Search Results

open access

Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring

Description: The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA) were enacted to eliminate unfair practices and other abuses by electricity and gas holding companies by requiring federal control and regulation of interstate public utility holding companies. Comprehensive energy legislation has passed the House and Senate. The House passed H.R. 6 on April 11, 2003. On July 31, 2003, the Senate suspended debate on S. 14, inserted the text of H.R. 4 (107th Congress) as a substitute, and passed H.R. 6. A conference agreement was reached November 17, 2003, and passed by the House the next day. H.R. 6 includes an electricity title that would, in part, repeal PUHCA, would prospectively repeal the mandatory purchase requirement under PURPA, and would create an electric reliability organization. On June 15, 2004, H.R. 4503, a comprehensive energy policy bill, passed the House.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Abel, Amy & Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Multi-strange baryon production in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV

Description: The transverse mass spectra and mid-rapidity yields for {Xi}s and {Omega}s plus their anti-particles are presented. The 10% most central collision yields suggest that the amount of multi-strange particles produced per produced charged hadron increases from SPS to RHIC energies. A hydrodynamically inspired model fit to the spectra, which assumes a thermalized source, seems to indicate that these multi-strange particles experience a significant transverse flow effect, but are emitted when the system is hotter and the flow is smaller than values obtained from a combined fit to {pi}, K, p and {lambda}s.
Date: July 30, 2003
Creator: Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Development of Improved Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides with Hydrocarbons

Description: Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil …
Date: November 30, 2003
Creator: Akyurtlu, Ates & Akyurtlu, Jale F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Reactive Multiphase Behavior of C)2 in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: The six coal-fired power plants located in the Colorado Plateau and southern Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. produce 100 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year. Thick sequences of collocated sedimentary rocks represent potential sites for sequestration of the CO{sub 2}. Field and laboratory investigations of naturally occurring CO{sub 2}-reservoirs are being conducted to determine the characteristics of potential seal and reservoir units and the extent of the interactions that occur between the host rocks and the CO{sub 2} charged fluids. The results are being incorporated into a series of two-dimensional numerical models that represent the major chemical and physical processes induced by injection. During reporting period covered here (March 30 to June 30, 2003), the main achievements were: Presentation of three papers at the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration (May 5-8, Alexandria, Virginia); Presentation of a poster at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists meeting; Co-PI organized and chaired a special session on Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists annual convention in Salt Lake City (May 12-15).
Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Allis, R. G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Reactive Multiphase Behavior of CO2 in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: Gas reservoirs developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains region represent unique natural laboratories for studying the conditions that control long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. Under appropriate conditions, the trapping of CO{sub 2} in mineral phases could equal or exceed the amount of CO{sub 2} sequestered in the pore fluids in deep aquifers. Core samples from the Springerville-St. Johns CO{sub 2} field has allowed investigation of naturally occurring mineral reactions. The presence of travertine deposits over the field provide evidence of the leakage of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere and justify further study. During reporting period covered here (January 1 to March 30, 2003), the main achievements were: (1) Preparation of three papers to be presented at the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestion (May 5-8, Alexandria, Virginia) and (2) Preparation of two papers for submission to a special volume of Chemical Geology on CO{sub 2} Sequestration.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Allis, R. G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Reactive Multiphase Behavior of CO2 in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: Gas reservoirs developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains region are natural laboratories for studying the factors that promote long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. They also provide sites for storing additional CO{sub 2} if it can be separated from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants in this part of the U.S.A. These natural reservoirs are developed primarily in sandstones and dolomites; shales, mudstones and anhydrite form seals. In many fields, stacked reservoirs are present, indicating that the gas has migrated up through the section. There are also geologically young travertine deposits at the surface, and CO{sub 2}-charged groundwater and springs in the vicinity of known CO{sub 2} occurrences. These near-surface geological and hydrological features also provide examples of the environmental effects of leakage of CO{sub 2} from reservoirs, and justify further study. During reporting period covered here (the first quarter of Year 3 of the project, i.e. October 1-December 31, 2002), the main achievements were: (1) Planning workshop for project participants as well as other Utah researchers involved in CO{sub 2} projects (22 October, 2002), and Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City; (2) Presentation of paper to special CO{sub 2} sequestration session at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, 29 October, 2002; (3) Presentation of paper to special CO{sub 2} sequestration session at the Fall Meeting of American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, 10 December, 2002; (4) Identification of dawsonite (sodium-aluminum carbonate) as a late stage mineral deposited in CO{sub 2} feedzone at Springerville, Arizona; (5) Successful matching of known physical constraints to flow beneath the Hunter cross section being used to simulate the effects of CO{sub 2} injection. In about 1000 years, most injected CO{sub 2} may be lost to the surface from the three shallowest reservoirs considered, assuming no reactive processes; and (6) Inclusion …
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Allis, R. G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

Description: Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. Such systems would interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to the machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, forward projections of servicing intervals, estimate remaining component life, and identify faults. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Angello, Leonard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Underwater Determination of Radionuclide Levels in 105-KE Basin Floor and Walls Using a Gamma-Ray Detector System

Description: Activities to remove spent fuel, sludge and debris from K East Basin have begun. Once all the radioactive hazards (i.e., fuel, sludge and debris) are removed from the basin, the basin water will be removed and the basin will be turned over to a deactivation and decommission contractor. However, the specific approach to achieving this end state is dependent on knowledge of contamination levels in the concrete walls and floor once the water is removed. PNNL researchers have developed a one-of-a-kind technology for performing non-destructive evaluation of the highly contaminated K East fuel storage basin for the purpose of determining concrete contamination levels from selected wall and floor locations below the basin waterline.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Arthur, Richard J.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; MacFarlan, Paul J. & Catalan, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Letter on intent to build an off-axis detector to study {nu}{sub mu}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations with the NuMI neutrino beam. Version 6.0

Description: The question of neutrino masses is of fundamental importance. Neutrino oscillations seem to be the only tool available to us to unravel the pattern of neutrino masses and, perhaps, shed some light on the origin of masses in general. The NuMI neutrino beam line and the MINOS experiment represent a major investment of US High Energy Physics in the area of neutrino physics. the forthcoming results could decisively establish neutrino oscillations as the underlying physics mechanism for the atmospheric {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit and provide a precise measurement of the corresponding oscillation parameters, {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23}. This, however, is just a beginning of a long journey into uncharted territories. The key to these new territories is the detection of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations associated with the atmospheric {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit, controlled by the little known mixing angle sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}. A precise measurement of the amplitude of these oscillations will enable a determination of the pattern of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. If the solar neutrino experiments determine that the value {Delta}m{sub 12}{sup 2} is in the range of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} eV{sup 2} then the measurement of the CP violation in the neutrino sector may well be within our reach. The full potential of the NuMI neutrino beam can be exploited by complementing the MINOS detector, under construction, with a new detector(s) placed at some off-axis position and collecting data in parallel with MINOS. The first phase of the proposed program includes a new detector, optimized for {nu}{sub e} detection, with a fiducial mass of the order os 20 kton and exposed to neutrino and antineutrino beams. In a five year run its sensitivity to the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations will be at least a factor of ten beyond the current …
Date: July 30, 2003
Creator: Ayres, D.; Goodman, M.; Guarino, V.; Joffe-Minnor, T.; Reyna, D.; Talaga, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation of Inductively Couple Plasma-time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Laser Ablation Analyses

Description: The purpose of this trip to LECO Corporation was to test the non-matrix matched calibration method and the principal component analysis (PCA) method on a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOFMS) system. An LA-ICP-TOFMS system allows for multielement single-shot analysis as well as spatial analysis on small samples, because the TOFMS acquires an entire mass spectrum for all ions extracted simultaneously from the ICP. The TOFMS system differs from the double-focusing mass spectrometer, on which the above methods were developed, by having lower sensitivity and lower mass resolution.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Bajic, S. J.; Aeschliman, D. B.; Baldwin, D. P. & Houk, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

Description: Spectroscopy of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and heated to 200 C has been performed. Oxygen quenching of the luminescence was observed. Aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Preliminary experiments point to oxidation of the clusters as the likely cause of thermally induced changes in the physical and optical properties of the clusters.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Baker, Gregory L.; Ghosh, Ruby N. & Osborn, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Advanced Flue Gas Conditioning as a Retrofit Upgrade to Enhance Pm Collection From Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers, Quarterly Technical Report: April-June 2003

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.
Date: July 30, 2003
Creator: Baldrey, Kenneth E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: July 30, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate

Description: On April 10, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247- 175). The bill was a composite of four measures – H.R. 39, reported from the House Committee on Resources, H.R. 238, marked up by the House Science Committee, H.R. 1531, reported from Ways and Means, and an unnumbered bill reported out of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Unlike comprehensive energy legislation (H.R. 4) debated in the 107th Congress, H.R. 6 includes a section on electricity which has stirred some controversy. H.R. 6 would provide authorization for exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR).
Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Strontium and Actinides Removal from Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples by Freshly Precipitated Manganese Oxide

Description: The authors investigated the performance of freshly precipitated manganese oxide and monosodium titanate (MST) for the removal of strontium (Sr) and actinides from actual high-level waste. Manganese oxide precipitation occurs upon addition of a reductant such as formate (HCO2-) or peroxide (H2O2) to a waste solution containing permanganate (MnO4-). Tests described in this document address the capability of manganese oxide treatment to remove Rs, Pu, and Np from actual high-level waste containing elevated concentrations of Pu. Additionally, tests investigate MST (using two unique batches) performance with the same waste for direct comparison to the manganese oxide performance.
Date: October 30, 2003
Creator: Barnes, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal SiteFiscal Year 2003

Description: The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which is not removed by the ETF, and is discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During fiscal year (FY) 2003 to date (through August 31, 2003), approximately 96-million liters (25.3-million gallons) of water have been discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, and water-level measurements are required by the state-issued permit at the SALDS. The current network consists of 3 proximal monitoring wells and 16 tritium-tracking wells. Proximal wells were sampled in October 2002, and January, February, April, and September of 2003. Tritium-tracking wells were sampled in January and September of 2003, but September results were delayed because of fire hazards near the wellheads. Water-level measurements in three wells nearest the SALDS indicate the continuation of a small hydraulic mound beneath the SALDS facility as a result of discharges. This feature is directing groundwater flow radially outward a short distance before the regional northeasterly flow predominates. This condition also places several wells south of the SALDS hydraulically downgradient of the facility. Some of the wells south of the SALDS in the tritium-tracking network have dried or are projected to soon be dry. Wells 299-W7-6 went dry during FY 2003, preventing collection of the September sample from this well. Tritium activities decreased in all three SALDS proximal wells during FY 2003, compared with FY 2002. Timing between detections of tritium and other constituents in well 699-48-77C suggest a delay of approximately 3 years from detection in wells 699-48-77A and 699-48-77D. Sporadic detections in well 299-W7-5 suggest that tritium from SALDS may be reaching the northern edge of the 200 West Area, south of the facility and may be at …
Date: November 30, 2003
Creator: Barnett, D. Brent; Rieger, JoAnne T. & Thornton, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Mullite/Mo interfaces formed by Intrusion bonding

Description: The microstructure and strength of Mo/mullite interfaces formed by diffusion bonding at 1650 C has been analyzed. Interfacial metal-ceramic interlocking contributes to flexural strength of approx. 140 MPa as measured by 3 point bending. Saturation of mullite with MoO2 does not affect the interfacial strength.
Date: April 30, 2003
Creator: Bartolome, Jose F.; Diaz, Marcos; Moya, Jose S.; Saiz, Eduardo & Tomsia, Antoni P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation Of FWENC Process For Treatment Of MVST Sludges, Supernates, And Surrogates

Description: In 1998, the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) was awarded an 11-year contract to treat transuranic waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, including Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste. Their baseline tank waste process consists of: (1) Separating the supernate from the sludge, (2) Washing the sludge with water and adding this wash water to the supernate, (3) Stabilizing the supernate/wash water or the washed sludge with additives if either are projected to fail Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Toxic Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) criteria, and (4) Stabilizing both the washed sludge and supernate/wash water by vacuum evaporation. An ''Optimum'' treatment procedure consisted of adding a specified quantity of two stabilizers--ThioRed{reg_sign} and ET Soil Polymer{reg_sign}--and an ''Alternate'' treatment simply increased the amount of ThioRed{reg_sign} added. This report presents the results of a study funded by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to provide Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) with independent laboratory data on the performance of the baseline process for treating the sludges, including washing the sludge and treating the wash water (although supernates were not included in the wash water tests). Two surrogate and seven actual tank wastes were used in this evaluation. Surrogate work, as well as the initial work with actual tank sludge, was based on an existing sludge sample from Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tank (BVEST) W23. One surrogate was required to be based on a surrogate previously developed to mimic the weighted average chemical composition of the MVST-BVEST using a simple mix of reagent grade chemicals and water, called the ''Quick and Dirty'' surrogate (QnD). The composition of this surrogate was adjusted toward the measured composition of W23 samples. The other surrogate was prepared to be more representative of the W23 sludge sample by precipitation of a nitrate solution at high pH, separating the solution from …
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Barton, JW
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen