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Dynamic heat and moisture transport and baroclinic adjustment

Description: In connection with the authors work on the apparent Iris Effect, they have acquired 2 years of additional data, and are redoing their analysis with the larger amount of data. So far, the results duplicate earlier results with greater statistical significance. They have also responded (successfully) to a number of criticisms of the initial publication. In particular, while differing estimates of cloudy and clear emissivity may be correct, they have shown that they reduce feedback factors by no more than 20%. The resulting feedback factors remain negative and large. Moreover, current data analyses suggest that the earlier estimates may be low for other reasons. They have also shown that all cloudy regions in the region covered by the GMS satellite are convective in origin. They are, however, continuing their work on an improved measure of cumulus activity. In particular, they are using TRMM data to determine thresholds in the T11 channel of GMS that are functions of time, position and SST. They have confirmed that the previous results had a very high statistical significance. However, they expect that the use of the improved measure of cumulus will improve this still further. They have completed their study of the possible reconciliation of temperature records for the troposphere and the surface. They have shown that the two time series can be reconciled by assuming that the surface temperature is responding to a jump in atmospheric temperature which occurred rapidly in 1976 associated with an observed regime change. The suddenness of the change observed in 1976 seems inconsistent with a greenhouse origin. Moreover, the relative rapidity with which the surface responded (a delay time of about ten years) is most consistent with low climate sensitivity. They have completed a simple study in which they show that rough agreement of observed and model predicted …
Date: April 12, 2002
Creator: Lindzen, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Optical sensors for accelerator diagnostics. Final report for the period September 15, 1998 - September 14, 2001

Description: DARHT utilizes a long pulse electron beam having a duration in excess of 2 microseconds. An electro-optic voltage sensor technology has been developed and commissioned to address this unique diagnostic environment. Over 200 sensors have demonstrated 0.25% accuracy. Deployment is expected in 2002.
Date: April 8, 2002
Creator: Yakymyshyn, Christopher P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

Description: The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.
Date: April 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Novel Investigation of Iron Cross Sections via Spherical Shell Transmission Measurements and Particle Transport Calculations for Material Embrittlement Studies. Quarterly Status Report 5

Description: Previously, measurements were made of the transmission of 14 MeV neutrons through various spherical shell thicknesses of iron in a comprehensive investigation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) about 30 years ago. Two of these spheres, composed of hemispherical sections, have appropriate dimensions for the lower energy neutron measurements that we propose to make. Due to their interest in our experimental results, LLNL has agreed to make these hemispheres available for our work. Those hemispheres have been shipped. In addition, a spherical iron shell, composed of two hemispherical sections with an annular thickness of approximately 1 inch, was fabricated at NEST. However, since we will need additional hemispheres for our experiments, we purchased a radius cutter that will allow us to fabricate hemispheres as large as 5 inches in radius at the Ohio University Machine Shop. This will give us maximum flexibility to adapt to the needs of the spherical shell transmission experiments. High purity (99.94% iron) Armco iron has been obtained which can be used to make the smaller hemispheres. Larger hemispheres will be made using ASTM designation steel with high iron content. In all cases compositional analyses will be made of the hemispheres.
Date: April 25, 2002
Creator: Storm, Dr. Derek W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge

Description: This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).
Date: April 23, 2002
Creator: Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mammographic Imaging Studies Using the Monte Carlo Image Simulation-Differential Sampling (MCMIS-DS) Code

Description: This report summarizes the highlights of the research performed under the 1-year NEER grant from the Department of Energy. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of certain design changes in the Fisher Senoscan mammography system and in the degree of breast compression on the discernability of microcalcifications in calcification clusters often observed in mammograms with tumor lesions. The most important design change that one can contemplate in a digital mammography system to improve resolution of calcifications is the reduction of pixel dimensions of the digital detector. Breast compression is painful to the patient and is though to be a deterrent to women to get routine mammographic screening. Calcification clusters often serve as markers (indicators ) of breast cancer.
Date: April 5, 2002
Creator: Verghese, Kuruvilla
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Acoustical Imaging and Mechanical Properties of Soft Rock and Marine Sediments Progress Report: January-March 2002

Description: Three major goals were accomplished during this phase. First, a study was completed of the effects of stress-induced changes in anisotropic elastic moduli in sandstone. Second, a new method for measuring the anisotropic poroelastic moduli from acoustic data was developed. Third, a series of triaxial experiments were conducted on unconsolidated sands to identify pressure/stress conditions where liquefaction occurs under high confining pressures. Stress-induced changes in anisotropic Young's moduli and shear moduli were observed during deformational pathway experiments. A new method was made for the acquisition of compressional and shear wave velocities along a series of 3-dimensional raypaths through a core sample as it is subjected to deformation. Three different deformational pathway experiments were conducted. During the hydrostatic deformation experiment, little or no anisotropy was observed in either the Young's moduli or shear moduli. Significant deformational anisotropies were observed in both moduli during the uniaxial strain test and the triaxial compression experiment but each had a different nature. During the triaxial experiment the axial and lateral Young's moduli and shear moduli continued to diverge as load was applied. During the uniaxial strain experiment the anisotropy was ''locked in'' early in the loading phase but then remained steady as both the confining pressure and axial stress were applied. A new method for measuring anisotropic Biot's effective stress parameters has also been developed. The method involves measuring the compressional and shear wave velocities in the aforementioned acoustic velocity experiments while varying stress paths. For a stress-induced transversely isotropic medium the acoustic velocity data are utilized to calculate the five independent elastic stiffness components. Once the elastic stiffness components are determined these can be used to calculate the anisotropic Biot's effective stress parameters, {alpha}{sub v} and {alpha}{sub h}, using the equations of Abousleiman et al. (1996). A series of experiments have been conducted, on …
Date: April 30, 2002
Creator: Scott Thurman E., Jr.; Abousleiman, Younane & Zaman, Musharraf
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

Description: Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.
Date: April 9, 2002
Creator: Young, G.A. & Scully, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Undulator a magnetic properties and spectral performance.

Description: The Undulator A at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a planar permanent magnet hybrid device optimized for generating x-rays from 3 keV to 45 keV by using the first, third, and fifth radiation harmonics. It also produces x-rays above this energy. For high-energy experiments, users are relying on using higher harmonics, which has become possible because of improved undulator technology over the past decade. The Undulator A has been designed to provide continuous energy coverage with no significant drop in brilliance when switching between the harmonics, i.e., the tuning curve from one harmonic to the next intersect. The undulator has a period length of 3.30 cm and has 72 magnetic periods (144 poles) for a total length of 2.4 m. The undulator was initially described in Technical Bulletin ANL/APS/TB-3 (1993) [1] and subsequently in ANL/APS/TB-17 (1994) [2]. Both documents were published before the first undulator had been delivered to the APS so that the information given was based on design specifications. A three-dimensional (3D) magnetic modeling code was used to estimate the magnetic field vs. gap, and computer simulations were used to predict the on-axis brilliance, flux, and power for the APS design lattice using an ideal undulator magnetic field, i.e., pure sinusoidal variation of the magnetic field along the undulator. The magnetic field strength given in earlier publications was what was required by the undulator purchase contract. Since then, 23 Undulator A devices have been measured, tuned, and installed in the storage ring. It should be noted that undulators are removed periodically from the storage ring for retuning, and the values listed in this document are therefore subject to change. This document focuses on the measured magnetic properties and the spectral performance of these devices. We will show the calculated on-axis brilliance and flux for the present APS …
Date: April 26, 2002
Creator: Dejus, R. J.; Vasserman, I. B.; Sasaki, S. & Moog, E. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1999-2000.

Description: This is the sixth annual report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W. & Ehlers, Danette L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

Description: This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Date: April 30, 2002
Creator: Reed, Troy; Miska, Stefan; Takach, Nicholas; Ashenayi, Kaveh; Pickell, Mark; Volk, Len et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

Description: The fault study continues to find more faults and develop new techniques to visualize them. Data from the Dundee Formation has been used to document 11 major faults in the Michigan Basin which have now been verified using data from other horizons. These faults control the locations of many of the large anticlinal structures in the Michigan Basin and likely controlled fluid movements as well. The surface geochemistry program is also moving along well with emphasis on measuring samples collected last sampling season. The new GC laboratory is now functional and has been fully staffed as of December. The annual project review was held March 7-9 in Tampa, Florida. Contracts are being prepared for drilling the Bower's prospects in Isabella County, Michigan, this spring or summer. A request was made to extend the scope of the project to include the Willison Basin. A demonstration well has been suggested in Burke County, N. Dakota, following a review of 2D seismic and surface geochem. A 3D seismic survey is scheduled for the prospect.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Harrison, William B. & Quinlan, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DIII-D RESEARCH OPERATIONS ANNUAL REPORT TO THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCTOBER 1, 2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 31, 2001

Description: The DIII-D research program is a science program aimed at an energy goal as stated in the mission statement: ''To establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production.'' The focus is on advanced tokamak (AT) research with a goal aimed at discovering the ultimate potential of the tokamak. The research program is a multi-institutional, collaborative effort involving 60 institutions and about 300 researchers. The DIII-D tokamak has considerable plasma shape flexibility, plasma feedback control tools and algorithms and a full set of mature diagnostics for detailed studies of plasma stability, turbulence and transport, heating and current drive with neutral beams and electron cyclotron power available, and boundary and divertor physics. Along with these broad topical science areas (TSAs) of research several more focused areas of research, called thrusts, are chosen each year. This year the thrusts were on a high bootstrap fraction (fBS) AT scenario, stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWMs), internal transport barrier (ITB) control, understanding and control of the edge pedestal, and stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs).
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: STAFF, PROJECT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes Quarterly Report

Description: This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: Bandopadhyay, Sukumar & Nagabhushana, Nagendra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TNX/HLW Long Shaft Pumps 1995-2000

Description: Problems with long shaft pumps are becoming clearer due to increased use, better instrumentation, more analysis, and increased testing activity. The problems are with reliability and not with hydraulic performance. The root cause of reliability problems is usually excessive vibration caused by design. The outlook for satisfactory pumps is improved as understanding of problems increases. Promising developments are emerging such as the tilt pad bearing. Alternative configurations, such as gas filled columns and submerged motor pumps, will require development. Continued development, in general, should be expected due to changing technology and industry changes. This report describes thirteen distinct pump programs starting with leakage of original mixer pumps in the 1980s and ending with the testing of tilt pad bearings now in progress. Eight of the programs occurred from 1996 to 2000. All involve long shaft pumps; all involve testing at TNX; and all involve a problem of some kind. The common technical issue among the activities is vibration and shaft (or rotor) instability due to journal bearings. In every case, excessive shaft vibration is a reasonable and probable explanation for some or all of the problems.
Date: April 3, 2002
Creator: VanPelt, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PTI TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO REBUILD AMERICA

Description: Public Technology Inc. (PTI) engaged in a cooperative agreement, DE-FC26-01NT41107, with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Rebuild America Program to provide energy efficiency and energy conservation technical assistance to local governments across the United States. The first year of the cooperative agreement dated from April 2, 2001 to April 1, 2002, at a funding level of $375,000. This technical report covers the period of October 2001--March 2002. PTI appreciates the support that it has received from Rebuild America and plans to continue, with DOE and Rebuild America support, to serve in a strategic capacity, lending the technical experience of its staff and that of the Energy Task Force on approaches to increasing program efficiencies, furthering program development, and coordinating information sharing to help ensure that energy programs are responsive to the needs of local governments.
Date: April 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC

Description: This report summarizes a research and development program that produced a stand-alone active desiccant module (ADM) that can be easily integrated with new or existing packaged cooling equipment. The program also produced a fully integrated hybrid system, combining the active desiccant section with a conventional direct expansion air-conditioning unit, that resulted in a compact, low-cost, energy-efficient end product. Based upon the results of this investigation, both systems were determined to be highly viable products for commercialization. Major challenges--including wheel development, compact packaging, regeneration burner development, control optimization, and low-cost design--were all successfully addressed by the final prototypes produced and tested as part of this program. Extensive laboratory testing was completed in the SEMCO laboratory for each of the two ADM system approaches. This testing confirmed the performance of the ADM systems to be attractive compared with that of alternate approaches currently used to precondition outdoor air, where a return air path is not readily available for passive desiccant recovery or where first cost is the primary design criterion. Photographs, schematics, and performance maps are provided for the ADM systems that were developed; and many of the control advantages are discussed. Based upon the positive results of this research and development program, field tests are under way for fully instrumented pilot installations of ADM systems in both a hotel/motel and a restaurant.
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: Fischer, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Bolter Drilling Progress Report

Description: Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More laboratory tests have been performed in this quarter. The analysis performed on the testing data showed: (1) abnormal rotational accelerations can be used as the indicator of the rock interfaces, and (2) the sharp drops of drilling thrust and torque agree well with the locations of fractures.
Date: April 15, 2002
Creator: Peng, Syd S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Chemical and Physical Properties Progress in FY 2000 and FY 2001.

Description: The purpose of this work was to provide chemical- and physical-property data addressing the technical risks of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process as applied specifically to the removal of cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. As part of the overall Salt Processing Project, this effort supported decision-making in regards to selecting a preferred technology among three alternatives: (1) CSSX, (2) nonelutable ion-exchange with an inorganic silicotitanate material and (3) precipitation with tetraphenylborate. High risks, innate to CSSX, that needed specific attention included: (1) chemical stability of the solvent matrix, (2) radiolytic stability of the solvent matrix, (3) proof-of-concept performance of the proposed process flowsheet with simulated waste, and (4) performance of the CSSX flowsheet with actual SRS high-level waste. This body of work directly addressed the chemical-stability risk and additionally provided supporting information that served to plan, carry out, and evaluate experiments conducted by other CSSX investigators addressing the other high risks. Information on cesium distribution in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping served as input for flowsheet design, provided a baseline for evaluating solvent performance under numerous stresses, and contributed to a broad understanding of the effects of expected process variables. In parallel, other measurements were directed toward learning how other system components distribute in the flowsheet. Such components include the solvent components themselves, constituents of the waste, and solvent-degradation products. Upon understanding which components influence flowsheet performance, it was then possible to address in a rational fashion how to clean up the solvent and maintain its stable function.
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: Moyer, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

Description: As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software, and we are beta-testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We have processed all well information and identified potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, the final technical report is almost finished and a draft version is being reviewed by Gary Covatch.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: II, Charles M. Boyer & P.G., Ronald J. MacDonald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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