Search Results

open access

Single particle behavior in plasmas

Description: The paper follows the history of a neutral atom or molecule into a plasma--ionization, dissociation, radiation,--until it becomes a set of charged particles moving in the electromagnetic fields of the plasma system. The various useful forms of the method of averaging are displayed and applied to calculation of constants of motion. The breakdown of these constants is discussed along with some of the implications for fusion systems.
Date: March 10, 1977
Creator: McNamara, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

COMP: a BASIC language nonlinear least-squares curve fitting program

Description: COMP is an interactive nonlinear least squares routine written in BASIC language and used to obtain estimates of parameters in nonlinear functions and to approximate their associated statistical errors. The program uses the linearizing (or Taylor Series) expansion of partial derivatives outlined in Draper and Smith, (1966, pp. 267 to 270). Therefore, partial derivatives must be supplied (as well as the function) by the user for any new models not currently contained in the programs. When a linearizing method is used to estimate parameters in a nonlinear model, all the usual procedures of linear regression theory can be applied. However, the results so obtained are only valid insofar as the linearized form approximates the true model. All of the statistics computed by COMP should be viewed with this restriction in mind. The output of COMP includes the variance-covariance matrix, t-tests for parameters, Von Neumann's ratio, observed, predicted and residual values, the error mean square, and an optional procedure to evaluate heteroscedasticity.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Thomas, J. M.; Cochran, M. I.; Watson, C. R. & Eberhardt, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Correlation of alluvial deposits at the Nevada Test Site

Description: Because characteristics of rock layers and problems in drilling must be studied before radioactive waste can be safely contained, an evaluation was made of methods for correlating alluvial deposits at Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Although correlation of Tertiary volcanic tuff beds at the NTS has been successfully achieved, correlation of stratigraphic zones in the overlying alluvium has posed technical difficulties. We have evaluated several methods for correlating alluvial deposits from drillholes, including electric resistivity logs (E logs), visual examination of sidewall samples and comparison of their carbonate (CO/sub 2/) content, downhole stereo photography for identifying debris flow deposits, caliche age-dating, and specific yield and permeability measurements of deposits. For predicting the thickness of zones having similar physical properties in the alluvium, E log measurements were found to be the most useful of these methods.
Date: September 30, 1977
Creator: Grothaus, B. & Howard, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Schemes for anti pp interactions at ISABELLE

Description: Various schemes for obtaining anti pp interactions are outlined, and the luminosities obtainable for each case calculated. In the simplest realistic case, a luminosity of 1.3 x 10/sup 29/ is obtained with a 13 hour filling time. The addition of special rf systems in both the AGS and ISABELLE give a scheme with luminosity 8 x 10/sup 29/ in 6 hours. The use of stochastic cooling to stack raises the luminosity to as high as 10/sup 31/ but the filling time is then 68 hours. Finally a scheme is considered that uses a special 30 GeV capture ring. With this, a luminosity of 10/sup 31/ could be achieved after 20 hours, or higher if a larger filling time were acceptable. Further gains could be made if a smaller proton spot on the target is used but a simple calculation suggests that even the spot size assumed may explode the target too fast.
Date: September 8, 1977
Creator: Palmer, Robert B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Applications of induction linac technology to heavy ion fusion

Description: Evaluation of the application of heavy ion accelerators to ignite d-t pellets in a thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Accelerator design requirements considered include transport-limited current, beam injection conditions, and pulse bunching and focusing characteristics. The desirability of resonant and non-resonant accelerating structures is comparatively examined. The required power system switch tubes are discussed. It is concluded that heavy ion accelerators could offer a promising solution to the pellet-igniter problem. The advantages pointed out for this approach include electric efficiency greater than 10 percent, the possibility of high repetition rates (1 to 10 Hz), and a mature technological base. (RME)
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Faltens, A. & Keefe, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes

Description: Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Griest, W. H.; Quincy, R. B. & Guerin, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

/sup 16/O + /sup 40/Ca inelastic scattering and the elastic scattering wave function

Description: The /sup 16/O + /sup 40/Ca inelastic scattering has been measured at 60-MeV incident energy, and evidence has been found in support of an explicit coupling between direct and elastic channels. The measurements were extended over a large angular range and in particular to very forward angles. The ratio of cross sections between extreme forward and backward angles proved very useful in studying the underlying reaction mechanism.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Rehm, K.E.; Henning, W.; Erskine, J.R. & Kovar, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Approach to decision modeling for an ignition test reactor

Description: A comparison matrix decision model is applied to candidates for a D-T ignition tokamak (TNS), including assessment of semi-quantifiable or judgemental factors as well as quantitative ones. The results show that TNS is mission-sensitive with a choice implied between near-term achievability and reactor technology.
Date: September 30, 1977
Creator: Howland, H.R. & Varljen, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Heavy mass states

Description: The indirect evidence for the production of a heavy lepton and direct evidence for the product of a new hadronic state or states in proton-proton interactions is considered for the interpretation requiring the existence of two more leptons and two new quarks. It is shown that such a picture is consistent and in good agreement with existing data. The new structure is located at M = 9.54 GeV/c/sup 2/ and is much wider than the experimental resolution. Also it is asymmetric, suggesting the presence of several resonances. 7 references. (JFP)
Date: August 23, 1977
Creator: Paschos, E. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Cryogenic supplies for the TFTR neutral beam line cryopanels

Description: Cryocondensing panels will be used for the Neutral Beam Lines of the TFTR to satisfy a pumping speed requirement of 2.5 x 10/sup 6/ l/s. The cryocondensing panels are fed by liquid helium (LHe), boiling at selectable temperatures of 4.5/sup 0/K or 3.8/sup 0/K. Liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/) panels and chevrons thermally shield the LHe panel. The closed-loop LHe supply system and the open loop LN/sub 2/ system are discussed. The helium refrigerator of minimum 1070-W capacity, together with its distribution system, and the nitrogen distribution system in the ton/hour LN/sub 2/ range is presented. Problems and their solutions in connection with the LHe system, including the distribution over a distance of 500 feet of large quantities of liquid/gas mixtures with load variations over the range of about 3 : 1, and the economies of various types of distribution lines (passive, pumped, shielded, combined), are described. The system design passed the preliminary phase. Design features and auxiliary equipment to assure dispersion of large quantities of nitrogen into the atmosphere and to permit operation under degraded cryogenic helium refrigerator performance are also discussed in Design Considerations.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Pinter, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Discussion: ''toughness variations during the tempering of a plain carbon martensitic steel'' by J. E. King, R. F. Smith and J. F. Knott. Retained austenite and transgranular tempered martensite embrittlement

Description: Discussion is presented to substantiate, clarify and reinterpret some of the results of the above authors for the existence and origin of tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) in relation to retained austenite, with reference to the experimental steels worked at LBL for the past several years.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Rao, B.V.N. & Thomas, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

First order study for an iron core OH system for TNS

Description: A simple comparison has been made between an air core and an iron core ohmic heating system for a particular device, and it was shown that the peak power requirements can be substantially reduced by the use of an iron core to power levels handled by industry today. It was also shown that for an ohmic heating system initiated plasma that the cost of the iron core ohmic heating power system (iron core, dual rectifier, and DC switch) is less than the cost for a subset of the power system for an air core system (dual rectifier and DC switch). There is considerable work being done on other methods of initiating the plasma none of which seem to be incompatible with the use of an iron core system.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Ballou, J. K. & Schultz, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Silicon Materials Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project (Phase II). Ninth quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1977

Description: It was proposed to investigate and define the effects of various processes, contaminants and process-contaminant interactions in the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The major effort has been in the areas of crystal growth and thermal processing, comparison of impurity effects in low and high resistivity silicon, modeling the behavior of p-type ingots containing Mo and C, and, quantitative analysis of bulk lifetime and junction degradation effects in contaminated solar cells. The lifetime of uncontaminated silicon was mesured as a function of heat treatment temperature (200 to 1200/sup 0/C). The performance of solar cells fabricated on silicon web crystals grown from melts containing about 10/sup 18/cm/sup -3/ of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Ti and V, respectively, were measured. Deep level spectroscopy of metal-contaminated ingots has been employed to determine the level and density of recombination centers due to Ti, V, Ni, and Cr.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Blais, P.D.; Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Hanes, M.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Design, development, and demonstration of a promising integrated appliance. Phase I: design. Final report

Description: The combination or integration of appliances for the economical recovery of energy which is normally wasted during the operation of heating systems, air conditioners, water heaters, stoves, clothes washers and driers, and refrigerators in homes and commercial buildings was studied. The potential energy savings achievable by using waste heat from one appliance as heat input to another, e.g., water heaters, was estimated, and the economic benefit to the consumer calculated. Six integrated appliance systems, all involving waste heat utilization to augment water heating were identified as economically feasible with a maximum cost payback period of 3.5 y in residential buildings and 5.0 y for commercial buildings. These included heat recovery from furnaces, air conditioners, commercial ranges, heat in water drains in homes, and heat in water drains in commercial buildings. The first three are the most promising. A program to demonstrate the performance of these three integrated appliance systems and to further their commercialization is recommended. (LCL)
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Lee, W. D.; Lawrence, W. T. & Wilson, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Experimental program to validate analyses of accelerator breeder concepts

Description: The concept of using high-energy particle accelerators to produce neutrons for converting fertile material to fissile is over 25 years old. It is only relatively recently that accelerator design has progressed to a point where the operation approaches commercial viability. Critical unknowns in the concept were identified in a detailed study of specic configurations. Experiments to elucidate these unknowns in a timely manner using existing material and facilities are defined and identified. Basic measurements are described to evaluate effects of the primary particle beam and resulting secondary particles in massive assemblies of most materials of interest.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Talbert Jr., W. L.; Russell, G. J. & Malenfant, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation of an all-glass, evacuated, tubular, nonfocusing, nontracking solar collector array. First annual progress report, July 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

Description: A spaced, evacuated tubular radiation receiver employing a highly selective absorber surface and light enhancement features has been subject to extensive test and analysis. Air was used as the heat transfer fluid. The design, installation, test and analysis of the air cooled collector was conducted. The thermal performance of the air cooled collector was found to be better than predicted when rated on an all day operating basis. The high performance characteristic is enhanced by the features of ease of installation and freedom from maintenance and operational problems. High quality air or liquid may be provided (the latter by heat exchange) for a variety of load applications.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Moan, K L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Light Absorption and Scattering Mechanisms in Laser Fusion Plasmas

Description: The picture of laser light absorption and scattering which is emerging from theory and computer simulation studies of laser-plasma interactions is described. On the subject of absorption, we discuss theoretical and experimental evidence that resonance absorption in a steepened density profile is a dominant absorption mechanism. Recent work also indicates the presence of critical surface ripples, which we study using two and three dimensional computer simulations. Predictions of hot electron spectra due to resonance absorption are described, as are effects of plasma outflow. We then discuss two regimes where stimulated scattering may occur. Brillouin scattering is expected in the underdense target blow-off, for long laser pulses, and is limited by ion heating. Raman scattering in the background gas of a reactor target chamber is predicted to be at most a 10 percent effect for 1 ..mu..m lasers.
Date: October 4, 1977
Creator: Barnes, C.; Estabrook, K. G.; Kruer, W. L.; Langdon, A. B.; Lasinski, B. F.; Max, C. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Scoping Report on Various Salt Mines in the United States

Description: One of the most important factors in isolating the demonstration waste storage site is an adequate number of shafts to insure proper ventilation. Proper ventilation will require that the air exhausted from the storage area pass directly to the upcast air shaft. Those mines reported by this scoping contract generally conform with the two shafts per mine requirement of MESA. Three of the mines reported on have more than two shafts. Several of the mines can have additional shafts drilled in time to meet ERDA's schedule. Rough drilling costs have been cited in the report. From an economic standpoint, it is probable that the larger the mine, the greater the economic impact with regard to any dislocation of production that may be required. In some cases, such as the Retsof Mine and the Cayuga Mine, multiple shafts eliminate the probability of dislocation. Those small tonnage mines such as the Kleer at Grand Saline, Texas; the Hockley Mine near Houston and the Lyons Mine of the American Salt Company might be leased or purchased in their entirety.
Date: July 1977
Creator: Jacoby, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation of environmental dosimetry models for applicability to possible radioactive waste repository discharges

Description: This report presents the results of a review of the available codes, for application to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Consideration was given to the types of radionuclides which may be of concern, the possible modes of release of these radionuclides and the various pathways by which members of the general public in the vicinity of a terminal storage facility may be exposed to the releases. Results reveal that the types and quantities of radioactive material requiring disposal will depend on the type of back and fuel cycle adopted. It can be assumed that under normal operating conditions there will be virtually no liquid effluent and inconsequentially small quantities of radioactive gaseous effluent. Under accident conditions during operation, both liquid and gaseous releases could occur resulting in exposures to the general public. Failure of the facility subsequent to decommissioning could also result in exposures but primarily via the aquatic pathways. A review of three atmospheric dispersion models and 32 environmental dosimetry codes presently used by the nuclear industry was performed. A discussion is presented on standard NRC methodologies for determining the dispersion coefficients used as input to the various models and the inherent limitations of many of the techniques routinely used to evaluate site specific atmospheric dispersion. The review of the dosimetry codes reveals that no one code is generally applicable to the NWTS Program, but some codes permit radiological assessment of the most important exposure pathways. (DLC)
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Mauro, J. J.; Michlewicz, D. & Letizia, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

State legislatures and energy policy in the Northeast: energy facility siting and legislative action

Description: At the Federal level, a vast array of bureaucratic and legislative institutions are presently immersed in various explorations of energy policy and its national ramifications. Almost each of the 50 states has Energy offices. One element of the institutional/political equation, however, often is missed in studies of energy policy: the state legislature. This institution may well be vitally important to formulation of broad policies, and certainly is critical to successful implementation of certain aspects of those policies--especially when new enabling legislation, new tax incentives, or new regulatory powers are required. The study covers three main aspects of energy-policy formulation and action by state legislatures: legislative structure; enactment of energy-facility-siting laws; and passage (or defeat) of significant energy legislation of a more general nature. Emphasis is placed on energy-facility-siting statutes and approaches for two reasons. First, energy facilities have a great impact on land use, environmental quality, and economic growth. Second, siting of these facilities raises inherent conflicts in the attempt to achieve balance between potentially contradictory objectives. The states of New Jersey and Maryland were examined in considerable depth as examples in this study. (MCW)
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An Evaluation of liquid metal leak detection methods for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

Description: This report documents an independent review and evaluation of sodium leak detection methods described in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Only information in publicly available documents was used in making the assessments.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Morris, C. J. & Doctor, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Effect of fuel recycling on radioactivity and thermal power of high-level wastes

Description: The radioactivity and thermal power of high-level and plutonium-bearing wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have been calculated for the years 1975 to 2005 using the rate of generation of such wastes projected for the Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide Fuel (NUREG-0002). Three modes of fuel recycle are considered: (1) no recycle, (2) uranium recycle, and (3) prompt uranium and plutonium recycle. These cases are compared with a respect to radioactivity and thermal power of the generated waste, the waste shipments, and the accumulated inventories at reactor sites, reprocessing facilities, and ultimate disposal sites.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Wachter, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen