast, debris, or radiation. Damage to the basement exit shelters was inversely proportional to their distance from Ground Zero (GZ) and was directly proportional to the amount of opening in the entrance. The closed shelter at the greatest distance received the least damage but was not satisfactory as a personnel shelter at the lowest pressure tested. Utility shelters provided unsatisfactory protection from radiation. All indoor family type shelters were satisfactory as tested and would have provided adequate protection for occupants. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1955
Creator: Vortman, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE ELECTROMAGNETIC PINCH EFFECT FOR SPACE PROPULSION

Description: The phenomenon of the electromagnetic pinch effect is used to accelerate ionized gases for space propulsion. Electrical energy, initially stored in capacitors, is discharged across two nozzle shaped electrodes wherein the radial pinch is converted to axial motion of the effected gases instead of confinement at the axis. The gas dynamics of a pinch using the hydrodynamical model of a msgnetic piston driving a shock wave is combined with the electrodynamics of the circuit to calculate the discharge behavior. Experiments on three different electrode designs are discussed and results compared with calculated values. Results are applied to one particular space propulsion system consisting of a nuclear energy source, a space radiator, a turbine-generator, capacitor, and a pinch tube. The specific mission analyzed is a one-way unmanned flight to a Mars orbit, starting from an Earth orbit. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1959
Creator: Kunen, A.E. & McIlroy, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PROPERTIES OF ARC-MELTED CHROMIUM-BASE ALLOYS

Description: screened for hot workability, oxidation resistance, and hot strength using small arc-melted ingots. The alloying elements investigated included Fe, Mn, Mo, Nb, Re, Ru, Ta, Ti, W, V, Zr, and Y in amounts up to 20 wt%. Of the fabricable alloys tested, the best combinations of oxidation resistance and strength, in the range of 2000 to 2300 deg F, were found in binary alloys containing 5 wt % molybdenum, 10 wt% tungsten, and 2 wt% niobium. While yttrium additions do not contribute to the hot strength of chromium, the effectiveness of yttrium in improving the oxidation resistance of chromium is outstanding. About 1 wt% yttrium appears optimum for this purpose. Experiments with the preparation of large chromium-base alloy ingots showed that cold-mold arc melting was not suitable for preparing ingots containing over about 1 wt% of alloy addition. However, the feasibility of preparing sound, higher alloycontent ingots by induction melting and casting was demonstrated. (auth)
Date: July 14, 1958
Creator: Maykuth, D.J.; Roberts, J.W. Jr. & Jaffee, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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RECONNAISSANCE FOR URANIUM IN THE CUZCO-AYAVIRI REGION, SOUTHERN PERU

Description: Geologic and radiometric investigations of the CuzcoAyaviri region in southern Peru were made in a search for geologic features or structures which might be favorable for the occurrence of uranium. Outcrops consist of Lower Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; Permian to Carboniferous volcanic flows, tuffs, breccia and agglomerate, together with sedimentary rocks; and Cretaceous and sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Tertiary igneous rocks are acidic intrusives and extrusive rhyolite, dacite and trachyte. Tertiary to Quaternary volcanic tuffs, breccias and agglomerates are also present. Although no anomalous radioactivity was observed, favorable geologic features for the occurrence of uranium were noted at two localities. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Brown, L.J. & Francisco, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atmospheric Signals From Explosions and Their Interpretation

Description: Results are reported from a series of experimental highexplosive shots under inversion conditions at the Nevada Test Site which were made in an attempt to refine blast prediction techniques. Applications of the data in determinations of the amount of energy which remains in the blast wave as it reaches acoustic level and in determinations of the magnitude of the reflection factor when the blast wave strikes the ground are discussed. Data on shock wave propagation are presented graphically. It is concluded that the blast phenomenology of high-altitude shots can be predicted by using modified Sach's scaling. With some extrapolation to the height-of-burst versus blast-yield curve, it should be possible to make order-of-magnitude predictions of blast effects from high-altitude shots up to heights of burst of 1,000,000 ft. (C.H.)
Date: December 1, 1959
Creator: Reed, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AIRBLAST OVERPRESSURE AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE OVER VARIOUS SURFACES

Description: Static overpressure and dynamic pressure versus time over surfaces processing different physical properties were measured on two tower shots, 6 and 12. On Shot 12, three surfaces were provided: the natural desert, a water surface consisting of a flooded area, and an asphalt surface. On Shot 6, desert and asphalt areas only were available. There were 123 channels of instrumentation installed for Shot 12, and 24 for Shot 6. From the data, a system of wave-form classification was devised for overpressure and dynamic-pressure- versus-time measurements. Incorporation of this system into data analysios indicates that it is possible for an ideal peak pressure to be identified with a nonideal wave form. Introducing both variables, wave form and peak pressure, into analyses reduces ambiguioties associoated with comparing results of different nuclear tests. The data show the effect of the nature of the surface upon airblast phenomena from a nuclear explosion. The effects of surface conditions upon shock phenomena are made more understandable by a review of temperature computatioons, using shock wave parameters in addition to an analysis based upon the arrioval time of the thermal pulse. A phenomenological discussion of precursor formation is presented, and comparisons are made using data from all known precursor-forming nuclear shots. Two Shot 12 dragforce measurements on the H Beams are presented and discussed. (auth)
Date: September 11, 1957
Creator: Sachs, D. C.; Swift, L. M. & Sauer, F. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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RELEASE OF FISSION GASES FROM THE AE-6 REACTOR ON MARCH 25, 1959

Description: An analysis was made of the fission-gas-release incident during the pressure pumpdown of the AE-6 Reactor resulting in the contamination of the reactor room and members of the operating staff. Descriptions are given of the normal core pumping procedures, procedural alterations during the incident, the discovery of the contamination and its possible causes, and the remedial actions taken. Steps taken to minimize the chance of the occurrence of the contamination in the future are listed. (B.O.G.)
Date: April 15, 1959
Creator: Blackshaw, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS AND LEAKAGE CURRENTS FOR SRE, P-16

Description: BS>Two-group, two-region criticality calculations were made for 10 and 11 ft diameter tanks. The 10 ft tank required a core radius of 102 cm and the 11 ft tank a core radius of 95 cm for criticality. In the calculations, the fluxes were assumed to go to zero at the edge oi the graphite reflector. The fast group of the two-group calculation was broken down into 3 fast groups. The leakage out of the core and reflector for the 4 energy groups is given. (M.C.G.)
Date: January 29, 1954
Creator: Balent, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HAZARDS SUMMARY REPORT ON NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY AT CANEL

Description: ON NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY AT CANEL. The critical experiment facility at CANEL is described. Information of the mature of experimental assemblies and operations is included. Safety features of the building, equipment, and operations are pointed out. Possible accidents and the resulting hazards to surrounding areas are analyzed. The make-up of the surrounding area is described. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 13, 1955
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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