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Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

Description: This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F. & Bomelburg, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnetic field, closed orbit, and energy measurement in the Bevatron

Description: This report provides the information necessary for a better evaluation of particle energy in the Bevatron. Previously, the nominal magnetic field value and radius were used to calculate the value for the kinetic energy of the particle. This value was good to a few percent. Today, more and more experimenters would like to know the energy to a more precise value. To this end, corrections to the measured magnetic field values and the radial closed orbit are provided.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Crebbin, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comprehensive energy-management program. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal absorber. Annual report, September 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

Description: Research work was done during the reporting period on the two-part research program: (A) to improve energy conservation through increased unit and system efficiencies, energy management, and system optimization, and (B) to develop a novel, low-cost hybrid photovoltaic/thermal absorber. Performance tests were conducted on all the boilers and chillers on campus. Several corrective measures were indicated and implemented. A detailed survey of energy use by functions and consumption/demand study has been in progress. A preliminary computer simulation model of the entire campus has been developed and made operational. It has been demonstrated both analytically and experimentally that the reradiation losses from the absorber can be reduced significantly by utilizing a light-pipe absorber. Two paraboloidal dishes, one of 6 ft diameter and the other of 20 ft diameter have been utilized. Collector efficiencies have been measured at coolant outlet temperatures up to 282/sup 0/C with a square light-pipe absorber and with 6 ft diameter concentrator. Laser ray testing was conducted on both the 6 ft and 20 ft diameter concentrators. Design of the total energy absorber has been completed.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Kumar, G. N.; Sellers, J. P. & Dybczak, Z. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Feasibility study of geothermal heating, Modoc Lassen housing project

Description: This study evaluates the feasibility of using geothermal water for space and domestic water heating systems at the elderly housing project now ready for construction at the Modoc Lassen Indian Reservation. For the six units considered, the space heating load is four times the domestic water heating load. Since the geothermal water temperature is uncertain, two scenarios were evaluated. In the first, which assumes 160/sup 0/F supply temperature, the geothermal system is assumed to satisfy the entire space and domestic water heating loads. In the second, which assumes the supply temperature to be less than 120/sup 0/F at the wellhead only space heating is provided. The economics of the first scenario are quite favorable. The additional expenditure of $15,630 is projected to save $3522 annually at current energy costs, and the life cycle cost study projects a discounted rate of return on the investment of 44.4%. Surprisingly, the investment is even more favorable for the second scenario, due to the higher cost and lower resultant savings for the domestic water components. Forced air space heating from geothermal is recommended. Domestic water heating is recommended pending additional information on supply water temperature.
Date: November 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of models for developing biological input for the design and location of water-intake structures

Description: An approach for assessing multiple stimulus/response relations between fish and water intake structures is presented in this report. The approach stresses stimulus/response relations influencing fish and shellfish distribution and is made up of two methods. The first places emphasis on spatial and temperal distributions of populations; information is presented in the form of a non-predictive model, which allows for organizing information and documenting review processes. The second approach encompasses functional relationships between environmental and biological stimuli and responses of organisms. By using the two methods together, functional relationships can be evaluated to define the distribution of a fish or shellfish species. This information can then be used to resolve questions relating to impingement and entrainment.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Simmons, M. A. & McKenzie, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

Description: To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Neitzel, D. A. & McKenzie, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Efficiencies of gas neutralizers for multi-MeV beams of light negative ions

Description: Measurements are reported of the neutral and charged particle fractions produced by running beams of Li/sup -/, C/sup -/, O/sup -/, and Si/sup -/ at energies up to 7 MeV through gas cells of N/sub 2/, Ar, or CO/sub 2/. We discuss the implications of these measurements for the design of neutralizers to produce high energy light atom beams for heating or current drive in tokamaks.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Grisham, L. R.; Post, D. E.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, K. W.; Barette, J.; Kruse, T. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Prairie Canal Well No. 1, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1. Completion and testing. Final report

Description: The Prairie Canal Company, Inc. Well No. 1, approximately 8 miles south of the city of Lake Charles, Louisiana, was tested through the annulus between 5-1/2 inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 14,782 to 14,820 feet. The geological section was the Hackberry Sand, a member of the Oligocene Frio formation. Produced water was injected into a disposal well which was perforated in several Miocene Sands from 3070 to 4600 feet. Original plans were to test a section of the Hackberry sand from 14,976 to 15,024 feet. This primary zone, however, produced a large amount of sand, shale, gravel, and rocks during early flow periods and was abandoned in favor of the secondary zone. Four pressure drawdown flow tests and three pressure buildup tests were conducted during a 12-day period. A total of 36,505 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was approximately 7100 BWPD. The gas-to-water ratio, measured during testing, ranged from 41 to 50 SCF/BBL. There is disagreement as to the saturation value of the reservoir brine, which may be between 43.3 and 49.7 SCF/BBL. The methane content of the flare line gas averaged 88.4 mole percent. The CO/sub 2/ content averaged 8.4 mole percent. Measured values of H/sub 2/S in the gas were between 12 and 24 ppM.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Multi-layer universal correction magnet

Description: This paper presents an approach for constructing a universal correction magnet in which the return currents play an active role in determining the field. The return currents are not hidden by the iron shield. The coil is wound in many layers, instead of just one layer. Each layer has a particular symmetry, and generates a particular class of field multipoles such that the location of the return current for each independently excited current block is clear. Three layers may be sufficient in many cases. This approach is applied to the ISABELLE storage accelerator correction system.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Parzen, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geothermal potential for heating and cooling facilities, San Bernardino Valley College, San Bernardino, California

Description: The potential for converting to geothermal heating at the campus of San Bernardino Valley College is considered. Also considered is the possibility of using well water for water cooled condenser cooling of air conditioning equipment. To provide water supply a production well, water distribution system and an injection well would be installed for each system.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Gemeinhardt, M.A. & Tharaldson, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

Description: WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Evans, Jr., K.; Baker, C. C. & Brooks, J. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Exact calculations of nuclear-recoil energies from prompt gamma decays resulting from neutron capture

Description: The results of an accurate determination of the recoil spectrum from (n, ..gamma..) reactions in molybdenum are presented. The recoil spectrum has been calculated from nuclear level structure data and measured branching ratios. Angular correlations between successive gammas have been accounted for using the standard theoretical techniques of Racah algebra and the density matrix formalism.
Date: July 20, 1981
Creator: Kinney, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conceptual design of a laser-fusion power plant. Part II. Two technical options: 1. JADE reactor; 2. Heat transfer by heat pipes

Description: A laser fusion reactor concept is described that employs liquid metal walls. The concept envisions a porous medium, called the JADE, of specific geometry lining the reactor cavity. Some advantages and disadvantages of the concept are pointed out. The possibility of using heat pipes for passive cooling in ICF reactors is discussed. Some of the problems are outlined. (MOW)
Date: July 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Islets of stability beyond period doubling

Description: Period doubling of a periodic orbit of an area preserving map appears to lead to the elimination of all closed invariant curves in the vicinity. We show, however, that there are always islets of stabilhty again beyond the accumulation point of the period doubling sequence.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Mackay, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

Description: Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons have been calculated for approximately 500 radionuclides of potential importance in environmental radiological assessments. The dose-rate factors were obtained using the DOSFACTER computer code. The results given in this report incorporate calculation of electron dose-rate factors for radiosensitive tissues of the skin, improved estimates of organ dose-rate factors for photons, based on organ doses for monoenergetic sources at the body surface of an exposed individual, and the spectra of scattered photons in air from monoenergetic sources in an infinite, uniformly contaminated atmospheric cloud, calculation of dose-rate factors for other radionuclides in addition to those of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle, and incorporation of updated radioactive decay data for all radionuclides. Dose-rate factors are calculated for three exposure modes - immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface. The report presents the equations used to calculate the external dose-rate factors for photons and electrons, documentation of the revised DOSFACTER computer code, and a complete tabulation of the calculated dose-rate factors. 30 refs., 12 figs.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Kocher, David C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Prairie Canal Well No. 1, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Volume II. Well test data. Final report

Description: The following are included in appendices: field test data, field non-edited data, raw data, tentative method of testing for hydrogen sulfide in natural gas using length of stain tubes, combined sample log, report on reservoir fluids study, well test analysis, analysis of solids samples from primary zone, chemical analysis procedures, scale and corrosion evaluation, laboratory report on scale deposits, and sand detector strip charts. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Guidance manual for the input of biological information to water-intake-structure design

Description: This manual is intended to provide guidance to the biologist who is asked to provide biological input during the construction or subsequent alteration of a water intake structure. Examples of the types of biological information that might be included in intake design are presented. Procedures for quantifying biological information and defining specific tasks that will generate quantifiable data are discussed. Procedures described apply both to new and modified water intake structures.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Neitzel, D. A.; Simmons, M. A. & McKenzie, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Probability based load criteria for the design of nuclear structures: a critical review of the state-of-the-art

Description: Structures for nuclear power plant facilities must be designed to withstand safely and effectively all kinds of loads and load combinations that may be expected to occur during their lifetime. The traditional methods of structural design attempt to account for the inevitable variability in the loads, material strengths, in-service environments, and fabrication process, etc., through the use of safety factor, allowable stresses or load and resistance factors. These approaches may result in an unknown and nonuniform reliability because of the subjective manner in which the safety factors have been determined. The stochastic nature loads and the uncertainties in material properties dictate a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. This report presents: an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art pertaining to probability-based analysis and design of civil engineering structures; basis for extending existing probability-based methods to seismic category I nuclear structures; and the availability of the pertinent data required to perform probabilistic analysis for seismic category I nuclear structures.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Shinozuka, M.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Wang, P.C.; Meyer, C.; Wen, Y.K.; Kao, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Principal facts for gravity stations of the Broadwater geothermal area, Montana

Description: Two complete Bouguer anomaly values were calculated for each of the 67 stations assuming average rock densities of 2.67 g/cm/sup 3/ and 2.45 g/cm/sup 3/. The corrections and anomaly values are listed. A hand contoured Bouguer gravity map is included.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Bankey, V.; Paton, J. & Kleinkopf, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Eastern Gas Shales Program. Completion and stimulation of five New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Wells Allegany and Cattaraugus Counties, New York

Description: In order to evaluate the potential of the Devonian Shales as a source of natural gas, DOE/METC in Morgantown, West Virginia, has undertaken the Eastern Gas Shale Program (EGSP); not only to characterize and identify the resource, but also to enhance and improve the productivity of wells completed in the shale. One of the methods used to achieve improved productivity is hydraulic fracturing and, more specifically, foam fracturing. The efforts by DOE/METC included completion and stimulation of five New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) wells; located in western Allegany County and southwestern Cattaraugus County, New York. The five wells were drilled on high shcool and college properties during the months of June and July 1981. DOE/METC's contribution to the program funded the stimulation and completion of the wells. This work was done under the engineering and field supervision of Gruy Federal, Inc. as contractor to DOE. The completion work took place in the months of July and August 1981. This consisted of running a cement bond log in each well. All logs showed good bonding. This was followed by perforating the Marcellus Shale through the 4-1/2-inch casing. During the next phase, the formation was broken down with 1500 gallons of regular HF acid and, then, foam fractured using 50,000 gallons of foam consisting of water and nitrogen; the fractures were propped with 60,000 pounds of sand. After the cleanout operations, open flow potentials and rock pressures were measured in each well. None of the wells had a gas show before fracturing but, after fracturing, open flow ranged from a low of 19 Mcf/D to a high of 73 Mcf/D. 1 reference, 6 figures, 1 table.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Rdissi, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of standards for energy-efficient motors

Description: This analysis does not lead to a clear conclusion regarding the effectiveness of standards for energy efficient motors if effectiveness is based on a benefit-cost ratio criteria. Two alternative assumptions were made regarding the appropriate measure of the costs to the private sector. In the first case it was assumed that private sector users have no biases and expect rates of return on investment that represent their true opportunity cost of capital. Under this assumption the benefit-cost ratio is .65, that is, for every dollar of cost incurred, the associated benefit is 65 cents. The alternative assumption is tha the private sector under values energy conservation investments. Under this assumption, the benfit-cost ratio of the standards program was 1.35. For every dollar spent, $1.35 is returned to society, because the standards force private sector users to correct their biases and therefore allocate capital more productively.
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Shallow hydrothermal regime of the East Brawley and Glamis known geothermal resource areas, Salton Trough, California

Description: Thermal gradients and thermal conductivities were obtained in real time using an in situ heat-flow technique in 15 shallow (90 to 150 m) wells drilled between Brawley and Glamis in the Imperial Valley, Southern California. The in situ measurements were supplemented by follow-up conventional temperature logs in seven of the wells and by laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity on drill cuttings. The deltaic sedimentary material comprising the upper approx. 100 m of the Salton Trough generally is poorly sorted and high in quartz resulting in quite high thermal conductivities (averaging 2.0 Wm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ as opposed to 1.2 to 1.7 for typical alluvium). A broad heat-flow anomaly with maximum of about 200 mWm/sup -2/ (approx. 5 HFU) is centered between Glamis and East Brawley and is superimposed on a regional heat-flow high in excess of 100 mWm/sup -2/ (> 2.5 HFU). The heat-flow high corresponds with a gravity maximum and partially with a minimum in electrical resistivity, suggesting the presence of a hydrothermal system at depth in this area.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Mase, C. W.; Sass, J. H.; Brook, C. A. & Munroe, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bond-Strength Studies for 1-Mil-Diameter Gold Wires Bonded to Hybrid Microcircuit Substrates

Description: Detailed studies of the failure probability for gold wires bonded to multiplexer substrates under severe acceleration in the W79 artillery shell environments were made. The studies included: the calculated resultant pull forces exerted on the bond joints due to the W79 acceleration environments; the suitability of the loop-hook pull tests and the use of the normal Gaussian distribution theory for statistical description of bond strengths; and the probability of failure for gold wires bonded to multiplexer substrates under artillery shell accelerations using fixed angle pull tests and a Weilbull distribution theory for the statistical description. Preliminary statistical analyses of the bond strength data obtained from the conventional loop-hook pull tests for a multiplexer substrate HMC, have shown that the ball bond is strong enough to withstand the 0.17 gram design limit load due to the W79 gun barrel environments with a very low probability of failure. For the wedge bond, however, the results of a statistical analysis for the bond strength agree with experience which shows that the wedge bonds are generally much weaker than ball bonds in multiplexer substrates, and the probability of failure may be high enough to cause a problem. The degradation of the wedge bond strength due to post-assembly testing is significant as indicated by the large increase in probability of failure for the post-assembly-tested wedge bonds. To illustrate this, consider a worst-case example which assumes all wires bonded to the hybrid microcircuit substrates have the same geometry and loading conditions. Assuming the W79 JTA has approximately 2760 of these bonded wires, the probabilities of failure are 0.0179% for virgin wedge bonds and 2.1% for post-assembly-tested wedge bonds.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Kan, Y.R. & Prantil, V.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980-June 30, 1981

Description: The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was possible and the necessary relevant data to accomplish this is presented, as well as insight into the corresponding electrochemical mechanisms associated with the electroactive species. The influence of each atmospheric component was examined separately. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, nitrite ions are found to accumulate due to thermal decomposition of the nitrate. Water is highly soluble in the salt mixture, but no hydrolytic reactions were observed. Two methods of in situ analysis for water are described. Pure carbon dioxide is found to attack the melt at all temperatures above 250/sup 0/C producing carbonate. (LEW)
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: White, S. H. & Twardoch, U. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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