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Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

Description: This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0), April 2011.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Sloop, Patrick Matthews and Christy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report

Description: The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Perez, Danielle M; Lillo, Misti A; Chang, Gray S.; Roth, Glenn A; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas & Wachs, Daniel M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

Description: During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Hartwell William T.,Daniels Jeffrey,Nikolich George,Shadel Craig,Giles Ken,Karr Lynn,Kluesner Tammy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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All Composite Data Products: National FCEV Learning Demonstration With Updates Through January 18, 2012

Description: This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes all the composite data products produced to date (with updates through January 18, 2012) as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C. & Saur, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An Analysis of Department of Defense Instruction 8500.2 'Information Assurance (IA) Implementation.'

Description: The Department of Defense (DoD) provides its standard for information assurance in its Instruction 8500.2, dated February 6, 2003. This Instruction lists 157 'IA Controls' for nine 'baseline IA levels.' Aside from distinguishing IA Controls that call for elevated levels of 'robustness' and grouping the IA Controls into eight 'subject areas' 8500.2 does not examine the nature of this set of controls, determining, for example, which controls do not vary in robustness, how this set of controls compares with other such sets, or even which controls are required for all nine baseline IA levels. This report analyzes (1) the IA Controls, (2) the subject areas, and (3) the Baseline IA levels. For example, this report notes that there are only 109 core IA Controls (which this report refers to as 'ICGs'), that 43 of these core IA Controls apply without variation to all nine baseline IA levels and that an additional 31 apply with variations. This report maps the IA Controls of 8500.2 to the controls in NIST 800-53 and ITGI's CoBIT. The result of this analysis and mapping, as shown in this report, serves as a companion to 8500.2. (An electronic spreadsheet accompanies this report.)
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Campbell, Philip LaRoche
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of Unit-Level Changes in Operations with Increased SPP Wind from EPRI/LCG Balancing Study

Description: Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The Department of Energy funded the project 'Integrating Midwest Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' to be led by EPRI in coordination with the main authorities for the regions: SPP, Entergy, TVA, Southern Company and OPC. EPRI utilized several subcontractors for the project including LCG, the developers of the model UPLAN. The study aims to evaluate the operating cost benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of regional cooperation for integrating mid-western wind energy into southeast electricity markets. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. DOE funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide additional support to the project, including a review of results and any side analysis that may provide additional insight. This report is a unit-by-unit analysis of changes in operations due to the different scenarios used in the overall study. It focuses on the change in capacity factors and the number of start-ups required …
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Hadley, Stanton W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Applications of Logic Flowcharting With a Focus in Autonomous Robotic Operations

Description: This report discusses research on applications of logic flowcharting with a focus in autonomous robotic operations. This research project is part of Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Sensor Networks, a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded grant project.
Date: 2012
Creator: Sink, Ashley Elizabeth; Gscheidle, Karl H.; Namuduri, Kamesh; Li, Li & Sterling, Phillip
Partner: UNT College of Engineering
open access

Applications of wireless sensors in monitoring Indoor Air Quality in the classroom environment

Description: This report discusses research on applications of wireless sensors in monitoring Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in the classroom environment. The research focuses on IAQ monitoring technologies, government regulations and policies, and best practices to improve IAQ. This research is part of Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Sensor Education, a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded grant project.
Date: 2012
Creator: Chamberlain, Blaine; Jordan, Georgette; Li, Xinrong; Thompson, Ruthanne; Borkar, Chirag & Mansour, Sahar
Partner: UNT College of Engineering
open access

Arundo Donax Analysis Report

Description: This is a summary report of preliminary analysis conducted on Arundo Donax. Arundo Donax was received from Greenwood Resources via Portland General Electric. PGE plans to transition a coal-fired boiler to 100% biomass by 2020, and has partnered with EPRI and INL to conduct the necessary testing and development to understand what needs to take place to make this transition. Arundo Donax is a promising energy crop for biopower, and is as yet relatively untested and uncharacterized. The INL has begun initial characterization of this material, and this summary report presents the initial findings.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Corrie I. & Westover, Tyler L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bringing real world applications for wireless sensor networks into the classroom: Telemetric monitoring of water quality in an artificial stream [2012]

Description: This report discusses research on aquatic sensors and telemetric monitoring of water quality in an artificial stream with the use of a wireless sensor networks (WSN) using the ZigBee protocol to remotely monitor an artificial aquatic ecosystem. This research is part of Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Sensor Education, a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded grant project.
Date: 2012
Creator: Bunn, Zac; Guerrero, Jose; Wolf, Lori; Fu, Shengli; Hoeinghaus, David; Driver, Luke et al.
Partner: UNT College of Engineering
open access

CASE STUDY OF DUCT RETROFIT OF A 1985 HOME AND GUIDELINES FOR ATTIC AND CRAWL SPACE DUCT SEALING

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to research for developing the information and capabilities necessary to provide cost-effective residential retrofits yielding 50% energy savings within the next several years. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the biggest energy end use in the residential sector, and a significant amount of energy can be wasted through leaky ductwork in unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces. A detailed duct sealing case study is presented for one house along with nine brief descriptions of other duct retrofits completed in the mixed-humid climate. Costs and estimated energy savings are reported for most of the ten houses. Costs for the retrofits ranged from $0.92/ft2 to $1.80/ft2 of living space and estimated yearly energy cost savings due to the duct retrofits range from 1.8% to 18.5%. Lessons learned and duct sealing guidelines based on these ten houses, as well as close work with the HVAC industry in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee, northern Georgia, and south-central Kentucky are presented. It is hoped that the lessons learned and guidelines will influence local HVAC contractors, energy auditors, and homeowners when diagnosing or repairing HVAC duct leakage and will be useful for steering DOE s future research in this area.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Boudreaux, Philip R; Christian, Jeffrey E & Jackson, Roderick K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

Description: Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.
Date: January 1, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

CO2-based mixtures as working fluids for geothermal turbines.

Description: Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for application to a variety of heat sources, including geothermal, solar, fossil, and nuclear power. This work is centered on the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power conversion cycle, which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources and is very compact-a feature likely to reduce capital costs. One promising approach is the use of CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid mixtures. The introduction of additives to CO{sub 2} alters the equation of state and the critical point of the resultant mixture. A series of tests was carried out using Sandia's supercritical fluid compression loop that confirmed the ability of different additives to increase or lower the critical point of CO{sub 2}. Testing also demonstrated that, above the modified critical point, these mixtures can be compressed in a turbocompressor as a single-phase homogenous mixture. Comparisons of experimental data to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Standard Reference Database predictions varied depending on the fluid. Although the pressure, density, and temperature (p, {rho}, T) data for all tested fluids matched fairly well to REFPROP in most regions, the critical temperature was often inaccurate. In these cases, outside literature was found to provide further insight and to qualitatively confirm the validity of experimental findings for the present investigation.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M. & Ames, David E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A comparison and benchmark of two electron cloud packages

Description: We present results from precision simulations of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using two distinct codes. These two codes are (i)POSINST, a F90 2D+ code, and (ii)VORPAL, a 2D/3D electrostatic and electromagnetic code used for self-consistent simulations of plasma and particle beam problems. A specific benchmark has been designed to demonstrate the strengths of both codes that are relevant to the EC problem in the Main Injector. As differences between results obtained from these two codes were bigger than the anticipated model uncertainties, a set of changes to the POSINST code were implemented. These changes are documented in this note. This new version of POSINST now gives EC densities that agree with those predicted by VORPAL, within {approx}20%, in the beam region. The root cause of remaining differences are most likely due to differences in the electrostatic Poisson solvers. From a software engineering perspective, these two codes are very different. We comment on the pros and cons of both approaches. The design(s) for a new EC package are briefly discussed.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Amundson, James F.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis G.; /Fermilab; Veitzer, Seth A. & /Tech-X, Boulder
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

Description: With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) engineering and foundations for global design.

Description: Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which must be recognized and reckoned with to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Design within CASoS requires the fostering of a new discipline, CASoS Engineering, and the building of capability to support it. Towards this primary objective, we created the Phoenix Pilot as a crucible from which systemization of the new discipline could emerge. Using a wide range of applications, Phoenix has begun building both theoretical foundations and capability for: the integration of Applications to continuously build common understanding and capability; a Framework for defining problems, designing and testing solutions, and actualizing these solutions within the CASoS of interest; and an engineering Environment required for 'the doing' of CASoS Engineering. In a secondary objective, we applied CASoS Engineering principles to begin to build a foundation for design in context of Global CASoS
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Brodsky, Nancy S.; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Thomas W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Controlling intake of uranium in the workplace: Applications of biokinetic modeling and occupational monitoring data

Description: This report provides methods for interpreting and applying occupational uranium monitoring data. The methods are based on current international radiation protection guidance, current information on the chemical toxicity of uranium, and best available biokinetic models for uranium. Emphasis is on air monitoring data and three types of bioassay data: the concentration of uranium in urine; the concentration of uranium in feces; and the externally measured content of uranium in the chest. Primary Reference guidance levels for prevention of chemical effects and limitation of radiation effects are selected based on a review of current scientific data and regulatory principles for setting standards. Generic investigation levels and immediate action levels are then defined in terms of these primary guidance levels. The generic investigation and immediate actions levels are stated in terms of radiation dose and concentration of uranium in the kidneys. These are not directly measurable quantities, but models can be used to relate the generic levels to the concentration of uranium in air, urine, or feces, or the total uranium activity in the chest. Default investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest are recommended for situations in which there is little information on the form of uranium taken into the body. Methods are prescribed also for deriving case-specific investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest when there is sufficient information on the form of uranium to narrow the range of predictions of accumulation of uranium in the main target organs for uranium: kidneys for chemical effects and lungs for radiological effects. In addition, methods for using the information herein for alternative guidance levels, different from the ones selected for this report, are described.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; McGinn, Wilson & Meck, Dr. Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

Description: Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Young, Joseph G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

Description: DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M. & Keim, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Demand response pilot event conducted August 2,2011 : summary report.

Description: Energy management in a commercial facility can be segregated into two areas: energy efficiency and demand response (DR). Energy efficiency focuses on steady-state load minimization. Demand response reduces load for event driven periods during the peak load. Demand-response-driven changes in electricity use are designed to be short-term in nature, centered on critical hours during the day when demand is high or when the electricity supplier's reserve margins are low. Due to the recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 745, Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets the potential annual compensation to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) from performing DR ranges from $300K to $2,400K. While the current energy supply contract does not offer any compensation for participating in DR, there is benefit in understanding the issues and potential value in performing a DR event. This Report will be helpful in upcoming energy supply contract negotiations to quantify the energy savings and power reduction potential from DR at SNL. On August 25, 2011 the Facilities Management and Operations Center (FMOC) performed the first DR pilot event at SNL/NM. This report describes the details and results of this DR event.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Lincoln, Donald & Evans, Christoper
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determining the significance of associations between two series of discrete events : bootstrap methods /

Description: We review and develop techniques to determine associations between series of discrete events. The bootstrap, a nonparametric statistical method, allows the determination of the significance of associations with minimal assumptions about the underlying processes. We find the key requirement for this method: one of the series must be widely spaced in time to guarantee the theoretical applicability of the bootstrap. If this condition is met, the calculated significance passes a reasonableness test. We conclude with some potential future extensions and caveats on the applicability of these methods. The techniques presented have been implemented in a Python-based software toolkit.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Niehof, Jonathan T. & Morley, Steven K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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