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Computer simulation of LMFBR piping systems. [Accident conditions]

Description: Integrity of piping systems is one of the main concerns of the safety issues of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) and water-sodium interaction are two examples of sources of high pressure pulses that endanger the integrity of the heat transport piping systems of LMFBRs. Although plastic wall deformation attenuates pressure peaks so that only pressures slightly higher than the pipe yield pressure propagate along the system, the interaction of these pulses with the different components of the system, such as elbows, valves, heat exchangers, etc.; and with one another produce a complex system of pressure pulses that cause more plastic deformation and perhaps damage to components. A generalized piping component and a tee branching model are described. An optional tube bundle and interior rigid wall simulation model makes such a generalized component model suited for modelling of valves, reducers, expansions, and heat exchangers. The generalized component and the tee branching junction models are combined with the pipe-elbow loop model so that a more general piping system can be analyzed both hydrodynamically and structurally under the effect of simultaneous pressure pulses.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.W. & Fistedis, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Nichelle Nichols Shuttle Astronaut Recruitment]

Description: Nichelle Nichols (Lieutenant Uhura) wants you to work on the Space Shuttle Enterprise in this government produced film from 1977. Nichelle Nichols played communications officer Lieutenant (later, Commander) Uhura aboard the USS Enterprise in the Star Trek television series (1966–1969), working to recruit diverse astronauts to NASA, including women and ethnic minorities.
Date: 1977
Duration: 5 minutes 54 seconds
Creator: A-V Corporation
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
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Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in Lincoln and Flathead Counties, northwest Montana

Description: Between mid-May and late June 1976, 3409 water and water-transported sediment samples were collected from 1781 locations spread over an approximate 17000-km/sup 2/ area of northwestern Montana. All of the samples were analyzed for total uranium at the LASL, using standardized procedures and rigorous quality controls, the waters by fluorometry and the sediment (and those waters with greater than 10 ppb uranium) by delayed-neutron counting methods. All of the field collection, treatment, and packaging of the samples was performed following strict LASL specifications. The uranium concentrations measured in the waters range from undetectable (less than 0.2) ppb to 173.6 ppb, but average only 0.66 ppb. The low uranium concentrations in the waters of this area are thought to be due primarily to a general lack of readily soluble uranium and dilution with spring runoff. Those locations which did have abnormally high uranium were examined more closely, and follow-up field examinations are recommended in the vicinity of some of these sites. The uranium content of the sediment samples range from 0.5 ppM to 52.2 ppM and average 4.56 ppM. Sample locations with high and/or anomalous uranium values were examined with respect to the local geology, water chemistry, and other relevant factors. A distinct correlation between the high uranium in sediment and epithermal and mesothermal veins associated with nearby faults and folds is evident at several locations. Areas believed to be favorable for follow-up field investigations based on the sediment data are indicated. A correlation between high uranium in water and high uranium in sediment is evident at only a single location. The generally low uranium concentrations in water and moderate concentrations in sediment seem to indicate that most of the uranium that does exist in this area is bound up in resistant minerals.
Date: May 1, 1977
Creator: Aamodt, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in Lincoln and Flathead Counties, Northwest Montana

Description: From abstract: Between mid-May and late June 1976, 3409 water and water-transported sediment samples were collected from 1781 locations spread over an approximate 17 000 kilometer area of northwestern Montana. All of the samples were analyzed for total uranium at the LASL, using standardized procedures and rigorous quality controls--the waters by fluorometry and the sediment (and those waters with >10 parts per billion uranium) by delayed-neutron counting methods.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Aamodt, Paul L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hydraulic fracture experiments in GT-1 and GT-2

Description: Hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted in granite rock, at temperatures near 100 and 150/sup 0/C, in two wells 0.785 km (2575 ft) and 1.98 km (6500 ft) deep near Los Alamos, New Mexico. No unusual difficulty was observed in fracturing crystalline rock hydraulically. The apparent surface energy (energy required to create new fracture surface by breaking the rock) was measured as 100 J/m/sup 2/. Orientation of the deeper fracture was measured as N35/sup 0/E (+-5/sup 0/). The fraction of fluid injected into the rock that could be recovered at hydrostatic surface pressure was measured. The efficiency of recovery was as high as 92 percent after the fracture impedance was lowered by ''propping'' the fracture with sand. Permeability of the rock over the face of the fracture was compatible with laboratory measurements (10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -8/ darcys). Downhole pressures required to extend the fractures were about 150 and 340 bars (2175 and 4900 psi), respectively.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Aamodt, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BNL Archive and Dissemination System. [For accessing data files constructed at separate places and times]

Description: The Brookhaven National Laboratory Archive and Dissemination System (BNLADS) is designed to deal with the record keeping associated with archiving and disseminating sequential files through a computer network. This data base management system (DBMS) is implemented in a host language that is a subset of PL/I. The stored sequential files that can be dealt with by the BNLADS must be in character mode (ASCII, BCD, EBCDIC). The accessing of fields is specified by a format description which allows for forward processing of fields only. The structure of a case type statement allows for a data field determining a format sequence from a set of format sequences. A data description language (DDL) was devised to describe the accessing sequence of stored sequential files. A data model definition gives the user a view of the content of each stored sequential file. The DDL requires all field type references to contain the field name, so that the BNLADS can access all stored sequential files by logical field name and can write stored sequential files by stating the logical field name without the necessity of referring to formats. The BNLADS is architected in a stratified form in which the application programs are built on the accessing procedures. Below this level, the procedures become dependent upon the compiler implementation of the host language PL/I and the operating system. In this manner, BNLADS can be used on most manufacturer's hardware and exhibits the desired property of data independence. 5 figures.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Abbey, S; Fuchel, K; Heller, J; Lin, K S & Osterer, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Growth of molten core debris pools in concrete. Progress report, March 1, 1977--November 30, 1977. [LMFBR]

Description: Experiments have been conducted using a volumetrically-heated pool with noncondensable gas injection at the boundaries to simulate the heat transfer processes taking place in molten core debris/concrete systems. Measurements of the upward, downward, and sideward heat transfer rates have been made over wide ranges of internal Rayleigh number (6.0 x 10/sup 5/ < Ra < 2.7 x 10/sup 9/), superficial gas velocity (0 < V/sub g/ < 2.5 cm/min), and pool aspect ratio (1.32 < W/L < 5.16). Pools with either an isothermal solid upper boundary or a free surface have been examined. Detailed measurements of the temperature distribution within the pools have also been made. The results indicate that the downward heat transfer rates are significantly increased while the sideward heat transfer rates are slightly affected by gas injection. The heat transfer rates at the pool boundaries are sensitive to the upper surface boundary condition. Efforts are continuing on the second part of the present study where the phase-change and gas evolution processes are combined.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Abdel-Khalik, S I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Important aspects of radiation shielding for fusion reactor tokamaks

Description: Radiation shielding is a key subsystem in tokamak reactors. Design of this shield must evolve from economic and technological trade-off studies that account for the strong interrelations among the various components of the reactor system. These trade-offs are examined for the bulk shield on the inner side of the torus and for the special shields of major penetrations. Results derived are applicable for a large class of tokamak-type reactors.
Date: April 30, 1977
Creator: Abdou, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiation considerations for superconducting fusion magnets

Description: Radiation environment for the magnets is characterized for various conditions expected for tokamak power reactor operation. The radiation levels are translated into radiation effects using available experimental data. The impact of the tradeoffs in radiation shielding and the change in the properties of the superconducting magnets on reactor performance and economics is examined. It is shown that (1) superconducting magnets in fusion reactors will operate at much higher radiation level than was previously anticipated; (2) additional data on radiation damage is required to better accuracy than is presently available in order to accurately quantify the change in properties in the superconducting magnet components; and (3) there is a substantial penalty for increasing (or overestimating) the shielding requirements. A perspective of future tokamak power reactors is presented and questions relating to desirable magnetic field strength and selection of materials for superconducting magnets are briefly examined.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Abdou, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Impact of Major Design Parameters on the Economics of Tokamak Power Plants

Description: A parametric systems studies program is now in an active stage at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of results from this systems analysis effort. The impact of major design parameters on the economics of tokamak power plants is examined. The major parameters considered are: (1) the plant power rating; (2) toroidal-field strength; (3) plasma ..beta../sub t/; (4) aspect ratio; (5) plasma elongation; (6) inner blanket/shield thickness; and (7) neutron wall load. The performance characteristics and economics of tokamak power plants are also compared for two structural materials (stainless steel and a vanadium alloy).
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Abdou, M. A.; Ehst, D.; Maroni, V. & Stacey, W. M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Description and Analysis of the Channels of Distribution for Food Products in the State of Kuwait

Description: This study is intended, first, to describe and analyze the channels of distribution for food products in the State of Kuwait, second, to pinpoint the problems that exist in the food-distribution system, and, third, to make specific recommendations for the alleviation of the problems. Consistent with the objectives of the study and based on the description and analysis of the food-distribution system in the country, it is concluded in the study that Kuwait depends on imports for virtually all of its food; the government plays a major role in the food-distribution system; and the majority of food wholesaling and retailing establishments are small, inefficient, and lack modern marketing and physical distribution techniques. Product shortages and rising food prices plague the food-distribution system in the country. Also, the findings indicate that consumers in Kuwait are generally ignorant and uninformed in the areas of food nutrition and food shopping, and the lack of standardization and grading of food products makes the shopping task of the consumer more difficult.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Abdulelah, Abdulla Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Speciation studies of radionuclides in low level wastes and process waters from pressurized water reactor

Description: Physicochemical characterization studies of aqueous process streams at San Onofre Generating Station Unit No. 1 are providing important source term information concerning the forms of radionuclides being released into the marine environment. The primary coolant, secondary steam condensate, processed low level wastes and tertiary coolant were sampled at several different times in the nuclear fuel cycle. Rdionuclides were partitioned into particulate, cationic, anionic, and nonionic species in the reactor process streams, and into particulate and soluble species in the tertiary seawater coolant. Characterization of the particulate species has included a detailed size distribution. The purpose of this research was to provide information concerning chemical and physical forms of the radionuclides being released to the coastal zone from a nuclear generating station in order to facilitate design of radiobiological studies necessary for assessment of their environmental significance.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Abel, K. H.; Robertson, D. E.; Crecelius, E. A. & Silker, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy modeling and data support for the Electric Power Research Institute. Annual report, July 1977

Description: Progress for the period from July 1, 1976 to June 30, 1977 is reviewed in this second annual report in support of the Energy Modeling and Data Support program for EPRI. Reference Energy Systems were formulated for the base year 1972 and projections developed for the years 1980, 1985, and 2000 for the area serviced by the New York Power Pool. In addition, Brookhaven, EPRI, and the Tennessee Valley Authority have entered into a cooperative effort to develop demand projections for the area serviced by TVA. The RES and associated data will provide a baseline against which TVA can evaluate the effect of substituting alternate technologies and policies for one another. Development of the Dynamic Energy Systems Optimization Model is continuing, with effort this year directed toward better representation of the electrical sector within the model. The model has been reformulated such that the year is divided into three seasons and two daily divisions, thus allowing the model to choose whether a summer or winter peak will occur and better depict the yearly time dependence of demands.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Abilock, H; Beller, M; Cherniavsky, E A; Hermelee, A; Juang, L L & Marcuse, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Neutron-induced mutation experiments. Progress report, March 1, 1977--February 28, 1978. [Drosophila female gonial cell exposure]

Description: Experiments have been carried out to study the relative mutagenic effectiveness for Drosophila female germ cells of neutrons of different energies employing X-linked recessive lethal and specific locus mutation tests. The energies and doses employed to date to study X-linked lethals are 0.43 MeV (500, 1000, 1500, 1900 R (in progress)), 0.68 MeV (250, 500, 1000, 1500 R), 2 MeV (250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 R), 6 MeV (250, 500, 1500, 3000 R) and 15 MeV (250, 500, 1000, 1500, 3000 R). 0.43-MeV neutrons appear to have an RBE in the range 1.9 to 4.7, 0.68 MeV 2.8 to 4.3, 2 MeV (incomplete data), 6 MeV 1.7 to 3.2, and 15 MeV 1.7 to 2.2. The data for 0.43-MeV and 0.68-MeV neutrons do not yet differentiate between a linear and a quadratic dose/frequency response curve for the doses studied, but suggest a quadratic relationship. The data for 2, 6 and 15 MeV are inconclusive. The specific locus mutation data indicate the highest RBE for 0.68-MeV neutrons, followed by 2 and 6 MeV, respectively.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Abrahamson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Genetic effects of low x-ray doses. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977. [In Drosophila]

Description: A linear-quadratic model of dose-kinetics is proposed for x-ray induced recessive lethal mutations in oogonia of Drosophila. From this it should follow that at higher total doses fractionation treatments should give a lower yield of mutations than an equivalent acute exposure. A dose of 6000 R, given acutely and in 3 different fractionation regimes gave results in the expected direction for 2 x 3000 R, and a significant decrease for 3 x 2000 R and for 4 x 1500 R fractionations.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Abrahamson, S. & Meyer, H.U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

As low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) studies relative to the NWTS program

Description: The history of development of the as-low-as-is-reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and ALARA criteria for radiation exposures as applied to both off-site (environmental) and on-site (occupational) exposures at nuclear power plants are reviewed. The current status of activities within the various federal agencies directed toward developing ALARA criteria for other areas of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. Based on the historical development, the present activities, and on discussions with numerous people involved in this area, the future development of ALARA criteria and implications for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is forecast. Environmental ALARA criteria which relate to minimizing radiation to the surrounding populaltion are discussed along with current occupational ALARA criteria and quidelines for risk-benefit assessments that are under development and recommendations to assure that evolving ALARA concepts are periodically brought up to date and that such concepts be made available to those subcontractors who have responsibility for design and operation of a repository. An annotated bibliography of some 83 sources giving information on ALARA criteria and its application is included. (JRD)
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Abrams, L. A.; Schlegel, R. L. & Sullivan, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Caging in high energy reactions. [Role of the cage effect in hot atom reactions]

Description: The concept of caging high energy reactions is considered. It is noted that there is no easy and unambiguous way, short of a complete and very tedious product and mechanistic analysis, which is feasible only for very few systems, to determine the contribution made by caging. It is emphasized that some products resulting from the hot reaction with a certain substrate may be formed via caging while others are not. In research on the mechanism of caging the results of Roots work on the reactions of hot /sup 18/F with the CF/sub 3/CH/sub 3/ system seem to provide evidence for caging, with /sup 18/F being the caged moiety, thus proceeding via a radical--radical recombination mechanism. Their work with H/sub 2/S additive also seems to indicate that scavenging via hydrogen abstraction from H/sub 2/S to form does not interfere with the radical--radical recombination consistent with Bunkers molecular approach to explain the cage effects. In other research a series of observations resulting from stereochemical and combined stereochemical density variation techniques seem to favor a caged-complex. It is clear that a more conclusive answer can only be reached by more systematic studies, utilizing the whole range of nuclear reactions such as (n,2n), (n,..gamma..) and E.C. processes in mechanistically well defined systems to elucidate the effect of variations in the recoil energies, by carrying out studies in different solvents or host substances to assess the effect of the physical parameters, such as molecule size and intermolecular interactions on the escape probability or caging efficiencies.
Date: 1977
Creator: Ache, Hans J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced fuel cell development progress report, April--June 1977. [Electrolyte mixtures of Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ containing rod-shaped particles of. beta. -LiAlO/sub 2/]

Description: This report describes advanced fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period April--June 1977. These efforts have been directed toward understanding and improvement of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operating at temperatures near 923 K. A primary focus of the work has been on developing electrolyte structures which have high strength and conductivity, as well as good electrolyte retention, and on developing methods of synthesis for electrolyte structures that are amenable to mass production. A low temperature synthesis which produces material having rodlike particles of ..beta..--LiAlO/sub 2/ has been refined and is now used for preparing electrolytes. Cell testing is essential for understanding and evaluating individual component behavior and the interactions of the components under realistic operating conditions. Most of the testing to date has been conducted in a 7-cm (2/sup 3///sub 4/-in.)-dia cylindrical cell with Type 316 stainless steel housings and current collectors, a nickel anode, and a nickel oxide cathode. Testing has begun to probe the roles of anode, cathode, and electrolyte in cell performance, and has provided verification of an acceptable technique for prevention of seal corrosion for at least 1400 hours. Components evaluation and development include post-test analysis and evaluation of cell components and materials, as well as development of out-of-cell diagnostic tests for the individual components. Particular attention is being paid to evaluation of the physical properties of the electrolyte and of the porous nickel and nickel oxide electrodes.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Ackerman, J P; Kinoshita, K; Sim, J W; Swaroop, R & Nelson, P A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced fuel cell development. Progress report for January--March 1977.

Description: Advanced fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period January to March 1977 is described. Efforts have been directed toward understanding and improvement of molten carbonate electrolyte fuel cells operating at temperatures near 650/sup 0/C. A primary focus of the work has been on developing electrolyte structures which have high strength and conductivity, as well as good electrolyte retention, and on developing methods of synthesis for electrolyte structures that are amenable to mass production. Several synthesis methods have been investigated, and at least one appears to yield a highly desirable product and to greatly simplify production. Cell testing is essential for understanding and evaluating individual component behavior and the interactions of the components under realistic operating conditions. Most of the testing to date has been conducted in a 2/sup 3///sub 4/-in.-dia cylindrical cell with Type 316 stainless steel housings and current collectors, a nickel anode, and a nickel oxide cathode. Reproducible cell operation has been achieved in these cells, and operational parameters have been brought under control. Necessary improvements in cell components have been defined, and a systematic program of optimization has begun. Components evaluation and development include post-test analysis and evaluation of all the cell components and materials as well as development of out-of-cell diagnostic tests for the individual components. Particular attention is being paid to evaluation of the physical properties of the electrolyte and to corrosion of metallic materials in the cell housings.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Ackerman, J P; Kinoshita, K; Sim, J W; Swaroop, R & Nelson, P A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: January-March 1978

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes the development of electrolyte structures which have good electrolyte retention and mechanical properties as well as long term stability, and on developing methods of synthesis amenable to mass production.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, Robert Dean; Nelson, P. A.; Arons, R. M.; Kinoshita, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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