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A 3.3 MJ, Rb{sup +1} Driver Design Based on an Integrated Systems Analysis

Description: A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers has been developed and used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). The present work examines a driver for a close-coupled target design that requires less total beam energy but also smaller beam spots sizes than previous target designs. Design parameters and a cost estimate for a 160 beam, 3.3 MJ driver using rubidium ions (A = 85) are reported, and the sensitivity of the results to variations in selected design parameters is given.
Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Meier, W. R.; Barnard, J. J. & Bangerter, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Description: This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. For developments after the enactment of P.L. 106-230, please see CRS Report RS20650, 527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Description: Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Description: Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

Description: This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Street, L. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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1999 Site Environmental Report

Description: Throughout the scientific community, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is renowned for its leading-edge research in physics, medicine, chemistry, biology, materials, and the environment. BNL is committed to supporting its world-class scientific research with an internationally recognized environmental protection program. The 1999 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes the status of the Laboratory's environmental programs and performance, including the steady progress towards cleaning up the site and fully integrating environmental stewardship into all facets of the Laboratory's mission. BNL is located on 5,265 acres of pine barrens in Suffolk County in the center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated above a sole source aquifer at the headwaters of the Peconic River; therefore, protecting ground and surface water quality is a special concern. Approximately 3,600 acres of the site are undeveloped and serve as habitat for a wide variety of animals and plants, including one New York State endangered species, the tiger salamander, and two New York State threatened species, the banded sunfish and the stiff goldenrod. Monitoring, preserving, and restoring these ecological resources is a high priority for the Laboratory.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Engel-Cox, J.; Zimmerman, E.; Lee, R.; Williams, J.; Green, T.; Paquette, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2000 Census: Update on Data Capture Operations and System

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Bureau of the Census' progress in: (1) performing first-pass data capture operations, including the performance of the Data Capture System 2000; (DCS) and (2) modifying DCS 2000 to perform planned second-pass data capture operations."
Date: September 29, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The 235U(n,2n(gamma)) Yrast Partial Gamma-Ray Cross Sections: A Report on the 1998 -- 1999 GEANIE Data and Analysis Techniques

Description: Measurements of partial {sup 235}U(n,2n{gamma}) {gamma}-ray cross sections have been carried out as a function of incident neutron energy using the GEANIE spectrometer at LANSCE/WNR. The yields of {gamma} rays resulting from the population of discrete levels in the residual nucleus {sup 234}U have been measured at incident neutron energies in the 1-20-MeV range. These data provide, with the aid of nuclear reaction modeling, a measurement of the {sup 235}U(n,2n) reaction cross section and serve as a proof of principle of the y-ray technique for the parallel 23gPu(n,2n) measurement [l]. This paper presents the analysis of the {gamma}-ray data and the extraction of partial {gamma}-ray cross sections as a function of incident neutron energy. Uncertainties associated with the spectroscopic analysis of the data and validation of the results are discussed in detail.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Younes, W.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Garret, P. E.; McGrath, C. A.; McNabb, D. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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239Pu(n,2n) 238Pu cross section inferred from IDA calculations and GEANIE measurements

Description: This report presents the latest {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections inferred from calculations performed with the nuclear reaction-modeling code system, IDA, coupled with experimental measurements of partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for incident neutron energies ranging from 5.68 to 17.18 MeV. It is found that the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section peaks at E{sub inc} {approx} 11.4 MeV with a peak value of approximately 326 mb. At E{sub inc} {approx} 14 MeV, the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section is found to be in good agreement with previous radio-chemical measurements by Lockheed. However, the shape of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section differs significantly from previous evaluations of ENDL, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI. In our calculations, direct, preequilibrium, and compound reactions are included. Also considered in the modeling are fission and {gamma}-cascade processes in addition to particle emission. The main components of physics adopted and the parameters used in our calculations are discussed. Good agreement of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections derived separately from IDA and GNASH calculations is shown. The two inferences provide an estimate of variations in the deduced {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section originating from modeling.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Chen, H; Ormand, W E & Dietrich, F S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

Description: A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.
Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Wilson, M. L. & Ho, C. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accelerated Closure of the Hanford Site

Description: Cleanup of the Hanford Site is currently planned to take until 2046 and another approximately $SOB. In the summer of 1999, Fluor Hanford initiated an ''Accelerated Closure Team'' to evaluate opportunities to reduce this long schedule and high cost for the parts of the Hanford Site which they manage. To-date, this breakthrough team has developed two approaches which will move > 50 million curies away from the Columbia River sooner than planned and at a significantly reduced cost. The approaches successfully applied so far are presently being applied to other opportunities at Hanford.
Date: September 20, 2000
Creator: WILDE, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program/Segmented Gate System Project

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) is working to accelerate the acceptance and application of innovative technologies that improve the way the nation manages its environmental remediation problems. The DOE Office of Science and Technology established the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program (ASTD) to help accelerate the acceptance and implementation of new and innovative soil and ground water remediation technologies. Coordinated by the Department of Energy's Idaho Office, the ASTD Program reduces many of the classic barriers to the deployment of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. Funding is provided through the ASTD Program to assist participating site managers in implementing innovative technologies. The program provides technical assistance to the participating DOE sites by coordinating DOE, industry, and regulatory participation in each project; providing finds for optimizing full-scale operating parameters; coordinating technology performance monitoring; and by developing cost and performance reports on the technology applications.
Date: September 18, 2000
Creator: PATTESON,RAYMOND
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accelerator system for neutron radiography

Description: The field of x-ray radiography is well established for doing non-destructive evaluation of a vast array of components, assemblies, and objects. While x-rays excel in many radiography applications, their effectiveness diminishes rapidly if the objects of interest are surrounded by thick, high-density materials that strongly attenuate photons. Due to the differences in interaction mechanisms, neutron radiography is highly effective in imaging details inside such objects. To obtain a high intensity neutron source suitable for neutron imaging a 9-MeV linear accelerator is being evaluated for putting a deuteron beam into a high-pressure deuterium gas cell. As a windowless aperture is needed to transport the beam into the gas cell, a low-emittance is needed to minimize losses along the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and the end station. A description of the HEBT, the transport optics into the gas cell, and the requirements for the linac will be presented.
Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: Rusnak, B & Hall, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accident and Off Normal Response and Recovery from Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Processing Events

Description: In the process of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the K Basins through its subsequent packaging, drymg, transportation and storage steps, the SNF Project must be able to respond to all anticipated or foreseeable off-normal and accident events that may occur. Response procedures and recovery plans need to be in place, personnel training established and implemented to ensure the project will be capable of appropriate actions. To establish suitable project planning, these events must first be identified and analyzed for their expected impact to the project. This document assesses all off-normal and accident events for their potential cross-facility or Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) process reversal impact. Table 1 provides the methodology for establishing the event planning level and these events are provided in Table 2 along with the general response and recovery planning. Accidents and off-normal events of the SNF Project have been evaluated and are identified in the appropriate facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) or in the transportation Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). Hazards and accidents are summarized from these safety analyses and listed in separate tables for each facility and the transportation system in Appendix A, along with identified off-normal events. The tables identify the general response time required to ensure a stable state after the event, governing response documents, and the events with potential cross-facility or SNF process reversal impacts. The event closure is predicated on stable state response time, impact to operations and the mitigated annual occurrence frequency of the event as developed in the hazard analysis process.
Date: September 19, 2000
Creator: ALDERMAN, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ACCURATE QUANTIFICATION OF DRIED RESIDUE THIN FILMS USING X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

Description: An XRF specimen preparation method was developed to quantify the concentration of gallium in plutonium metal while minimizing the risk of contaminating the instrument with radioactive material. To ensure that homogeneous specimens are examined, plutonium is dissolved in dilute HCl and HNO{sub 3} prior to analysis. In the preliminary work here, non-radioactive aqueous gallium standards were prepared, and zinc was added as an internal standard to improve the accuracy and precision. Aliquots from these solutions were cast on Mylar XRF films and air dried prior to analysis. Two methods of casting the solutions were evaluated: (1) casting as a thin layer using a surfactant to wet the support film and (2) casting multiple small spots on the support film. Aqueous gallium standards were prepared and cast as dried residue specimens using each method. These specimens were then analyzed, and calibration curves were prepared. Highly linear calibrations were obtained for each preparation method when zinc was used as the internal standard (RMS values {le}1% of the standards concentration range in both cases). Based on this preliminary work, this dried residue process appears very promising for the accurate quantification of gallium in plutonium.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Worley Christoper G. & Havrilla George, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Achieving Higher Accuracy in the Gamma-Ray Spectrocopic Assay of Holdup

Description: Gamma-ray spectroscopy is an important technique for the measurement of quantities of nuclear material holdup in processing equipment. Because the equipment in large facilities dedicated to uranium isotopic enrichment, uranium/plutonium scrap recovery or various stages of fuel fabrication is extensive, the total holdup may be large by its distribution alone, even if deposit thicknesses are small. Good accountability practices require unbiased measurements with uncertainties that are as small as possible. This paper describes new procedures for use with traditional holdup analysis methods based on gamma-ray spectroscopy. The procedures address the two sources of bias inherent in traditional gamma-ray measurements of holdup. Holdup measurements are performed with collimated, shielded gamma-ray detectors. The measurement distance is chosen to simplify the deposit geometry to that of a point, line or area. The quantitative holdup result is based on the net count rate of a representative gamma ray. This rate is corrected for contributions from room background and for attenuation by the process equipment. Traditional holdup measurements assume that the width of the point or line deposit is very small compared to the measurement distance, and that the self-attenuation effects can be neglected. Because each point or line deposit has a finite width and because self-attenuation affects all measurements, bias is incurred in both assumptions. In both cases the bias is negative, explaining the systematically low results of gamma-ray holdup measurements. The new procedures correct for bias that arises from both the finite-source effects and the gamma-ray self-attenuation. The procedures used to correct for both of these effects apply to the generalized geometries. One common empirical parameter is used for both corrections. It self-consistently limits the total error incurred (from uncertain knowledge of this parameter) in the combined correction process, so that it is compelling to use these procedures. The algorithms and the procedures …
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Russo, P. A.; Wenz, T. R.; Smith, S. E. & Harris, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Activation of the mercury laser: a diode-pumped solid-state laser driver for inertial fusion

Description: Initial measurements are reported for the Mercury laser system, a scalable driver for rep-rated high energy density physics research. The performance goals include 10% electrical efficiency at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length.
Date: September 19, 2000
Creator: Bayramian, A. J.; Bibeau, C.; Beach, R. J.; Ebbers, C. A.; Kanz, K.; Nakano, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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