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1999 Summer Research Program for High School Juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

Description: oak-B202--During the summer of 1999, 12 students from Rochester-area high schools participated in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' Summer High School Research Program. The goal of this program is to excite a group of high school students about careers in the areas of science and technology by exposing them to research in a state-of-the-art environment. Too often, students are exposed to ''research'' only through classroom laboratories that have prescribed procedures and predictable results. In LLE's summer program, the students experience all of the trials, tribulations, and rewards of scientific research. By participating in research in a real environment, the students often become more enthusiastic about careers in science and technology. In addition, LLE gains from the contributions of the many highly talented students who are attracted to the program. The students spent most of their time working on their individual research projects with members of LLE's technical staff. The projects were related to current research activities at LLE and covered a broad range of areas of interest including laser modeling, diagnostic development, chemistry, liquid crystal devices, and opacity data visualization. The students, their high schools, their LLE supervisors and their project titles are listed in the table. Their written reports are collected in this volume. The students attended weekly seminars on technical topics associated with LLE's research. Topics this year included lasers, fusion, holography, optical materials, global warming, measurement errors, and scientific ethics. The students also received safety training, learned how to give scientific presentations, and were introduced to LLE's resources, especially the computational facilities. The program culminated with the High School Student Summer Research Symposium on 25 August at which the students presented the results of their research to an audience that included parents, teachers, and members of LIX. Each student spoke for approximately ten minutes and answered questions.
Date: October 9, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2000 Census: Complete Costs of Coverage Evaluation Programs Are Not Available

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "To assess the quality of the population data collected in the 2000 Census, the U.S. Census Bureau conducted the Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) program, which focused on a survey of housing units designed to estimate the number of people missed, counted more than once, or otherwise improperly counted in the census. GAO reviewed the life cycle costs of the A.C.E. program and its predecessor, the Integrated Coverage Measurement (ICM) program. GAO found that the original estimated cycle costs of conducting the ICM/A.C.E. programs were $400 million. The first evidence for the original $400 million estimate is in the original budget justifications for fiscal year 2000. The bureau based its estimates of ICM/A.C.E. costs on assumptions about the needs for personnel and benefits, contractual services, travel, office space, equipment, and other costs necessary to conduct and support operations of the programs. The budgeted amounts that GAO identified from bureau records for conducting the ICM/A.C.E. programs are $277 million through fiscal year 2003. The obligated costs that GAO identified from bureau records for conducting the ICM/A.C.E. programs are $207 million through fiscal year 2001. $58 million of budgeted funds for the ICM/A.C.E. programs that GAO identified from bureau records were not obligated through fiscal year 2001. The ICM/A.C.E. program-related costs that GAO identified from bureau records for the 1998 dress rehearsal were $11 million budgeted and $9 million obligated."
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2000 Census: Lessons Learned for Planning a More Cost-Effective 2010 Census

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO reviewed the funding of 2000 Census planning and development efforts and the impact it had on census operations. Total funding for the 2000 Census, referred to as the life cycle cost, covers a 13-year period from fiscal year 1991 through fiscal year 2003 and is expected to total $6.5 billion adjusted to 2000 year dollars. This amount was almost double the reported life cycle cost of the 1990 Census of $3.3 billion adjusted to 2000 year dollars. Considering these escalating costs, the experience of the U.S. Census Bureau in preparing for the 2000 Census offers valuable insights for the planning and development efforts now occurring for the 2010 Census. Thorough and comprehensive planning and development efforts are crucial to the ultimate efficiency and success of any large, long-term project, particularly one with the scope, magnitude, and the deadlines of the U.S. decennial census. For fiscal years 1991 through 1997, $269 million was requested in the President's Budgets for 2000 Census planning and development and the program received funding of $224 million by Congress, or 83 percent of the amount requested. According to U.S. Census Bureau records, the bulk of the $86 million in funding received through the end of fiscal year 1995 was obligated for program development and evaluation methodologies, testing and dress rehearsals, and planning for the acquisition of automated data processing and telecommunications support. The U.S. Census Bureau was responsible for carrying out its mission within the budget provided and bureau management determined the specific areas in which available resources were invested. GAO could not determine what effect, if any, that higher funding levels might have had on bureau operations as this is dependent upon actual implementation and the results of management decisions …
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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3D Geological Modeling of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site: A Preliminary Workflow and Model

Description: The Savannah River Site, located in South Carolina, contains nuclear defense products and nuclear waste byproducts as result of national defense operations dating to the 1950s. The facility has been the subject of a variety of scientific investigations focusing on potential groundwater transportation of nuclides and other hazardous materials through the different aquifers within the air. The area of particular interest, and the subject of this report, is the General Separations Area.
Date: October 29, 2002
Creator: Flach, G. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

Description: The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S. & Dievendorf, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report

Description: Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Adaptive dimension reduction for clustering high dimensional data

Description: It is well-known that for high dimensional data clustering, standard algorithms such as EM and the K-means are often trapped in local minimum. many initialization methods were proposed to tackle this problem, but with only limited success. In this paper they propose a new approach to resolve this problem by repeated dimension reductions such that K-means or EM are performed only in very low dimensions. Cluster membership is utilized as a bridge between the reduced dimensional sub-space and the original space, providing flexibility and ease of implementation. Clustering analysis performed on highly overlapped Gaussians, DNA gene expression profiles and internet newsgroups demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Zha, Hongyuan & Simon, Horst
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

Description: This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Date: October 30, 2002
Creator: Reed, Troy; Miska, Stefan; Takach, Nicholas; Ashenayi, Kaveh; Pickell, Mark; Len Volk, Mike Volk et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Description: Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Rabovitser, Joseph & Bryan, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

Description: Seeks to economically eliminate the environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels.
Date: October 25, 2002
Creator: Roark, Shane E.; Sammells, Anthony F.; Mackay, Richard A.; Pitzman, Lyrik Y.; Zirbel, Thomas A.; Barton, Thomas F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Stripper Gas Produced Water Remediation, Quarterly Technical Report: July-September 2002

Description: Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal …
Date: October 2002
Creator: Bonner, Harry & Malmquist, Roger
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: October 24, 2002
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues

Description: This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations.
Date: October 24, 2002
Creator: Copson, Raymond W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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African Debt to the United States and Multilateral Agencies

Description: This report provides statistical information and possible solutions to the multilateral and bilateral debt of Africa. Possible solutions include debt forgiveness options, yet this comes with the consequence of limited future aid from multilateral agencies.
Date: October 4, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agency Enforcement of the Prohibition Against Sex Discrimination Mandated by Title IX and EO 13160

Description: This report provides a summary of the federal agencies’ enforcement of and compliance with the prohibition against sex discrimination mandated by Title IX and Executive Order 13160. Specifically, this report discusses the implementation of regulations and procedures for enforcing the Title IX compliance of grant recipients and for enforcing the compliance of the federal agencies themselves with President Clinton’s Executive Order.
Date: October 28, 2002
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Description: This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform.
Date: October 30, 2002
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agriculture: U.S.-China Trade Issues

Description: With China’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001, U.S. agricultural interests were hopeful that longstanding barriers to trade with that vast and growing market would begin to fall. However, critics charge that China is failing to honor commitments to open its markets, affecting U.S. exports of grains, oilseeds, meat and poultry, and other products. U.S. agriculture and trade officials have been working to resolve these differences.
Date: October 16, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Pollution: Meeting Future Electricity Demand Will Increase Emission of Some Harmful Substances

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Electric power plants burn fuels that can produce harmful emissions, such as carbon dioxide, mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, which can pose human health and environmental risks. To assess the potential risks of meeting future electricity demand, congressional committees asked GAO to (1) report on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) national and regional projections of such emissions by 2020, and (2) determine how the projections would change using alternative assumptions about future economic growth and other factors that advisers in these fields recommended. GAO also assessed the potential effects of future electricity demand on water demand and supply."
Date: October 30, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Description: This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives.
Date: October 25, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation

Description: One approach being proposed to more cost-effectively achieve national air quality goals is a "multi-pollutant" strategy -- a framework based on a consistent set of emissions caps, implemented through emissions trading. This report discusses this strategy and related legislation.
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Traffic Control: Impact of Revised Personnel Relocation Policies Is Uncertain

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In fiscal year 2001, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) spent more than $15 million to move air traffic controllers and their managers to new permanent duty locations. FAA classifies the funds that it spends for these moves as permanent change of station (PCS) benefits. In 1998, as part of a broader effort to reform its personnel policies, FAA changed its policies on PCS benefits. Instead of fully reimbursing the costs of all PCS moves and prohibiting unfunded PCS moves, as it once did, FAA now determines the amount of PCS benefits to be offered on a position-by-position basis and allows employees and managers to move at their own expense. Under its new polices, FAA can fully reimburse the costs of a move if it determines that he move is in the interest of the government, or it can offer partial fixed relocation benefits if it determines that the agency will derive some benefit from the move. FAA's policies on eligibility for PCS benefits are the same for air traffic controllers and their managers, but the amounts of the benefits vary. According to these policies, eligibility depends on a determining official's decision about how critical a position is and/or whether FAA will benefit from the move. Air traffic controllers have been less likely than air traffic managers to be offered PCS benefits when they move between facilities. Between fiscal year 1999 and 2001, Air Traffic Services funded 16 percent of moves involving a promotion and 6 percent of lateral moves between field facilities for controllers, compared with 38 percent of promotional moves and 34 percent of lateral moves for managers. According to FAA officials, PCS costs have decreased and FAA's ability to quickly fill vacant controller positions …
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Airline Reorganization Under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code

Description: This report discusses how U.S. Airways filed bankruptcy in 2002. This called for a reorganization of the company's assets which are mostly leased including land, planes, and equipment.
Date: October 23, 2002
Creator: Welborn, Angie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Airport Finance: Using Airport Grant Funds for Security Projects Has Affected Some Development Projects

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The events of September 11, 2001 created several new challenges for the aviation industry in ensuring the safety and security of the national airport system. Chief among them is deciding to what extent Airport Improvement Program (AIP) grant funds should be used to finance the new security requirements at the nation's airports. Although many in the aviation industry believe that funding security projects has become even more important in the aftermath of September 11, they also recognize the need to continue funding other airport development projects, such as those designed to enhance capacity in the national airport system. During fiscal year 2002, the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) awarded a total of $561 million, 17 percent of the $3.3 billion available for grants, in AIP grant funds to airports for security projects related to the events of September 11, 2001. This amount is the largest amount awarded to airports for security projects in a single year since the program began in 1982. Based on data provided by FAA, all of the security projects funded with AIP grants since the events of September 11, 2001, met the legislative and program eligibility requirements. The projects, which range from access control systems to terminal modifications, qualified for AIP funding either under eligibility requirements in effect before September 11, 2001, or under subsequent statutory and administrative changes. Although FAA Airport Planning and Programming officials stated that they were able to comply with statutory requirements, set-asides, and other program priorities, the $504 million increase in AIP grand funds for new security projects in fiscal year 2002 has affected the amount of funds available for some airport development projects in comparison with the distribution of AIP grand funds awarded in fiscal year 2001. …
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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