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Space-charge compensation in high-intensity proton rings

Description: Recently, it was proposed to use negatively charged electron beams for compensation of beam-beam effects due to protons in the Tevatron collider. The authors show that a similar compensation is possible in space-charge dominated low energy proton beams. The idea has a potential of several-fold increase of the FNAL Booster beam brightness. Best results will be obtained using three electron lenses around the machine circumference, using co-moving electron beam with time structure and profile approximately matched to the proton beam. This technique, if feasible, will be more cost effective than the straightforward alternative of increasing the energy of the injection linac.
Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: A. Burov, G.W. Foster and V.D. Shiltsev
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

MICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT

Description: Microhole technology development is based on the premise that with advances in electronics and sensors, large conventional-diameter wells are no longer necessary for obtaining subsurface information. Furthermore, microholes offer an environment for improved substance measurement. The combination of deep microholes having diameters of 1-3/8 in. at their terminal depth and 7/8-in. diameter logging tools will comprise a very low cost alternative to currently available technology for deep subsurface characterization and monitoring.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: ALBRIGHT, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accident and Off Normal Response and Recovery from Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Processing Events

Description: In the process of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the K Basins through its subsequent packaging, drymg, transportation and storage steps, the SNF Project must be able to respond to all anticipated or foreseeable off-normal and accident events that may occur. Response procedures and recovery plans need to be in place, personnel training established and implemented to ensure the project will be capable of appropriate actions. To establish suitable project planning, these events must first be identified and analyzed for their expected impact to the project. This document assesses all off-normal and accident events for their potential cross-facility or Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) process reversal impact. Table 1 provides the methodology for establishing the event planning level and these events are provided in Table 2 along with the general response and recovery planning. Accidents and off-normal events of the SNF Project have been evaluated and are identified in the appropriate facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) or in the transportation Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). Hazards and accidents are summarized from these safety analyses and listed in separate tables for each facility and the transportation system in Appendix A, along with identified off-normal events. The tables identify the general response time required to ensure a stable state after the event, governing response documents, and the events with potential cross-facility or SNF process reversal impacts. The event closure is predicated on stable state response time, impact to operations and the mitigated annual occurrence frequency of the event as developed in the hazard analysis process.
Date: September 19, 2000
Creator: ALDERMAN, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Solvation Descriptors for Ferrocene, and the Estimation of Some Physicochemical and Biochemical Properties

Description: Article on solvation descriptors for ferrocene, and the estimation of some physiochemical and biochemical properties.
Date: September 18, 2000
Creator: Abraham, M. H. (Michael H.); Benjellou-Dakhama, Nora; Gola, Joelle R. M.; Acree, William E. (William Eugene); Cain, William S. & Cometto-Muñiz, J. Enrique
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
open access

Drying Results of K-Basin Damaged/Corroded SNF Internal Sludge and Surface Coating

Description: Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)to study the drying behavior of the K-Basin spent nuclear fuel (SNF) internal sludge and two different surface coatings of SNF elements. These measurements were conducted in support of the safety and process analyses of the proposed Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) to move the N-Reactor fuel stored at K-Basin to an interim storage facility. These limited experiments on the corrosion products of K-Basin SNF material were part of the broad studies performed to ascertain the bounding pressurization of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO). Seven SNF internal sludge samples taken from different damage regions of three damaged/corroded outer K-Basin SNF elements were dried. Additionally, two surface coating samples taken from two SNF elements stored at K-West were tested. All the tests were performed in a vacuum atmosphere with the same temperature ramp rate of about 0.4 C/ min. Each TGA test sample was weighed before and after the test on a balance located in the Shielded Analytical Laboratory hot cell. The test samples were vacuum dried in the TGA system for about 24 hours prior to heating them at the rate of 0.4 C/min. The observations from the weight change data are summarized below.
Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: Abrefah, J.; Alexander, D. L. & Marschman, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene

Description: The radiation-damaged polystyrene (given the identification name of 'polycube') was fabricated by mixing high-density polystyrene material ("Dylene Fines # 100") with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used in the 1960s for criticality studies during processing of spent nuclear fuel. The polycubes have since been stored for almost 40 years at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) after failure of two processes to reclaim the plutonium and uranium oxides from the polystyrene matrix. Thermal decomposition products from this highly cross-linked polystyrene matrix were characterized using Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal furnace. The decomposition studies were performed in air and helium atmospheres at about 773 K. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different compared to virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the number of organic species generated and their concentrations. In the inert (i.e., helium) atmosphere, the major volatile organic products identified (in order of decreasing concentrations) were styrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, nathphalene, propane, .alpha.-methylbenzene, indene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. But in air, the major volatile organic species identified changed slightly. Concentrations of the organic species in the inert atmosphere were significantly higher than those for the air atmosphere processing. Overall, 38 volatile organic species were identified in the inert atmosphere compared to 49 species in air. Twenty of the 38 species in the inert conditions were also products in the air atmosphere. Twenty-two oxidized organic products were identified during thermal processing in air.
Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Abrefah, John & Klinger, George S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Migration and Entrapment of DNAPLs in Physically and Chemically Heterogeneous Porous Media - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/15/2000

Description: Hazardous dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), such as chlorinated solvents, are slightly water soluble and pose a serious threat to soil and groundwater supplies in many portions of the United States. The migration and entrapment of DNAPLs in the subsurface environment is typically believed to be controlled by physical heterogeneities; i.e, layers and lenses of contrasting soil texture. The rationale for this assumption is that capillarity, as determined by the soil texture, is the dominant transport mechanism. Capillarity also depends on interfacial tension and medium wettability. Interfacial tension and medium wettability may be spatially and temporally dependent due to variations in aqueous phase chemistry, contaminant aging, and/or variations in mineralogy and organic matter distributions. Such chemical heterogeneities have largely been ignored to date, even though they are known to have dramatic effects on the hydraulic property relations. Numerical multiphase flow and transport models typically assume that solids are water-wet and that interfacial tension is constant. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the influence of coupled physical and chemical heterogeneities on the migration and entrapment of DNAPLs. This objective will be accomplished through a combination of laboratory and numerical experiments. Laboratory experiments will be conducted to examine: (i) aqueous phase chemistry effects on medium wettability and interfacial tension; and (ii) relative permeability-saturation-capillary pressure relations for chemically heterogeneous systems. An important objective of this research is to modify a two-dimensional multiphase flow and transport model to account for chemically and physically heterogeneous systems. This numerical simulator will be used in conjunction with independently measured parameters to simulate two-dimensional DNAPL infiltration experiments. Comparisons of simulated and laboratory data will provide a means to experimentally validate this model. The validated numerical simulator will subsequently be employed to investigate various innovative remediation schemes such as the use of surfactants and in situ …
Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Abriola, L. M. & Demond, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

ENSO Simulation in CGCMs and the Associated Errors in Atmospheric Response

Description: Tropical Pacific variability, and specifically the simulation of ENSO in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) has previously been assessed in many studies (McCreary and Anderson [1991], Neelin et al. [1992], Mechoso et al. [1995], Latif et al. [2000], and Davey et al. [2000]). These studies have concentrated on SST variations in the tropical Pacific, and discussions of the atmospheric response have been limited to east-west movements of the convergence zone. In this paper we discuss the large-scale atmospheric response to simulated ENSO events. Control simulations from 17 global CGCMs from CMIP (Meehl et al. [2000]) are studied. The web site http:// www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/cmip/modeldoc provides documentation of the configurations of the models.
Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: AchutaRao, K. & Sperber, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Comments concerning the 'solubility of buckminsterfullerene in tetrahydrofuran, thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and n-butylamine'

Description: Article commenting on the 'solubility of buckminsterfullerene in tetrahydrofuran, thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and n-butylamine.'
Date: September 2000
Creator: Acree, William E. (William Eugene)
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
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Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

Description: The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Brandt, C. C.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Hill, W. R.; Peterson, M. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Initial results of the CD-1 reliable multicast experiment

Description: During the past year, an experiment has been underway to test use of reliable multicast capabilities for transmission of continuous data in the Global Communication Infrastructure. For the experiment a version of the CD-1 protocol was multicast enabled. The experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of transmitting data in a multicast mode over the GCI. In the case of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty the sender could be the station and the receivers the International Data Center (IDC) and one or more National Data Centers (NDC). The potential advantages of multicasting include (a) the timely receipt of the data by the IDC and the host NDC and (b) the simultaneous availability of the raw station data at, at least, two locations. The latter, by introducing redundant data paths, decreases the probability of loss of station data due to a potential failure of a single data receiver. This experiment is only one element of a needed more thorough assessment of the reliability and cost-effectiveness of introducing redundancies in the data transmission paths and the data sinks of the IMS. The next stage of the multicast experiment planned is installation of the multicast-enabled CD-1 software at the GERES IMS station, at the German NDC and at the IDC for further experiments with actual IMS station data. This stage of the experiment is waiting on installation of a GCI link to the German NDC. Negotiations regarding price for this installation have been on going between the Global Communication Infrastructure (GCI) contractor and the German NDC with no resolution. Current development of the CD-x protocol is proceeding in two complementary directions. Along with the work on a multicast enabled version of CD-1 there is also work to develop CD-1.1, which will add end-to-end reliability to the CD-1 protocol among other things. A possible future activity …
Date: September 29, 2000
Creator: Agarwal, D.; Stead, R.; Coan, B.; Burns, J.E.; Shah, N. & Kyriakopoulos, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Adiabatic Matching Section Solution for the Source Injector

Description: Typical designs for a Heavy Ion Fusion Power Plant require the source injector to deliver 100 beams, packed into an array with a spacing of 7 cm. When designing source injectors using a single large aperture source for each beam, the emitter surfaces are packed into an array with a spacing of 30 cm. Thus, the matching section of the source injector must not only prepare the beam for transport in a FODO lattice, but also funnel the beams together. This can be accomplished by an ESQ matching section in which each beam travels on average at a slight angle to the axis of the quadrupoles and uses the focusing effect of the FODO lattice to maintain the angle. At the end of the matching section, doublet steering is used to bring the beams parallel to each other for injection into the main accelerator. A specific solution of this type for an 84-beam source injector is presented. PACS: 41.75.Ak,41.85.Ar, 41.85.Ja
Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Ahle, L.; Grote, D. P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W. & Mac Laren, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Call Admission Control Scheme for Arbitrary Traffic Distribution in CDMA Cellular Systems

Description: This presentation discusses call admission control (CAC). The authors define a set of feasible call configurations that results in a CAC algorithm that captures the effect of having an arbitrary traffic distribution and whose complexity scales linearly with the number of cells.
Date: September 2000
Creator: Akl, Robert G.; Hegde, Manju V.; Naraghi-Pour, Mort & Min, Paul S.
Partner: UNT College of Engineering
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Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with APS bending magnet x-rays and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as other third-generation synchrotron light sources, uses permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific research. When placed in a high-energy storage ring, these permanent magnets are subjected to irradiation from synchrotron radiation, high-energy bremsstrahlung, and bremsstrahlung-produced photoneutrons. Previous investigations have exhibited varying degrees of degradation in the intensity of magnetization of these magnets due to irradiation from electron beams, {sup 60}Co {gamma}rays, and high-energy neutrons. The APS specifically uses Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in their insertion devices. Although no detectable radiation-induced demagnetization has been observed in the APS insertion devices so far, partial demagnetization has been observed in at least one insertion device at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), where Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are also used.
Date: September 8, 2000
Creator: Alderman, J.; Job, P. K. & Puhl, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Plastic Laminate Pulsed Power Development

Description: The desire to move high-energy Pulsed Power systems from the laboratory to practical field systems requires the development of compact lightweight drivers. This paper concerns an effort to develop such a system based on a plastic laminate strip Blumlein as the final pulseshaping stage for a 600 kV, 50ns, 5-ohm driver. A lifetime and breakdown study conducted with small-area samples identified Kapton sheet impregnated with Propylene Carbonate as the best material combination of those evaluated. The program has successfully demonstrated techniques for folding large area systems into compact geometry's and vacuum impregnating the laminate in the folded systems. The major operational challenges encountered revolve around edge grading and low inductance, low impedance switching. The design iterations and lessons learned are discussed. A multistage prototype testing program has demonstrated 600kV operation on a short 6ns line. Full-scale prototypes are currently undergoing development and testing.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Alexander, Jeff A.; Shope, Steven L.; Pate, Ronald C.; Rinehart, Larry F.; Jojola, John M.; Ruebush, Mitchell H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Beam collimation system for a 16 GeV proton driver

Description: It is shown that with the appropriate lattice and collimation design, one can control beam loss in the 16 GeV Fermilab Proton Driver. Based on detailed Monte-Carlo simulations, a 3-stage collimation system is proposed which consists of primary, secondary and supplementary collimators located in a special 60 m long injection section along with a painting system. It allows localization of more than 99% of beam loss to this section with only a 0.3 W/m (on average) beam loss rate in the rest of the machine. As a result, beam loss and induced radiation effects in lattice elements can be reduced to levels which are defined as acceptable.
Date: September 12, 2000
Creator: Alexandr I. Drozhdin, Carol J. Johnstone and Nikolai V. Mokhov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Beam position monitor

Description: An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.
Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold & Evans, Gwyndaf
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The deployment of an innovative real-time radiological soil characterization system

Description: Fluor Fernald Inc., in conjunction with partners from Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has developed a program for characterizing radiological contaminants in soil in real time. The soil characterization system in use at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for over three years combines gamma ray spectrometry equipment with other technologies to produce a system that can scan large areas of ground and produce color coded maps which display quantitative information regarding isotopic contamination patterns. Software running on a battery powered lap-top computer, is used to control acquisition of gamma spectral data to link the spectral Information with precise detector position measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and to control transmission of data to a central station or van via a wireless Ethernet link where Surfer6 mapping software is used to produce maps showing the position and amount of each target analyte. Either sodium iodide (NaI) gamma ray detectors mounted on three different vehicles for mobile measurements or stationary tripod-mounted hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detectors can be used in this system to radiologically characterize soil. The operational and performance characteristics, as well as the strengths and limitations of each of these units, will be described. The isotopic information generated by this system can be made available to remediation project mangers within an hour after the completion of a scan to aid in determination of excavation footprints, segregation of contaminated soil and verification of contamination removal. The immediate availability of radiological characterization data made possible by this real-time scanning system has allowed Fluor Fernald to accelerate remediation schedules and reduce costs by avoiding excavation delays and expensive and time consuming laboratory analyses. Obtaining actual radiological characterization data from a much greater percentage of the soil under characterization than would …
Date: September 29, 2000
Creator: Allen, David; Danahy, Raymond; Laird, Gregory; Seiller, Dale; White, Joan & Janke, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

Description: The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year.
Date: September 12, 2000
Creator: Alsaed, H. & Gottlieb, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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