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Note on the cryostatic stability of superconducting composites

Description: A careful discussion is given of the ''equal area condition'' developed by Maddock et al. In order to make the essential points as clear as possible, analytical solutions are derived under simplifying assumptions (simple model for heat transfer by nucleate and film boiling liquid helium; constant heat conduction and specific heat) instead of using more realistic but less controllable computer calculations. A quantitative definition of the concept of a long wire is given. Numerical examples for the Maddock transition characterized by the equal area condition are given for a long superconducting composite with linear cooling and for a liquid helium-cooled resistance wire of finite length. In addition, cases are shown where instead of applying the equal area stability condition, time-dependent solutions should be considered.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Gauster, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparative assessment of energy-economy interactions

Description: This analysis is concerned with the impact of energy-policy measures on the level, growth, and structure of the US economy. In particular, the nature and magnitude of the causal relationship between variations in the prices of various energy forms and economic performance, as measured by real gross national product (GNP), is studied. The combined Brookhaven National Laboratory/Dale W. Jorgenson Associates (BNL/DHA) energy-economy model system is used to determine the economic effects of three energy-price futures combined with an invariant set of energy policies. The price alternatives are intended to characterize the uncertainty that exists in the policy-planning environment. In addition, the results are compared to those obtained from another DOE-sponsored analysis which used the Data Resources, Incorporated (DRI) quarterly macroeconomic model to assess the effects of these same three cases. Significant numerical differences in the results from these modeling systems are observed and are attributed to structural differences between the two methodologies. The methodological issues emerging from this comparison have important policy implications which are independent of the specific numerical conclusions. Since it is uncertain which, if either, of the models is correct, the use of one for policy analysis entails the risk that policy will be predicated on inaccurate information. This risk is analyzed within an explicit framework and clear decision rules for information selection and the choice between the modeling systems are formulated.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Goettle, R.J. IV; Hudson, E.A. & Lukachinski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solar-thermal energy conversion and storage: cyclohexane dehydrogenation. Progress report, 30 September 1977-30 June 1978

Description: The objective of this project is to provide research support for the benzene/cyclohexane heat pipe development program at Sandia. The kinetics of the cyclohexane decomposition (energy collection) reaction over a commercially available naphtha reforming catalyst (RD-150, Englehard Industries) in the temperature range 400 to 800/sup 0/F and pressures of 1 to 40 atmospheres were measured. Significant amounts of side products such as toluene and butane were identified at temperatures above 550/sup 0/F at atmospheric pressure and significant mass transfer limitations on conversions were observed at the higher space velocities and higher temperatures. No significant decreases in catalyst activity were measured at temperatures below 800/sup 0/F. However, at 800/sup 0/F there was a significant decrease in catalyst activity which does not appear to be a poisoning problem but a thermal limitation on catalyst effectiveness. A test facility has been fabricated to study the behavior of the benzene/cyclohexane (or any other gas phase catalytic reaction) system and its catalysts under long term cycling at temperatures up to 1000/sup 0/F, and pressures up to 1000 psig at a wide variety of space velocities. A mathematical model was developed which simulates the dynamic behavior of the collector (endothermic) reactor and allows the evaluation of such things as startup, shutdown, switching and process control algorithms.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Ritter, A.B.; DeLancey, G.B.; Schneider, J. & Silla, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tumor production in Syrian hamsters following inhalation of PuO/sub 2/--ZrO/sub 2/ aerosol

Description: Syrian golden hamsters of both sexes were exposed to aerosols of ZrO/sub 2/ containing PuO/sub 2/. The starting material in the aerosol generator also had a small amount of /sup 57/Co added as a tracer. The mixture of all three constituents was nebulized and the droplets passed through a heating column at 1000/sup 0/C. Aerosol sampling was accomplished with a cascade impactor and electrostatic precipitator. The median aerodynamic diameters in all inhalation runs were approximately 2 ..mu..m with a geometric standard deviation of 2. One exposed group of 60 hamsters had 6-day lung burdens averaging 100 nCi. This group had a lung tumor incidence of 44% with an even distribution of adenomas and carcinomas. Two other groups had average 6-day lung burdens of 80 to 90 nCi plus 55 nCi of intravenously injected spheres localized in the lung. These animals had tumor incidences of approximately 30%.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Thomas, R. G. & Smith, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

Description: A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300/sup 0/C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Turner, P. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stress corrosion cracking of uranium--niobium alloys

Description: The stress corrosion cracking behavior of U-2/sup 1///sub 4/, 4/sup 1///sub 2/, 6 and 8 wt % Nb alloys was evaluated in laboratory air and in aqueous Cl/sup -/ solutions. Thresholds for crack propagation were obtained in these environments. The data showed that Cl/sup -/ solutions are more deleterious than air environments. Tests were also conducted in pure gases to identify the species in the air responsible for cracking. These data showed the primary stress corrodent is water vapor for the most reactive alloy, U-2/sup 1///sub 4/% Nb, while O/sub 2/ is primarily responsible for cracking in the more corrosion resistant alloys, U-6 and 8% Nb. The 4/sup 1///sub 2/% alloy was found to be susceptible in both H/sub 2/O and O/sub 2/ environments.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Magnani, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Pilot plant test plan, Task IX: technical support. Industrial Low-Btu Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program

Description: The objective of the AAG pilot plant operation is to provide process data for the gasification and related sections of the demonstration plant. Since the pilot plant will not operate at the actual pressure of the demonstration plant, it is planned to perform tests at two different pressures to obtain a sound basis for pressure scale-up. Other objectives are listed briefly.
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Studies on persons exposed to plutonium

Description: The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K. & York, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DOE role in nuclear policies and programs: official transcript of public briefing. Addendum December 13, 1977, Washington, D. C

Description: A total of 24 questions were read into the official record at the public briefing on nuclear policies and programs. The answers published were researched and written by personnel of DOE's Office of Energy Research, Office of Energy Technology, and the Secretary's Office. A few questions were sent to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for review and for preparation of answers.
Date: February 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Compatibility testing of vitrified waste forms

Description: An experimental program to evaluate candidate metals for use in the fabrication of canisters for long-term storage of vitrified radioactive wastes is described. The long-term compatibility of the candidate metal both with the contained vitrified radioactive waste and with the external environments expected in possible final storage locations will be determined. These tests involve heating combinations of waste forms and canister metals in intimate contact for up to 50,000 hr to accelerate any reactions that occur.
Date: March 6, 1978
Creator: Rankin, W.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TCT hybrid preconceptual blanket design studies

Description: The conceptual design of a tokamak fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor, which produces electric power and fissile material, has been performed in a cooperative effort between Princeton's Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). PPPL, who had overall project lead responsibility, designed the fusion driver system. Its core consists of a tokamak plasma maintained in the two-component torus (TCT) mode by both D and T beams and having a single null poloidal divertor. The blanket concept selected by PPPL consists of a neutron multiplying converter region, containing natural Uranium Molybdenum (U-Mo) slugs followed by a fuel burning blanket region of molten salt containing PuF/sub 3/. PNL analyzed this concept to determine its structural, thermal and hydraulic performance characteristics. An adequate first wall cooling method was determined, utilizing low pressure water in a double wall design. A conceptual layout of the converter region tubes was performed, providing adequate helium cooling and the desired movement of U-Mo slugs. A thermal hydraulic analysis of the power-producing blanket regions indicated that either more helium coolant tubes are needed or the salt must be circulated to obtain adequate heat removal capability.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Aase, D. T.; Bampton, M. C. C.; Doherty, T. J.; Leonard, B. R.; McCann, R. A.; Newman, D. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thorium fuel cycles for LWRs: fuel diversion assessments and recycle requirements

Description: A number of fuel cycles have been proposed for evaluation in the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program. Among these systems are light water reactors (LWR) operating on the thorium-uranium cycle or the plutonium-thorium cycle either inside or outside energy centers. These proposals support the President's nuclear power policy of accelerating research into alternative fuel cycles that do not permit direct access to materials usable for nuclear weapons but still retain the benefits of nuclear power. Reprocessing and refabrication (often referred to as the ''back cycle'') constitute a portion of the overall fuel cycle and represent potential access points to fissionable materials, which, in many cases, may be in a rather attractive form for diversion. These operations for LWR thorium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuels were analyzed to assess and rate the diversion or proliferation potential of each major operation. Reprocessing and refabrication evaluations per se constitute insufficient data for rating the acceptability of an entire fuel cycle and must be considered along with reactor analysis, environmental data, resource utilization, and political factors. Each back cycle operation has been evaluated according to needed development, material location, material description, convertibility and radiation hazard. Needed development relates to the state of the art of the operation and identifies the stage to which the development has progressed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Carter, W. L.; Rainey, R. H. & Johnson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

Description: A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Ellison, R D & Creswick, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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X-ray measurements of stresses and defects in EFG and large grained polycrystalline silicon ribbons. First quarterly report

Description: The first model of a modified Bond goniometer has been built and tested for the precision measurement of interplanar spacings in Si-single crystals. A change in interplanar spacing ..delta..d/d approximately = to +- 10/sup -5/ can be detected which corresponds to surface stresses of the order of +- 1000 psi. A second version of the goniometer is being assembled incorporating a removable microscope for precision alignment of the Si-strip into the primary X-ray beam.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Wagner, C.N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SCORE-EVET: a computer code for the multidimensional transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear fuel rod arrays. [BWR; PWR]

Description: The SCORE-EVET code was developed to study multidimensional transient fluid flow in nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays. The conservation equations used were derived by volume averaging the transient compressible three-dimensional local continuum equations in Cartesian coordinates. No assumptions associated with subchannel flow have been incorporated into the derivation of the conservation equations. In addition to the three-dimensional fluid flow equations, the SCORE-EVET code ocntains: (a) a one-dimensional steady state solution scheme to initialize the flow field, (b) steady state and transient fuel rod conduction models, and (c) comprehensive correlation packages to describe fluid-to-fuel rod interfacial energy and momentum exchange. Velocity and pressure boundary conditions can be specified as a function of time and space to model reactor transient conditions such as a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or flow blockage.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Benedetti, R. L.; Lords, L. V. & Kiser, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geostatistics project of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

Description: Additional work has been done to display radiometric data from the Lubbock quadrangle in pseudocolor maps. A digitized topographic map of the quadrangle was obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and this is being incorporated into the study of the radiometric data. Single-record data from the Lake Mead calibration range and from the Slayton test line have been obtained from GeoMETRICS: Inc. and analysis of this data has begun. Principal component analyses have been used to investigate the relationship of geological formation to the location of points in a (Tl, Bi, K) coordinate system. LASL personnel attended a workshop in Grand Junction, Colorado, where some of the problems of calibrating aerial gamma-ray spectrometers were addressed.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Bement, T.R.; McKay, M.D. & Wecksung, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Monthly and quarterly progress report, 1 April 1978-30 June 1978 (Deliverable No. 12)

Description: The design of the commercial plant was completed and a cost estimate prepared. Most work remaining on Task I relates to: Demonstration Plant recommendations and includes a configuration study, at DOE's request, to evaluate alternatives for the Demo Plant Configuration to achieve the required reliability. The specific alternatives being considered are: A base U-Gas Plant designed to produce 50 MMM Btu/day 365 days per year (the High Reliability case); a base U-Gas Plant plus product storage; and a base U-Gas Plant, plus a small methanation facility to upgrade a small portion of the product to obtain credits. Other studies in support of the demonstration plant recommendations include: economic study of U-Gas versus coal-fired boilers for internal steam generation; an assessment of the cost/benefit of designing the Demo Plant for an operating pressure higher than the current data allows; and evaluation of the costs of providing a zero discharge wastewater treatment system.
Date: July 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Non-linear numerical studies of the tearing mode

Description: A non-linear, time dependent, hydromagnetic model is developed and applied to the tearing mode, one of a class of instabilities which can occur in a magnetically confined plasma when the constraint of infinite conductivity is relaxed. The model is based on the eight partial differential equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The equations are expressed as a set of conservation laws which conserves magnetic flux, momentum, mass, and total energy. These equations are then written in general, orthogonal, curvilinear coordinates in two space dimensions, so that the model can readily be applied to a variety of geometries. No assumption about the ordering of terms is made. The resulting equations are then solved by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. The model is applied to several geometries.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Schnack, D.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

Description: Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)
Date: January 6, 1978
Creator: Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O. & Lunt, O.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Pretreatment unit options (Deliverable No. 41)

Description: Three approaches to pretreatment for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant project in the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Pilot Plant have been examined. Analyses of these approaches, selection of the best alternative among the three, and detailed design and evaluation of cost and schedule impacts were made. The best approach available to pretreatment demonstration is an integrated pretreater - an ash agglomerating gasifier (AAG) that uses the existing AAG system, a new pretreater pressure vessel, and needed ancillary equipment. Based on pilot plant results, IGT dos not recommend pretreatment for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant or testing pretreatment in the IGT Pilot Plant, but merely suggests the above approach to pilot plant testing of pretreatment as the most viable. Based on pilot plant tests, IGT does not feel that pretreatment is necessary for operation of the ash agglomerating gasifier with Western Kentucky No. 9 coal. IGT has developed a feeding technique that enables raw coal to be fed directly to the gasifier without plugging of the feed nozzle lines which has been demonstrated in several tests. Should pretreatment prove necessary because of unforeseen circumstances, IGT has studied the available alternatives and has selected the best alternative for detailed consideration. If pretreatment is required, it can be implemented efficiently in accordance with plans developed.
Date: December 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ORMAK upgrade ohmic coil generator protection

Description: This report describes methods which can be used to limit the voltage across the generator for normal operation and various ground faults. It also contains quantitative information, obtained from the computer study, which can be used for evaluating the protection methods cost-wise.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Campen, G. L.; Easter, R. B. & Nickels, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Coal Technology Program. Progress report for November 1977

Description: A block of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal and a block of Wyodak subbituminous coal were pyrolyzed under reducing gas in support of in situ gasification. Information from previously completed block pyrolysis of bituminous coal under an argon atmosphere show that differences in evolved gas result from differences in heating rates. Compared to block pyrolysis at 0.3 C/sup 0//min, block pyrolysis at 3 C/sup 0//min produces less gas but gas with a higher heating value, yielding a higher overall pyrolysis gas efficiency in recovering coal heating value. Experimental work on the fracture toughness and tensile properties of steels that may be used for piping and pressure vessels in very large gasification systems continued. The toughness of quenched 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo steel simulating the surface of a 254 to 305 mm-thick plate was measured, and the differences in toughness and tensile properties following two temperature treatments were determined. Post-weld heat treatment effects were also characterized. All properties remained within the range for ASME SA 387, Grade 22, Class 2 material. Work on inspection techniques for ceramic and cermet coatings is being closed out by completing and updating reports in various draft stages. Work is underway to establish a program for testing coal feeders under development by DOE/FE. Jet Propulsion Laboratory has recommended five feeders for testing. (LTN)
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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