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2001 ''You Have the Power'' campaign [Federal Energy Management Program]. Final technical report

Description: The Tasks of 2001 ''You Have the Power'' campaign by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) are: Task 1--Interagency Planning Meetings; Task 2--Ear Day Event; Task 3--Earth Day and Energy Awareness Month Activities; Task 4--Regional Target; Task 5--Outreach Tools and Campaign Products; Task 6--Private Sector Participation; Task 7--''You Have the Power'' on the FEMP Web Site; and Task 8--Effective Communications.
Date: January 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Baldrey, Kenneth E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Description: Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and METHANE de-NOX{reg_sign} technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Rabovitser, Joseph & Bryan, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Stripper Gas Produced Water Remediation, Quarterly Technical Report: October-December 2001

Description: Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal …
Date: January 2002
Creator: Bonner, Harry & Malmquist, Roger
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

Description: As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process the information and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway. During this quarter, we have presented our project and discussed the software to numerous Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) workshops located in various regions of the United States.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Boyer, Charles M., II & MacDonald, Ronald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the period October 2000-July 2001

Description: This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 2000--July 2001 monitoring period. Inspections of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 2001. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began eight years ago. Precipitation for the period October 2000 through July 2001 was 9.42 centimeters (cm) (3.71 inches [in]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2001). The prior year annual rainfall (January 2000 through December 2000) was 10.44 cm (4.1 1 in.). The recorded average annual rainfall for this site from 1972 to January 2000 is 14.91 cm (5.87 in.). The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Tobiason, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

Description: The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Osseo-Asare, K. & Zeng, X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Arctic Ocean and Climate Change: A Scenario for the US Navy

Description: This report is an edited compilation of the views of the panel of experts convened by the United States Arctic Research Commission to assist the Navy in considering the effects of climate change on their operations in and around the Arctic Ocean in the mid to lat Twenty First Century.
Date: 2002
Creator: United States. Arctic Research Commission.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

Description: Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing …
Date: January 2002
Creator: Bumgarner, Joseph D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of (mu)grid distributed energy resource potential using DER-CAM and GIS

Description: This report outlines an approach to assess the local potential for deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), small power-generation installations located close to the point where the energy they produce will be consumed. Although local restraints, such as zoning, building codes, and on-site physical barriers are well-known frustrations to DER deployment, no analysis method has been developed to address them within a broad economic analysis framework. The approach developed here combines established economic optimization techniques embedded in the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of local land-use constraint. An example case in the San Diego area is developed from a strictly customer perspective, based on the premise that future development of DER may take the form of microgrids ((mu)Grids) under the control of current utility customers. Beginning with assumptions about which customer combinations h ave complementary energy loads, a GIS was used to locate specific neighborhoods in the San Diego area with promising customer combinations. A detailed energy analysis was conducted for the commercial/residential area chosen covering both electrical and heat energy requirements. Under various scenarios, different combinations of natural gas reciprocating engines were chosen by DER-CAM, ranging in size from 25 kW to 500 kW, often with heat recovery or absorption cooling. These generators typically operate throughout the day and are supplemented by purchased electricity during late-night and early-morning hours, when utility time-of-use prices are lowest. Typical (mu)Grid scenarios displaced about 80 percent of their annual gas heat load through CHP. Self-generation together with absorption cooling dramatically reduce electricity purchases, which usually only occur during nighttime hours.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris; Bartholomew, Emily; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S. & LaCommare, Kristina S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bending Effects in the Frictional Energy Dissipation in Lap Joints

Description: Frictional energy dissipation in joints is an issue of long-standing interest in the effort to predict damping of built up structures. Even obtaining a qualitative understanding of how energy dissipation depends on applied loads has not yet been accomplished. Goodman postulated that in harmonic loading, the energy dissipation per cycle would go as the cube of the amplitude of loading. Though experiment does support a power-law relationship, the exponent tends to be lower than Goodman predicted. Recent calculations discussed here suggest that the cause of that deviation has to do with reshaping of the contact patch over each loading period.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: HEINSTEIN, MARTIN W. & SEGALMAN, DANIEL J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BPA Riparian Fencing and Alternative Water Development Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek Fencing Final Report of Accomplishments.

Description: The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84,191 trees and shrubs in the Asotin Creek Watershed. In …
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Johnson, Bradley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2001 Annual Report.

Description: The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the fourth year (2001) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species were the lowest observed since surveys began in 1999. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout increased in Shitike Cr. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the third year. Mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in the 2.4 km control reach. However, the mean relative density of brook trout in the 2.4 km control reach was slightly higher than what was observed in within the index reaches. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and …
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Brun, Christopher V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

Description: We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife) & Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

Description: The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO{sub 2} …
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Green, David A.; Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; McMichael, William J.; Harrison, Douglas P. & Liang, Ya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy for Proteomics and Biological Forensics

Description: The Human Genome Project was focused on mapping the complete genome. Yet, understanding the structure and function of the proteins expressed by the genome is the real end game. But there are approximately 100,000 proteins in the human body and the atomic structure has been determined for less than 1% of them. Given the current rate at which structures are being solved, it will take more than one hundred years to complete this task. The rate-limiting step in protein structure determination is the growth of high-quality single crystals for X-ray diffraction. Synthesis of the protein stock solution as well as X-ray diffraction and analysis can now often be done in a matter of weeks, but developing a recipe for crystallization can take years and, especially in the case of membrane proteins, is often completely unsuccessful. Consequently, techniques that can either help to elucidate the factors controlling macromolecular crystallization, increase the amount of structural information obtained from crystallized macromolecules or eliminate the need for crystallization altogether are of enormous importance. In addition, potential applications for those techniques extend well beyond the challenges of proteomics. The global spread of modern technology has brought with it an increasing threat from biological agents such as viruses. As a result, developing techniques for identifying and understanding the operation of such agents is becoming a major area of forensic research for DOE. Previous to this project, we have shown that we can use in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surfaces of growing macromolecular crystals with molecular resolution (1-5) In addition to providing unprecedented information about macromolecular nucleation, growth and defect structure, these results allowed us to obtain low-resolution phase information for a number of macromolecules, providing structural information that was not obtainable from X-ray diffraction(3). For some virus systems, we have shown that …
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Noy, A.; De Yoreo, J. J. & Malkin, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

Description: The first quarter of this project to develop a Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy mercury continuous emission monitor involved acquisition and verification of the laser system to be used, initial cavity design, and initial software development for signal processing and data acquisition.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Characterizing Marine Gas-Hydrate Reservoirs and Determining Mechanical Properties of Marine Gas-Hydrate Strata With 4-Component Ocean-Bottom-Cable Seismic Data

Description: The technical approach taken in this gas-hydrate research is unique because it is based on applying large-scale, 3-D, multi-component seismic surveys to improve the understanding of marine gas-hydrate systems. Other gas-hydrate research uses only single-component seismic technology. In those rare instances when multi-component seismic data have been acquired for gas-hydrate research, the data acquisition has involved only a few receiver stations and a few source stations, sometimes only three or four of each. In contrast, the four-component, 3-D, ocean-bottom-cable (4C3D OBC) data used in this study were acquired at thousands of receiver stations spaced 50 m apart over an area of approximately 1,000 km{sup 2} using wavefields generated at thousands of source stations spaced 75 m apart over this same survey area. The reason for focusing research attention on marine multi-component seismic data is that 4C3D OBC will provide a converted-SV image of gas-hydrate systems in addition to an improved P-wave image. Because P and SV reflectivities differ at some stratal surfaces, P and SV data provide two independent, and different, images of subsurface geology. The existence of these two independent seismic images and the availability of facies-sensitive SV seismic attributes, which can be combined with conventional facies-sensitive, P-wave seismic attributes, means that marine gas-hydrate systems should be better evaluated using multi-component seismic data than using conventional single-component seismic data. Conventional seismic attributes, such as instantaneous reflection amplitude and reflection coherency, have been extracted from the P and SV data volumes created from the 4C3D OBC data used in this research. Comparisons of these attributes and comparisons of P and SV time slices and vertical slices show that SV data provide a more reliable image of stratigraphy and structure associated with gas-invaded strata than do P-wave data. This finding confirms that multi-component seismic data will be more valuable than conventional …
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Hardage, B. A.; Backus, M. M.; DeAngelo, M. V.; Graebner, R. J.; Murray, P.; Wood, L. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grond Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay.

Description: Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC's Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the first year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on the distribution (numbers) and behavior of kokanee and rainbow trout was based on 51, 683 fish targets detected during the study period (June 30 through August 1, 2001). Study findings include the following: (1) Analysis of the count data indicated that significantly more fish were present when the lights were on compared to off. This was true for both the 24-hr tests as well as the 1-hr tests. Powerplant discharge, distance from lights, and date were significant factors in the analysis. (2) Behavioral results indicated that fish within 14 m …
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Simmons, M. A.; McKinstry, C. A. & Simmons, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

Description: The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Schmidt, Darren D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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