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Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

Description: Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Abbott, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experimental Investigation of the Root Cause Mechanism and Effectiveness of Mitigating Actions for Axial Offset Anomaly in Pressurized Water Reactors

Description: Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.
Date: July 2, 2005
Creator: Abdel-Khalik, Said
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Diagnostic Examination of Generation 2 Lithium-Ion Cells and Assessment Ofperformance Degradation Mechanisms.

Description: The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being evaluated for HEV applications. It is our hope that the information contained …
Date: July 15, 2005
Creator: Abraham, Daniel P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures

Description: The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to feed dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). This was to be accomplished in two phases. The first task was to review materials handling experience in pressurized operations as it related to the target pressures for this project, and review existing coal preparation processes and specifications currently used in advanced combustion systems. Samples of existing fuel materials were obtained and tested to evaluate flow, sealing and friction properties. This provided input data for use in the design of the Stamet Feeders for the project, and ensured that the material specification used met the requirements of advanced combustion & gasification systems. Ultimately, Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL was used as the basis for the feeder design and test program. Based on the material property information, a Phase 1 feeder system was designed and built to accomplish feeding the coal to an intermediate pressure up to 21 kg/cm{sup 2} (300 psi) at feed rates of approximately 100 kilograms (220lbs) per hour. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated for the final pressure requirement of 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500psi). A program of testing and modification was carried out in Stamet's facility in CA, culminating in successful feeding of coal into the Phase 1 target of 21 kg/cm{sup 2} (300psi) gas pressure in …
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Aldred, Derek L. & Saunders, Timothy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Report for 'An Abstract Job Handling Grid Service for Dataset Analysis'

Description: For Phase I of the Job Handling project, Tech-X has built a Grid service for processing analysis requests, as well as a Graphical User Interface (GUI) client that uses the service. The service is designed to generically support High-Energy Physics (HEP) experimental analysis tasks. It has an extensible, flexible, open architecture and language. The service uses the Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment as a working example. STAR is an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). STAR and other experiments at BNL generate multiple Petabytes of HEP data. The raw data is captured as millions of input files stored in a distributed data catalog. Potentially using thousands of files as input, analysis requests are submitted to a processing environment containing thousands of nodes. The Grid service provides a standard interface to the processing farm. It enables researchers to run large-scale, massively parallel analysis tasks, regardless of the computational resources available in their location.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Alexander, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bwr Axial Profile

Description: No Description Available.
Date: July 27, 2005
Creator: Alsaed, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

Description: The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information …
Date: July 28, 2005
Creator: Alsaed, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

Description: No Description Available.
Date: July 27, 2005
Creator: Alsaed, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CONFIGURATION GENERATOR MODEL

Description: No Description Available.
Date: July 27, 2005
Creator: Alsaed, Abdelhalim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hong Kong 2005: Changes in Leadership and Issues for Congress

Description: The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has recently recovered from an economic downturn and the SARS virus outbreak of 2002-2003 which crippled trade and tourism. There has also been a major change in the top government personnel, with the former Chief Executive, Tung Chee-Hwa, being replaced by Donald Tsang as the new Chief Executive of Hong Kong. The next major the issue to be addressed in Hong Kong is the pace of further democratization and the the extent to which the next elections for the Legislative Counsel will be based on direct elections of all seats or a larger portion thereof.
Date: July 15, 2005
Creator: Anderson, Severn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The European Union in 2005 and Beyond

Description: The European Union (EU) experienced significant changes in 2004 as it enlarged from 15 to 25 members and continued work on a new constitutional treaty to institute internal reforms and further EU political integration. In 2005, the EU is expected to build on these efforts and seek to implement several recent foreign policy and defense initiatives. This report describes the current status of the EU’s “constitution,” EU enlargement, the EU’s evolving foreign and defense policies, and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The European Union: Questions and Answers

Description: This report provides answers to key questions related to the European Union (EU). It describes the EU’s evolution, its governing institutions, trade policy, and efforts to forge common foreign and defense policies. The report also addresses the EU-U.S. and EU-NATO relationships.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The European Union's Constitution

Description: In June 2004, the European Union (EU) concluded work on a constitutional treaty that contains changes to the EU’s governing institutions and decision-making processes. This new “constitution” grew out of the 2002-2003 Convention on the Future of Europe and previous EU efforts to institute internal reforms ahead of the Union’s expansion from 15 members to 25 in May 2004. The “constitution” aims to enable a larger EU to operate effectively and prevent gridlock, but it must still be ratified by all member states before it enters into force. This report provides background information on the Convention and describes the EU “constitution,” its key provisions, next steps, and possible implications for the U.S.-EU relationship.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Islamist Extremism in Europe

Description: No Description Available.
Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Rollins, John & Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Test results for 320 nm and 390 nm remote sensing sources using a 150 mJ, 100 Hz repetition rate, injection-seeded diode-pumped Nd:YAG slab-laser developed by Coherent Technologies, Inc.

Description: This report describes results of tests using a laser system designed by Coherent Technologies, Inc., in conjunction with Sandia developed nonlinear optics technology. Test results are described for three different optical parametric oscillators built at Sandia. The report concludes with recommendations for future work.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Armstrong, Darrell Jewell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Science & Technology Review September 2005

Description: This month's issue has the following articles: (1) The Pursuit of Fusion Energy--Commentary by William H. Goldstein; (2) A Dynamo of a Plasma--The self-organizing magnetized plasmas in a Livermore fusion energy experiment are akin to solar flares and galactic jets; (3) How One Equation Changed the World--A three-page paper by Albert Einstein revolutionized physics by linking mass and energy; (4) Recycled Equations Help Verify Livermore Codes--New analytic solutions for imploding spherical shells give scientists additional tools for verifying codes; and (5) Dust That.s Worth Keeping--Scientists have solved the mystery of an astronomical spectral feature in interplanetary dust particles.
Date: July 19, 2005
Creator: Aufderheide III, M B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

Description: A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Augustoni, Arnold L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

Description: This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Bagherjeiran, A.; Cantu-Paz, E. & Kamath, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sludge Batch 4 Simulant Flowsheet Studies with ARP and MCU: Impact of MCU Organics

Description: Two facilities for treating the salt currently being stored in the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks are currently planned to begin operations during the processing of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 (Washburn, 2004) to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing for streams from the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Side Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). In particular, the TTR requests SRNL to validate the existing process flowsheet and establish a coupled operations flowsheet for use with SB4. The flowsheet runs are required so an evaluation of potential chemical processing issues, quantification of the potential hydrogen generation rates, and estimation of the required acid stoichiometry can be made. Previous testing (Baich et. al., 2003) was performed for incorporating ARP/MST in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and recommendations were made to DWPF on possible flowsheet options. However, since that time, some changes have occurred to the ARP facility processing strategy, and material balances have been revised (Subosits, 2004). Thus, testing with updated compositions was necessary. Since the MCU is a new design and project, no CPC flowsheet studies have been performed for this stream. This testing will validate the previously recommended ARP stream addition methods based on the new information and based on the need to also incorporate the MCU stream. The basic principle of solvent extraction is to use a sparingly soluble diluent material that carries an extractant that will complex with the cesium ions in the caustic HLW solution. The decontaminated aqueous stream (raffinate) is then sent to Saltstone for disposal. The cesium contained in the organic phase (solvent) can then be stripped into an aqueous phase ready for transfer to …
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Baich, M. A.; Herman, C. C.; Eibling, R. E.; Williams, M. F. & Smith, F. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fiber Optical Micro-Detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants Progress Report

Description: A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor is being developed that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Two critical materials issues are the cluster's ability to withstand high temperatures when immobilized in a porous the sol-gel support, and whether after heating to high temperatures, the sol-gel matrix maintains a high and constant permeability to oxygen to support rapid quenching of luminescence. We used a composite materials approach to prepare stable sensing layers on optical fibers. We dispersed 60 w/w% of a pre-cured sol-gel composite containing the potassium salt of molybdenum clusters (K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}) into a sol-gel binder solution, and established the conditions necessary for deposition of sol-gel films on optical fibers and planar substrates. The fiber sensor has an output signal of 5 nW when pumped with an inexpensive commercial 365 nm ultraviolet light emitting diode (LED). Quenching of the sensor signal by oxygen was observed up to a gas temperature of 175 C with no degradation of the oxygen permeability of the composite after high temperature cycling. On planar substrates the cluster containing composite responds within <1 second to a gas exchange from nitrogen to oxygen, indicating the feasibility of real-time oxygen detection.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Baker, Gregory L.; Ghosh, Ruby N.; III, D.J. Osborn & Zhang, Po
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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