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Mode Identification in the Iris-Loaded Waveguide of a RF Particle Separator

Description: The theoretical and practical aspects of the accelerating mode (TM01) in iris-loaded waveguides have been covered extensively in many reports and publications. The pulse shortening observed in linacs and the possible application of an iris-loaded waveguides as the deflecting structure for rf particle separators stimulated the interest in the nature of higher order modes. Some experimental results on higher order modes in iris-loaded waveguides are available in references. Results of studies done at CERN are not yet published; they were however communicated to the authors and represented the basis of work done at Brookhaven. A preliminary account of BNL results was given in reference. The purpose of this report is to describe the model measurements which were necessary to determine the geometry of a brazed or electroformed prototype for a deflecting waveguide. At the same time, a systematic investigation of other than the deflecting mode was done to ensure a nondegenerate field solution at the operating frequency. The measurements are compared with computational results obtained on the IBM 7090 at BNL.
Date: February 18, 1963
Creator: Hahn, H. & Halama, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Wave Functions for Quadrupole Antishielding Factors

Description: The purpose of this paper is to present tables of the perturbed wave functions which have been recently obtained in a calculation of the quadruple antishielding factors γ∞ for the Mn+2, Fe+3, Ga+3, and Ag+ ions. The wave functions v'1(nℓ-ℓ) which are tabulated represent the effect of the perturbation due to a nuclear quadruple moment Q on the wave functions of the outermost electrons of the ion core.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Sternheimer, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Studies of the Rapid Beam Ejector at the Cosmotron

Description: For an experiment to measure the magnetic moment of the Λ hyperon, it was necessary to extract the external beam of the Cosmotron with maximum efficiency and with minimum time duration. To accomplish this end, the standard external beam of the machine was supplemented with the Rapid Beam Ejector. It was found that, unfortunately, the ejection efficiency of the beam was less than normal when the RBE was used. Measurements of the ejection efficiency were made by irradiating polyethylene foils at the second focus of Beam 1 with 3 BeV protons. The external beam was tuned up and optimized in a standard manner. It was found that the ratio of the number of protons ejected with the RBE to the number ejected without the RBE was 0.3 in one run and 0.22 in another try. It was also observed that the RBE did not shift the position of the external proton beam focus to within ± 1/8 in.
Date: February 7, 1963
Creator: Barton, M. Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fluorimetric Assay of α-Chymotrypsin

Description: The enzymolysis by α-chymotrypsin of the substrates, N-acetyl-L-tryptophane ethyl ester and N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester, was followed by means of fluorescence whose intensity increased fourfold and threefold per mole respectively as substrate was transformed into amino acid. The assay by fluorescence was several orders of magnitude more sensitive than the assay by differential absorption spectra of these substances and was in agreement with it in those concentration regions where both methods overlap. To maintain linearity between concentration and fluorescence intensity, the concentration of substrate should be no greater than 10-4 M/1. In such solutions the rate of esterolysis could be followed with the enzyme at 10-11 M/1.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Bielski, Benon H. J. & Freed, Simon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Isochronal Differential Microcalorimeter

Description: An isochronal differential-type microcalorimeter has been designed and constructed. As a result of its simple design it is very easy to handle the samples and assemble the calorimeter. Important to the operation of the calorimeter is a program, also working on the differential principle, that provides linear temperature rise of the samples. This calorimeter is used to measure very small energy releases such as those found in precipitation, stored energy, etc. It is demonstrated that the calorimeter is easily capable of measuring 0.0005 cal with a probable error of the order of 1% to 2%.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Arndt, R. A. & Fujita, F. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Re-Analysis of Short-Range Order in Cu3Au

Description: Cowley's measurements of the short-range order parameters, αi, in Cu3Au at T=405°C have been re-evaluated taking into account the effects of thermal vibrations and static displacements due to differing atomic sizes. The separate corrections for the thermal vibrations and the first-neighbor atomic size factor are found to be quite large, demonstrating their importance in the usual experiments. When combined, the corrections in this case largely cancel, and only the values of α1 and α3 are appreciably changed. The corrected values are: α1= -.113, α2= +.185, α3= -.009, α4= +.082, α5= -.058.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Walker, C. B. & Keating, D. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Antibody Formation by Transplanted Bone Marrow, Spleen, Lymph Node and Thymus Cells in Irradiated Recipients

Description: The role of the marrow as a site for antibody formation has been considered for many years. In 1912 Ludke reported the appearance of antibody in cultures of marrow cells obtained from previously immunized rabbits. Specific agglutinins for killed typhoid bacilli and lysins for ox red cells and sheep red cells were detected in the culture media 2 to 5 days later. However, the cultured cells failed to produce antibody when these antigens were added to the media. Similar findings by Reiter, Przygode, and Schilf appeared in the early literature with regard to the appearance of antibodies to various antigens in tissue cultures of bone marrow from immunized animals, along with failure to elicit antibody formation by addition of antigen to the culture resulted from the addition of excess amounts of antigen, so that if antibody synthesis occurred, the excess antigen combined with antibody and significant amounts of free antibody could not be detected in the culture media. Thorbecke and Keuning observed an increase in antibody in culture fluids when bone marrow fragments from rabbits immunized to paratyphoid B vaccine were cultured in roller tubes.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Stoner, Richard D. & Bond, Victor P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bromine Exchange in Graphite-Bromine Lamellar Compounds

Description: A kinetic study of the exchange of normal and radioactive bromine in graphite-bromine lamellar compounds has been made at temperatures of 30° to 50°C. Natural and synthetic graphite powders were investigated. Two alternative mechanisms for the exchange, volume diffusion and surface exchange, were considered. The data were in better agreement with the diffusion mechanism. Diffusion coefficients of 10 -9 to 10 -8 cm2/sec and an activation energy of 11 to 14 kcal/mole were calculated for the natural graphite powders. The diffusion coefficients increased with increasing bromine content. Reversibly absorbed bromine exchanged more rapidly than irreversibly absorbed bromine.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Aronson, Seymour
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Crystal Structure of a Sodium Cobalt Molybdate

Description: The cobalt and molybdenum positions had been derived from a three-dimensional Patterson function based on complete data out to λ-1 sin θMo≈ 1. From the separation of the separation of the Mo atoms it was thought that the structure contained free, unlinked MoO4 -2 ions, and this, together with the observed density and analyses for Co and Mo, suggested that the composition was probably Co2(MoO4)3. The paucity of structural information on complex oxide systems and the interesting properties, both structural and physical, of such systems prompted the present, detailed refinement of the structure. The result is more complicated and more interesting than had been anticipated: from the analysis of the X-ray data the compound is found to be NaCo2.31(MoO4)3, and this composition is consistent with chemical analyses. The structure shows several interesting features, including the partial occupancy of cobalt atoms in two independent CoO6 octahedral sites. In one arrangement of CoO6 octahedra there is the not too common face sharing to form infinite columns; in the other arrangement a zig-zag sheet, as far as we know differing from anything thus far reported, is formed by the sharing of edges and corners.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Ibers, James A. & Smith, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electric Currents, Membranes, and Biological Sources of Electromotive Force

Description: The analysis of closed circuit systems in which spontaneous steady-state electric currents appear can be carried out with the use of the function [function not transcribed]. The analysis indicates that any open circuit system of the form. Phase 1, barrier 1, phase 2, ......, phase b, barrier b, phase 1' is a chemical source of electromotive force when the phase 1 and 1' are identical, when the system contains two or more barriers whose sets of ionic transport members are different, and when the system is composed of two or more phases whose chemical properties are different. A general expression for the electromotive force of model systems composed of homogeneous phases and biological membranes in linear array can be written as [expression not transcribed] in which the indicated summations are to be performed for all barriers and for all ions to which each barrier is permeable.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Nims, Leslie F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Microbeam as a Tool in Radiobiology

Description: In the analysis of the effect of ionizing radiation on living systems, the problem is complicated by the interaction of one part of the system with other parts. If an entire mouse is subjected to radiation, only a few of the most radiosensitive organs, the "weak links," react to the insult and essentially limit the size of the dose delivered since there is little to be learned from irradiating a dead mouse. Thus an insensitive organ like muscle will not respond at all to a total body dose. Likewise, every organ is composed of several different kinds of cells, and the most radiosensitive cells in the organ will determine the reaction observed.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Curtis, Howard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mitotic Indices of Human Bone Marrow Cells. Duration of Some Phases of Erythrocytic and Granulocytic Proliferation Computed From Mitotic Indices

Description: Data on the mitotic indices of human bone marrow cells were reported in the first paper of this series, and theoretical considerations on the applicability and limitations of the index in determining kinetic parameters were discussed. In the present paper an attempt is made to compute time parameters of normal bone marrow cell proliferation from the data presented in the first paper.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Killmann, S. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Fliedner, T. M. & Bond, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effects of 250-kv X-Ray on the Dog's Pancreas: Morphological and Functional Changes

Description: Previous investigations that the pancreas is a radioresistant organ. Ivy in 1924 noted the presence of a fibrotic atrophic pancreas in a dog which had received one erythema dose to the epigastrium. Fisher in 1923 reported that four to five erythema doses delivered in a single application caused complete disappearance of the irradiated pancreatic remnant in about two months. These dogs died because of uncontrolled diabetes. One dog that received four erythema doses (possibly 200 r) was sacrificed after five months. At autopsy the irradiated pancreas had disappeared, but 275 mgm of regenerated pancreas were found at the base of the main duct and 100 mgm at the base of the accessory duct. Leven in 1933 implanted radon seeds into the pancreas. Dosages varied from 528 to 1584 millicurie hours. At postmorten the pancreas surrounding the seeds demonstrated fibrous atropy and foci of necrosis. The islets appeared normal but were relatively larger in size. Rauch in 1952 reported that dogs given 200 r in air over the pancreas on alternate days until a total of 1600 r was received failed to show any histological changes after two months. Lushbaugh and Spalding and Lushbaugh reported that over 1500 r of whole-body gamma irradiation were required to produce histologic changes in alpha cells in 8 hours, and over 5000 r to produce changes in the beta cells in the same time. These changes had disappeared by 24 hours.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Archamefau, John; Griem, Melvin & Harper, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Elimination of Phases the Life Cycle of Leukemic Cells From in Vivo Labeling in Human Beings With Tritiated Thymidine

Description: Our earlier in vitro studies have suggested that malignant tumors may not produce new cells more rapidly than normal cells are produced in the "steady state" equilibrium. Obviously tumors of all typed represent a diversion from "steady state" production with a net gain in mass of tissue. However, the increase in mass is not necessarily constant and may fluctuate in the natural history of the disorder. DNA labeling with tritiated thymidine had made it possible to characterize normal "steady state" hemopoietic growth parameters. We therefore thought it mandatory to extend these techniques to the study of growth rates of human leukemic cells. Also, since current therapy is more or less closely tied to a concept of unrestrained rapid growth, which we in part have begun to question, it appeared wise to look back at the historical development of knowledge about tumor growth. The existence of tumors in man has been known for millenia.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Killmann, S. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Robertson, J. S.; Fliedner, T. M. & Bond, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiation Effect on the RNA Metabolism of the Central Nervous System

Description: Numerous studies on the effects of radiation on the central nervous system used traditional pathomorphological changes as parameters of radiosensitivity, but pathogenesis and mechanisms of radiation injury to the nervous tissue are still little understood. Furthermore, the great discrepancy of dose requirement leading to physiological responses and on the other hand to pathomorphological changes in the central nervous system is not satisfactorily explained.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Yamamoto, Y. L.; Feinendegen, L. E. & Bond, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Indirect Effect of X-Radiation on Bone Growth in Rats

Description: It has been known for many years that bone growth may be retarded by relatively large doses of therapeutic radiation. Similar doses of radiation have also shown retarded growth in animals. More recently, reports of studies of Japanese children exposed to the Atomic Bomb Detentions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Marshallese children exposed to radiation in the fallout accident of 1954 have indicated some impairment in their growth and development, possibly related to radiation exposure. Since the doses of radiation received by these children were lower than would be expected to produce retardation of bone growth by direct irradiation, it was considered that indirect mechanisms might play a part. This preliminary report summarizes investigations of possible indirect effects of X-irradiation in bone growth in rats.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Conard, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of Trichinella Spiralis Infection on Incorporation of Amino Acids into Serum and Hemoglobin

Description: Encysted Trichinella spiralis larvae incorporated carbon-14 from mice fed diets containing C14 -labeled glycerine and DL-alanine. In general, a higher level of C14 activity (C14 per gram of dry tissue) was found in muscle larvae than in muscle tissue. The presence of encysted Trichinella larvae in the muscles of 56-day and 180-day infected mice did not alter incorporation of C14 from these amino acids into infected muscle protein when compared with noninfected muscle. These experiments were extended to include the aromatic amino acids, DL-tyrosine and DL-tryptophan.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Hankes, Lawrence V. & Stone, Richard D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Lysogeny in Rhizobium Leguminosarum and R. Trifolii

Description: Seven lysogenic strains - three of Rhizobium Leguminosarum and four of R-trifolii - were identified among a total of 54 strains from these two species and R. phascoli. The R. leguminosarum strain may be multiply lysogenic; two of them also produce lethal agents resembling bacteriocins in their effects. Lysogeny was confirmed by standard criteria of UV-inducibility, self-immunity, and reproductive ability. Lysogenic conversion involving symbiotic characteristics was not observed. A minimum of six different temperate phage were identified. The host range includes strains of the above three rhizobial species, but not of R. mclilotii. Variation in host specificity of some phage following host passage is under investigation.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Schwinghamer, E. A. & Reinhardt, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermodynamics of Fused Salt Mixtures From EMF Measurements. The Systems NaCl-KCl, NaCl-MgCl2, and NaCl-CeCl3.

Description: The following cells were operated at 820°C: [equations not transcribed] where the over-all reaction in each cell is simply the transfer of NaCl from pure NaCl to the mixtures of the right hand compartment. The porcelain acts as a pure sodium ion conductor in these cells. The relative partial molar free energy of mixing for sodium chloride, FMNaCl, is given by [equation not transcribed] where E is the EMF of the cell. Results are given over the entire composition range in each system and compared with previous measurements from other sources. Other thermodynamic quantities are calculated from the results. Experiments using a H2, HCl mixture in place of Cl2 are discussed, as well as the extension of the measurements to other systems.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Egan, James J. & Bracker, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tissue Distribution and Storage Forms of Vitamin B12 Injected and Orally Administered to the Dog

Description: Previous attempts by the present authors to compare the behavior of orally administered vitamin B12 with that of injected material have been inconclusive. Thus, 30 days after administration to normal humans, 0.19% of a tracer amount (0.5 μg) of injected radioactive vitamin B12 is excreted per day; and in an independent study, the eventual daily output was found to be 0.23% of a 3 μg dose. By contrast the total excretion rate of normal vitamin B12 from body stores appears to be only ≈0.03% per day. Such a divergence may result from incomplete mixing of radioactive vitamin B12 and body stores of the vitamin. Alternatively it may actually reflect the functioning of different compartments attending the several modes of administration involved. The possibility of degradation or transformation of vitamin within tissues and organs must also be considered.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Rosenblum, Charles; Reizenstein, Peter G.; Cronicite, Eugene P. & Meriwether, Henry T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Abscopal Effects of Localized Irradiation by Accelerator Beams

Description: The aim of this series of experiments was to evaluate the existence of abscopal effects of irradiation. No attempt was made towards the elucidation of mechanisms. Very early in the history of radiological research it was noticed radiation produces both local and general effects involving the entire body. Gauss and Lembcke introduced the term "Roentgenkater" (radiation sickness). They ascribed these "General Effects" to the circulation of toxic substances released from cells that disintegrated following irradiation.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Jansen, C. R.; Bond, V. P.; Rai, K. R. & Lippincott, S. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Fate of Transfused H3 Thymidine Labeled Bone Marrow Cells in Irradiated Recipients

Description: It has been established by chromosome marker studies, histochemical, immunological, and cytological methods that the hemopoietic tissues of animals exposed to lethal doses of whole-body irradiation can be repopulated by transfused autologous, homologous or heterologous bone marrow cells. However, the morphology of the cell responsible for the regeneration of hematopoietic activity in the various hemopoietic organs has not been identified. It has been shown that the bone marrow contains the cell or cells capable of regenerating all types of hemopoietic tissues. In order to identify transfused cells, one must have a label which persists through successive divisions. Odell and Smith labeled the donors with S35 methionin and were thus able to follow the accumulation of the donor marrow cells in the recipients lungs and subsequently their releases to the bone marrow and spleen. However, this compound has a relatively rapid turnover in the labeled cells and thus a relatively limited capability of serial studies to observe mitosis and differentiation. Tritiated thymidine is ideal for this purpose since it is incorporated solely into DNA and is diluted only by mitosis. In addition the high resolution with tritium makes it certain that one is observing nuclear labeling. Bond et al. have studied the migration of labeled cells from a non-irradiated parabiotic rat to the irradiated member. Nagal and Knisely have studied the fate of in vitro labeled autologous and homologous bone marrow cells after transfusion into two patients. Balner et al have labeled bone marrow cells in vivo with H3TDR and transfused these labeled cells into irradiated homologous newborn mice and studied their distribution as a function of time following transfusion by [unintelligible] of autoradiography.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Fliedner, T. M.; Thomas, E. D.; Meyer, L. M. & Cronkite, E. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effects of Radiations of Different let on Early Responses in the Mammal

Description: This paper will first note briefly the place and status of radiobiotopical investigations with fast neutrons. The monoenergetic (fast) neutron technique employed at this laboratory will be then described and results of studies with various criteria-of-effect in the mouse will be reviewed. Finally, certain general patterns of response for these systems will be pointed out as functions of neutron energy.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Bateman, J. L. & Bond, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Use of a Digital Computer in the Development of a Positron Scanning Procedure

Description: The problem to be discussed originates in our interest in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. It has been established by others that some positron-emitting radioactive isotopes, in particular Arsenic-74 and Copper-64, can be causal to localize in brain tumors and thus to serve as agents for locating the tumors. Although other kinds of radioisotopes have also been used successfully in locating tumors, positron emitters have some especially attractive features. Their use is based on the principle that a positron, or positively charged electron, is a form of "anti-matter," and when it encounters an ordinary negatively charged electron both are annihilated, giving rise to two gamma rays that are emitted in opposite directions. Such an event is detectable through the use of coincidence counting. The data for which the method of analysis is to be discussed in the present paper is generated by a device using the coincidence counting method with multiple detectors in an arrangement potentially suitable for three-dimensional localization of brain tumors.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Robertson, James S. & Niell, Arcadio M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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