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Single particle behavior in plasmas

Description: The paper follows the history of a neutral atom or molecule into a plasma--ionization, dissociation, radiation,--until it becomes a set of charged particles moving in the electromagnetic fields of the plasma system. The various useful forms of the method of averaging are displayed and applied to calculation of constants of motion. The breakdown of these constants is discussed along with some of the implications for fusion systems.
Date: March 10, 1977
Creator: McNamara, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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COMP: a BASIC language nonlinear least-squares curve fitting program

Description: COMP is an interactive nonlinear least squares routine written in BASIC language and used to obtain estimates of parameters in nonlinear functions and to approximate their associated statistical errors. The program uses the linearizing (or Taylor Series) expansion of partial derivatives outlined in Draper and Smith, (1966, pp. 267 to 270). Therefore, partial derivatives must be supplied (as well as the function) by the user for any new models not currently contained in the programs. When a linearizing method is used to estimate parameters in a nonlinear model, all the usual procedures of linear regression theory can be applied. However, the results so obtained are only valid insofar as the linearized form approximates the true model. All of the statistics computed by COMP should be viewed with this restriction in mind. The output of COMP includes the variance-covariance matrix, t-tests for parameters, Von Neumann's ratio, observed, predicted and residual values, the error mean square, and an optional procedure to evaluate heteroscedasticity.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Thomas, J. M.; Cochran, M. I.; Watson, C. R. & Eberhardt, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Correlation of alluvial deposits at the Nevada Test Site

Description: Because characteristics of rock layers and problems in drilling must be studied before radioactive waste can be safely contained, an evaluation was made of methods for correlating alluvial deposits at Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Although correlation of Tertiary volcanic tuff beds at the NTS has been successfully achieved, correlation of stratigraphic zones in the overlying alluvium has posed technical difficulties. We have evaluated several methods for correlating alluvial deposits from drillholes, including electric resistivity logs (E logs), visual examination of sidewall samples and comparison of their carbonate (CO/sub 2/) content, downhole stereo photography for identifying debris flow deposits, caliche age-dating, and specific yield and permeability measurements of deposits. For predicting the thickness of zones having similar physical properties in the alluvium, E log measurements were found to be the most useful of these methods.
Date: September 30, 1977
Creator: Grothaus, B. & Howard, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hydrogen attack of steel. Progress report, April 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

Description: Four carbon steels of approximately equivalent carbon content and varying mainly in the method of steelmaking, i.e., semi-killed, fully-killed, REM-treated, and electroslag refined (ESR), are being studied to determine the effect of deoxidation practice and inclusion morphology on the hydrogen attack of carbon steel. To date tests have been run on a cold-rolled steel (to develop experimental techniques), the semi-killed, and REM-treated materials. Heat treatment for the latter two steels consisted of 60 minutes at 890/sup 0/C and air cooling to give an average grain size of ASTM No. 8. Significant results are: (1) hydrogen attack results in substantial (factor of ten) greater growth normal to the rolling plane than in the rolling plane; (2) metallography and fractography show a few areas with many microscopic bubbles in the REM-treated steel indicating high bubble nucleation rates on some boundaries and much lower on most boundaries; (3) incubation times, t/sub i/, are on the order of 4 to 5 times that predicted from Weiner's equation. The anisotropy relatives to the rolling plane occurred in all three steels treated. Thus it would seem reasonable that such variables as inclusions or segregation tend to determine the local extent of hydrogen attack. This anisotropy will be examined further in the next series of experiments by comparing all four steels. Of special interest will bethe results of the ESR steel, in which the inclusion content and solidification segregation is significantly reduced.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Shewmon, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes

Description: Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Griest, W. H.; Quincy, R. B. & Guerin, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Silicon Materials Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project (Phase II). Ninth quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1977

Description: It was proposed to investigate and define the effects of various processes, contaminants and process-contaminant interactions in the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The major effort has been in the areas of crystal growth and thermal processing, comparison of impurity effects in low and high resistivity silicon, modeling the behavior of p-type ingots containing Mo and C, and, quantitative analysis of bulk lifetime and junction degradation effects in contaminated solar cells. The lifetime of uncontaminated silicon was mesured as a function of heat treatment temperature (200 to 1200/sup 0/C). The performance of solar cells fabricated on silicon web crystals grown from melts containing about 10/sup 18/cm/sup -3/ of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Ti and V, respectively, were measured. Deep level spectroscopy of metal-contaminated ingots has been employed to determine the level and density of recombination centers due to Ti, V, Ni, and Cr.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Blais, P.D.; Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Hanes, M.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design, development, and demonstration of a promising integrated appliance. Phase I: design. Final report

Description: The combination or integration of appliances for the economical recovery of energy which is normally wasted during the operation of heating systems, air conditioners, water heaters, stoves, clothes washers and driers, and refrigerators in homes and commercial buildings was studied. The potential energy savings achievable by using waste heat from one appliance as heat input to another, e.g., water heaters, was estimated, and the economic benefit to the consumer calculated. Six integrated appliance systems, all involving waste heat utilization to augment water heating were identified as economically feasible with a maximum cost payback period of 3.5 y in residential buildings and 5.0 y for commercial buildings. These included heat recovery from furnaces, air conditioners, commercial ranges, heat in water drains in homes, and heat in water drains in commercial buildings. The first three are the most promising. A program to demonstrate the performance of these three integrated appliance systems and to further their commercialization is recommended. (LCL)
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Lee, W. D.; Lawrence, W. T. & Wilson, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of an all-glass, evacuated, tubular, nonfocusing, nontracking solar collector array. First annual progress report, July 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

Description: A spaced, evacuated tubular radiation receiver employing a highly selective absorber surface and light enhancement features has been subject to extensive test and analysis. Air was used as the heat transfer fluid. The design, installation, test and analysis of the air cooled collector was conducted. The thermal performance of the air cooled collector was found to be better than predicted when rated on an all day operating basis. The high performance characteristic is enhanced by the features of ease of installation and freedom from maintenance and operational problems. High quality air or liquid may be provided (the latter by heat exchange) for a variety of load applications.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Moan, K L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Scoping Report on Various Salt Mines in the United States

Description: One of the most important factors in isolating the demonstration waste storage site is an adequate number of shafts to insure proper ventilation. Proper ventilation will require that the air exhausted from the storage area pass directly to the upcast air shaft. Those mines reported by this scoping contract generally conform with the two shafts per mine requirement of MESA. Three of the mines reported on have more than two shafts. Several of the mines can have additional shafts drilled in time to meet ERDA's schedule. Rough drilling costs have been cited in the report. From an economic standpoint, it is probable that the larger the mine, the greater the economic impact with regard to any dislocation of production that may be required. In some cases, such as the Retsof Mine and the Cayuga Mine, multiple shafts eliminate the probability of dislocation. Those small tonnage mines such as the Kleer at Grand Saline, Texas; the Hockley Mine near Houston and the Lyons Mine of the American Salt Company might be leased or purchased in their entirety.
Date: July 1977
Creator: Jacoby, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of environmental dosimetry models for applicability to possible radioactive waste repository discharges

Description: This report presents the results of a review of the available codes, for application to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Consideration was given to the types of radionuclides which may be of concern, the possible modes of release of these radionuclides and the various pathways by which members of the general public in the vicinity of a terminal storage facility may be exposed to the releases. Results reveal that the types and quantities of radioactive material requiring disposal will depend on the type of back and fuel cycle adopted. It can be assumed that under normal operating conditions there will be virtually no liquid effluent and inconsequentially small quantities of radioactive gaseous effluent. Under accident conditions during operation, both liquid and gaseous releases could occur resulting in exposures to the general public. Failure of the facility subsequent to decommissioning could also result in exposures but primarily via the aquatic pathways. A review of three atmospheric dispersion models and 32 environmental dosimetry codes presently used by the nuclear industry was performed. A discussion is presented on standard NRC methodologies for determining the dispersion coefficients used as input to the various models and the inherent limitations of many of the techniques routinely used to evaluate site specific atmospheric dispersion. The review of the dosimetry codes reveals that no one code is generally applicable to the NWTS Program, but some codes permit radiological assessment of the most important exposure pathways. (DLC)
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Mauro, J. J.; Michlewicz, D. & Letizia, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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State legislatures and energy policy in the Northeast: energy facility siting and legislative action

Description: At the Federal level, a vast array of bureaucratic and legislative institutions are presently immersed in various explorations of energy policy and its national ramifications. Almost each of the 50 states has Energy offices. One element of the institutional/political equation, however, often is missed in studies of energy policy: the state legislature. This institution may well be vitally important to formulation of broad policies, and certainly is critical to successful implementation of certain aspects of those policies--especially when new enabling legislation, new tax incentives, or new regulatory powers are required. The study covers three main aspects of energy-policy formulation and action by state legislatures: legislative structure; enactment of energy-facility-siting laws; and passage (or defeat) of significant energy legislation of a more general nature. Emphasis is placed on energy-facility-siting statutes and approaches for two reasons. First, energy facilities have a great impact on land use, environmental quality, and economic growth. Second, siting of these facilities raises inherent conflicts in the attempt to achieve balance between potentially contradictory objectives. The states of New Jersey and Maryland were examined in considerable depth as examples in this study. (MCW)
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Evaluation of liquid metal leak detection methods for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

Description: This report documents an independent review and evaluation of sodium leak detection methods described in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Only information in publicly available documents was used in making the assessments.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Morris, C. J. & Doctor, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effect of fuel recycling on radioactivity and thermal power of high-level wastes

Description: The radioactivity and thermal power of high-level and plutonium-bearing wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have been calculated for the years 1975 to 2005 using the rate of generation of such wastes projected for the Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide Fuel (NUREG-0002). Three modes of fuel recycle are considered: (1) no recycle, (2) uranium recycle, and (3) prompt uranium and plutonium recycle. These cases are compared with a respect to radioactivity and thermal power of the generated waste, the waste shipments, and the accumulated inventories at reactor sites, reprocessing facilities, and ultimate disposal sites.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Wachter, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tritium half-life

Description: Least squares analyses of calorimetric measurements made at Mound Laboratory on two tritide compounds over a period of 18 y were performed to determine the half-life of tritium. A half-life of 12.3232 +- 0.0043 mean solar years was obtained.
Date: December 22, 1977
Creator: Rudy, C. R. & Jordan, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Pacific Northwest Laboratory Report on Fusion Energy Research, April 1977 - June 1977

Description: The development of economic data for fusion power plants continued in a study estimating the potential impact of a shortage of materials important in fusion plant construction. In studies developing heat transfer and fluid flow design tools for fusion reactor blankets, preconceptual design studies were initiated to identify the potential design limits of water cooling in the first wall of Tokamak Next Step (TNS) concepts. In surface effects research clean gold samples were irradiated in the University of California (D,Be) neutron source for a neutron sputtering experiment. Light ion and neutron irradiation experiments have continued in studies of the effects of radiation on mechanical properties. The hardening response of 14 MeV neutron-irradiated nickel changed at high particle fluences (10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 17/ particles/cm/sup 2/) while the hardening response of 16 MeV proton-irradiated nickel did not, which may have been due to a difference in irradiation hardening mechanisms. The flux dependence of the damage microstructure and irradiation hardening of materials needs further study to clarify uncertainty about light ion and fusion neutron damage processes. Neutron irradiations of Ni, 316SS, and Nb wires and foils were completed. Work has continued in studies developing acoustic emission (AE) techniques for determining the prebreakdown behavior and failure mechanisms in electric insulators with potential applications in fusion reactors. Scoping experiments with the high-vacuum dielectric breakdown apparatus were conducted.
Date: July 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic aspects of radiation action on microorganisms. Final report for the period ending October 31, 1977. [Radioresistance of micrococcus luteus]

Description: Progress is reported on studies on the basic aspects of radiation effects on microorganisms. Results are included from studies on the effects of uv pretreatment on the survival of ..gamma..-irradiated micrococcus luteus and uv-induced radioresistance to bacteriophage.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Pollard, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hydrogen bonding in asphaltenes and coal. Progress report, March 1, 1977--August 31, 1977

Description: A calorimetric method is presented for the simultaneous evaluation of equilibrium constant, K, and molar enthalpy, ..delta..H/sup 0/, for 1 : 1 adduct formation of quinoline (Qu) with asphaltene (A), together with its acid/neutral (AA) fraction and its base (BA) fraction, isolated from a centrifuged liquid product (CLP) sample prepared from Kentucky hvAb coal at 27.6 MPa hydrogen pressure and 723K, with reactor charged with glass pellets. The same procedure was used to determine K and ..delta..H/sup 0/ for 1 : 1 adduct formation of Qu with asphaltene and heavy oils obtained from CLP samples (FB-53) prepared with CoMo catalyst at different run times and process conditions. The effects of the CoMo catalyst, run time, and residence times on viscosity, molecular weight, ..delta..H/sup 0/, heteratom content, contents of preasphaltene, asphaltene and heavy oil, aromaticity, and structural parameters, are determined. These findings lead to the conclusion that hydrogen bonding plays an important role in determining viscosity, and contributes more to the enthalpy of interaction than does ..pi..-interaction. The toluene-insoluble fraction, asphaltene (whole, acid/neutral and base fractions), and heavy oil were isolated from a solvent-refined-coal (SRC) conversion product. Data obtained from several infrared and viscosity experiments indicate that the behavior of different fractions isolated from SRC is similar to that of corresponding fractions isolated from CLP samples.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Li, N. C. & Tewari, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Digital SLIFER Recorder, Model A. [Underground nuclear explosions]

Description: The Digital SLIFER Recorder (DSR) is an instrument that records a time-varying frequency signal in the range from 700 kHz to 1500 kHz with an amplitude greater than 200 mV. This signal is referenced to an input fiducial marker, and recording is initiated by an increase in the frequency of the signal. The primary purpose of this instrument is to record data from the SLIFER system. The DSR records 512 samples after the record trigger signal, with a sample interval of 50 ..mu..s (for a total recording time of 25.55 ms). The measurement essentially uses a 20-cycle period-averaging counter technique.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Breding, D.R.; Fogel, D.; Loukota, J.J.; Worthen, G.S. & Watterberg, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Resource, technology, and environment at the geysers

Description: A general review, description, and history of geothermal development at the Geysers is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on environmental impacts of development of the area. The discussion is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction; energy, enthalpy and the First Law; vapor-producing geothermal reservoirs--review and models; geothermal; entropy and the Second Law; power plants--basics; H/sub 2/S emissions; hydrogen sulfide--possible health effects and odor; other emissions; power plant hydrogen sulfide abatement; hot water based geothermal development; phytotoxicity of geothermal emissions; appendices; and bibliography. (JGB)
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Weres, O.; Tsao, K. & Wood, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental monitoring at major U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1976. Volume 2

Description: The purpose of this compilation is to present, in a central reference document, all of the individual annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) sites having a potential for environmental impact or which release a significant quantity of radioactivity or nonradioactive pollutants. Data on the levels of radioactivity and nonradioactive pollutants in effluents and the environs at each site are given, and effluent and environmental measurements and sampling results are evaluated in relation to the appropriate standards for environmental protection, including estimates of potential radiation exposures offsite. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the potential offsite exposures are so low they cannot be determined by direct measurement methods but must be estimated by calculational techniques. All potential offsite exposures to members of the public from routine effluent releases in 1976 were less than 5 mrem/yr (i.e., less than one percent of the established radiation protection guidelines for exposure of the public). Additionally, the estimated collective man-rem dose potential to all members of the public within an 80 Km radius at all ERDA sites is less than .02 percent of the estimated man-rem dose due to natural and background environmental radiation.
Date: August 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Progress report, June 15, 1977--September 15, 1977

Description: Experiments conducted during this past quarter demonstrated the decided difference both in amount and composition of the gas produced from the fermentation of ozonated versus unozonated yeast-plant SSL. Gas from ozonated SSL averaged over 80% methane content while unozonated effluent was mostly carbon dioxide. Gas production rates and retention time studies indicated that the fermentation was substrate-limited. Preliminary tests using supplemental carbon sources have verified this. The success of the ozonation process in producing fermentable substrates was clearly shown by the appreciable yeast growth in the ozonated SSL. Of particular significance was the maximum yield obtained at the short ozonation time of 10 minutes as compared to the 2-hour treatment. It is possible that shortening the ozonation time could also increase the amount of substrate available for methane production. This would be very important in transferring this process to a commercial basis and reducing the operating costs.
Date: September 15, 1977
Creator: Jurgensen, M. F. & Patton, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LLL total flow geothermal program: summary of two-phase nozzle tests for scale control and materials performance

Description: A series of nozzle and wearblade tests to evaluate scale control and materials performance under total flow nozzle inlet conditions and simulated turbine blade environments was completed using Magmamax No. 1 well fluid. Brine acidification was effective in preventing scale in nozzles and on wearblade flow surfaces. Acid consumption measurements indicate that acid cost will be less than 2 mills/100 lb. brine. Measured erosion rates were low and the results indicate that available materials will allow successful turbine operation for many years. Stress corrosion cracking was not observed in specimens of the leading candidate turbine material (Ti-6A1-4V) after up to 60-hours operation at stresses similar to those expected in an operating turbine system.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Tardiff, G.E. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ACORN: a computer program for plotting fault trees. [In FORTRAN for CDC Cyber 74]

Description: A description and user instructions are presented for ACORN, a FORTRAN computer program for drawing fault trees. ACORN analyzes the input logical structure of a fault tree and provides data for CalComp plot of the tree. AND, OR, and INHIBIT gates are permitted, and basic events are drawn as diamonds, circles, or houses. Each component (gate or basic event) can have a descriptive label within a rectangle attached to the top of its respective symbol. Tree logic is input as a set of FORTRAN statements, each defining a gate in terms of logical operations of the components input to it. ACORN develops the logical structure of the tree from the input statements. The tree's physical structure is developed by assigning relative spatial coordinates to the logical relationships between a gate and its inputs. ACORN provides input data checking, a printer plot of the fault tree, and plotting data for a CalComp model 763 plotter. The program is operational on a CONTROL DATA CYBER 74 computer. 2 figures, 1 table.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Carter, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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