Search Results

open access

Bond Energies, Valence State Energies And Resonance<sup>1, 2

Description: Previous attempts to interpret chemical structure in terms of x-electron resonance have been recently criticized. A reinterpretation of the lengths of the C-C bonds in terms of orbital radii has not revealed any effects of x-electron resonance in the ground states of classical molecules such as 1, 3-butadiene, methyl acetylene, etc. Even in a non-classical molecule such as benzene, resonance shortening of the CC bond is only in terms of the strengths of the hybrid orbitals. If the lengths and force constants of the C-C bonds vary with hybridization, so also must their bond energies. If resonance is not important in classical molecules, the heat of atomization of a classical molecule must be given by the sum of either the energies of the bonds or the contributions of the atoms present in it. To test this theory, we have estimated the contributions of some standard carbon atoms, viz., primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, trigonal, and diagonal carbon atoms.
Date: February 1961
Creator: Somayajulu, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Infrared Spectra Of Marginally Metallic Systems, Sodium-Ammonia Solutions

Description: The sodium-ammonia solution system permits investigation of an array of compositions spanning the transition from non-metallic to metallic bonding. Reflection spectra in the range 1-20 [ ] were measured for solutions of mole ratio 5.5 to 168 [ ] per Na. The dilute solutions show peaks characteristic of the vibrations of ammonia and a strong peak near 1.5 [ ] which is assigned to the solvated [ ] species. Concentrated solutions show high reflectivity over broad wavelength ranges. The results for nearly saturated solutions are fitted reasonably by the free electron model, but in the range of mole ratio 10-15 a complex array of energy absorption processes of finite frequencies are required to fit the spectra.
Date: February 1961
Creator: Beckman, Tad A., 1936- & Pitzer, Kenneth S. (Kenneth Sanborn), 1914-1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Bremsstrahlung

Description: An electron can suffer a very large acceleration in passing through the Coulomb field of a nucleus, and in this interaction the radiant energy (photons) lost by the electrons is called bremsstrahlung (also, bremsstrahlung sometimes designates the interaction itself). If an electron whose total energy [formula] traverses matter of atomic number Z, the electron loses energy chiefly by bremsstrahlung. This case is considered here.
Date: February 1961
Creator: Kenney, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Effects Of A Magnetic Field On Natural Convection In A Toroidal Channel

Description: The problem of the natural convection of an electrically and thermally conducting fluid within a long, narrow, vertical toroidal channel centered in a large block of an electrically and thermally conducting solid is analyzed. A uniform horizontal magnetic field is applied to the fluid, and the bottom of the solid block is maintained at a higher fixed temperature than the top. The laminar steady-state single-cell convective motion of the fluid is considered and an approximate solution is found for the heat transfer rate between the bottom and top surfaces of the block in the limiting cases of small and large Hartmann number. A numerical example is given for liquid sodium in which the application of a magnetic field of a few hundred gauss is shown to significantly reduce the rate of heat transfer.
Date: February 1961
Creator: Concus, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Orbital Radii, Bond Length And Resonance

Description: The radius of a c-p hybrid orbital has been found to be given by the expression: [formula] where A is the radius of the pure p orbital, B, a universal constant equal to 0.336 A, and [ ], the coefficient of mixing in the hybrid s + [ ]. When radii appropriate for the orbitals that are paired together are used, bond length is additive of the orbital radii and no Schomaker-Stevenson correction is necessary. This shows that most bonds can be treated as covalent, single and localized.
Date: February 1961
Creator: Somayajulu, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Kinematics And Dispersion Relations For General Production Processes

Description: The method of dispersion relations has in recent years found a wide application for the study of elementary particle reactions. Most of the work, however, deals with reactions of the type [formula], while the theory of those with more than two particles in the final state is still in a very preliminary stage. One reason for this is that even with only three particles in the final state the theory is already much more complicated. Nevertheless, a further development of the theory seemed to us very desirable. The theory at present is being developed on various levels simultaneously. Generally speaking, the aim of this paper is to put the theory in a form as closely as possible analogous to Mandelstam's formulation of the theory of reactions of type [formula]. In the later sections we specialize on reactions [formula], but as much as possible the formulation is in more general terms.
Date: February 2, 1961
Creator: Kretzschmar, Martin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Utilization of Radiactive Isotpoes in Coal Process Research

Description: "This is the third quarterly report on Task II dealing with Methods Development for Radio-Tracing of Coal Product Hydrocarbons With Tritium. The problem of accurate low-level tritium assay for tagged hydrocarbons has been resolved and attention is now primarily directed at the questions of tritium mobility and radio-chemical purity in tagged tracers."
Date: February 15, 1961
Creator: Yavorsky, P. M. & Gorin, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Partially Degenerate, Relativistic, Ideal Electron Gas

Description: Tables of the electron pressure and kinetic energy for a partially degenerate, relativistic, ideal electron gas are computed by numerical integration using an IBM 7090 electronic calculator. These are given in terms of log10(B) and log10(0), where B is the ratio of the temperature to the rest mass of the electron and (O) is proportional to the numerical density of electrons. The tables include values of T from 5 million to 400 billion degrees and cover the range of electron densities from the region of a perfect gas to the region of complete degeneracy.
Date: February 23, 1961
Creator: Grasberger, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Fission Product Activity in SM-1 Core I Primary System and Surface Contamination on SM-1 Type Fuel Elements. Task XVIII, Phases 2 and 3

Description: Abstract; The fission product data obtained during SM-1 Core I operation (June 1957 - May 1960) is reviewed briefly and interpreted. Evidence is presented to indicate that a fuel element defect was responsible for the high fission product activity level observed in the primary coolant. Relative escape coefficients are calculated and the defect size estimated. Anticipated fission product levels during SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I operation are estimated from alpha surface contamination data on completed fuel elements. The importance of in-line sampling for monitoring fission product activity is stressed as well as the need for failed fuel element detection methods.
Date: February 28, 1961
Creator: Hasse, Robert A. & Zegger, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation of Kanigen, Electroless Nickel Plating for Steam Side of a Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: Introduction: This is a final report on the evaluation of Kanigen electroless nickel plating for surfaces in contact with water and steam i a sodium heated AISI Type 316 stainless steel steam generator. The purpose of the coasting was to afford protection from stress corrosion cracking originating on the water-steam side of the unit. It has been concluded that the kanigen coating does not afford adequate protection for the services condition intended. This work was performed as part of the research and development program for the United States Atomic Energy Commission sodium Components Design Project.
Date: February 15, 1961
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

KW wet critical loading three group flux

Description: A calculation of the three-group flux distribution of the initial wet critical loading of KW reactor was made using the same calculation techniques as those employed in NPR three-group calculations. The calculation results are directly comparable to experimental data obtained during the KW loading. The calculated radial geometrical buckling of the critical loading is 48.2 {mu}b compared to a measured value of 49.8 {mu}b; these agree within estimated experimental error. The calculated reflector augmentation distance is 54.5 cm compared with a measured value of 49.2 cm. The three-group nuclear constants of the KW lattice components were calculated from 18-group data (APEX-515) based on the flux spectrum of HW-63172. A cell calculation was made to determine the effective constants for the homogenized cell. The calculated k {infinity} of this cell came out 0.998 compared to a measured 1.034. Since the resonance capture of U-238 is difficult to treat, in three-group theory, all error was assumed to be in this parameter which was adjusted accordingly to give k {infinity} = 1.034. The resulting core parameters are given in Table I, along with parameters for the dry, unloaded core and the wet unloaded core.
Date: February 15, 1961
Creator: Simpson, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analytical considerations for K-downcomer and bellows

Description: A free body diagram of the bellows will show the possibility of three forces -- one in each direction, three moments -- one in each plane, and the internal pressure. Any or all of these forces and moments may fluctuate due to variations in a driving force, e.g., separation of streamlines which creates slugging of flow through an elbow. Whereas the static equilibrium condition can be analyzed and stresses and strains computed, the dynamic condition cannot be approached without information on the magnitude, frequency and location of the exciting force. Having the latter, some evaluation of the stresses to be expected can be made. By combining strains (or stresses) due to the various forces and moments, the point of maximum stress can be located and the point of maximum stress fluctuation for the fatigue cycle-amplitude-range curve can be determined. Further consideration must be given to stress concentrations. With the complete analysis in mind, we must determine how some of these forces and moments effect the tests and delineate what can he expected from the tests. This report considers each force or moment by itself and studies its relationship to the tests.
Date: February 28, 1961
Creator: Lomax, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Revised requirements for continuous birch recovery at Redox

Description: The process criteria proposed use of the existing organic wash column, 10, as a stripping column for the neptunium accumulation and isolation cycles. It is now proposed to employ a new processing concept which will permit the use of the scrub section of the neptunium extraction column, 1S, for neptunium stripping thereby obviating the use of the 10 Column. This proposed new scheme will provide increased neptunium stripping efficiency and greater processing flexibility for the 1S Column. The revision will require four new jumpers, but will permit the deletion of eight jumpers required for the original proposal. This document discusses the technical bases and incentives for the proposed change and presents revised flow diagrams and jumper routings.
Date: February 2, 1961
Creator: Barnes, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Irradiated uranium fire hazard

Description: Earlier this year we briefly discussed the potential hazard of incurring an inadvertent uranium fuel element fire during discharge. This letter will provide data which will be of assistance to you in assessing the potential hazard, and in establishing charge-discharge procedures to minimize the probability of an irradiated fuel element lodged in the discharge area reaching aluminum jacket melting temperature without detection.
Date: February 16, 1961
Creator: Reid, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

100-C water plant

Description: System curves for each portion of the C Area Water Plant were obtained from referenced work and are presented in figures. Field test data, corroborating the calculated curves, are presented as singular points on the same graphs. Present maxima capacity of the C Area Filter Plant was 121,000 gpm with 118,000 gpm available for use as primary reactor coolant. Modifications to the filter effluent piping would increase this available flow to about 180,000 gpm. Of the 118,000 gpm available for C Reactor use, 10,000 to 12,000 gpm was demanded by B Area through the 183 BC intertie. The maximum flow that the intertie line could handle, without reducing the filter capacity of the C Area filters, is about 21,000 gpm.
Date: February 20, 1961
Creator: Agar, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

E-N and blanket conversions from analysis of tubes irradiated at H

Description: A block-loading of striped columns and tubes simulating a blanket loading were analyzed for product (Pu, tritium, E-metal) after irradiation in IP-255-A-9-FP. Results are rationalized to full-pile values; pile conversion ratios and pile gains are given.
Date: February 10, 1961
Creator: Lang, L. W. & Nechodom, W. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Design of production test IP-310-A-FP, determination of the dimensional stability of uranium fuel cores classified by the fuel core tester (UT-2)

Description: The objectives of this test are: 1. To establish grain size limits for acceptable uranium fuel element cores. 2. To establish, if possible, criteria for predicting core dimensional stability during irradiation by comparing the relative dimensional stabilities associated with grain size and with variations in grain size in individual cores. 3. To obtain process tube and fuel corrosion data associated with bumper fuel elements in new tubes with no mixer, one mixer in the 10th position and two mixers in the 7th and 15th position from the rear. Fuel cores representing the full range of UT-2 voltage values (grain size converts to d-c voltage) of interest are segregated into three categories: a. Large grains. b. Variations of grain size in an individual core. c. Small grains. Each category will be subdivided into three groups, each covering a small range of values. After canning, the finished fuel elements will be assembled into twenty-seven (27) charges in three latin square patterns for irradiation to a 900 MWD/T exposure goal in D Reactor.
Date: February 15, 1961
Creator: Hodgson, W. H. & Clinton, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A standard AlSi braze wetting test for aluminum components used in the lead-dip process

Description: Wetting of the aluminum components by aluminum-silicon brazing alloy is a major factor influencing the quality of the fuel elements. Several process variables associated with the impact extrusion of aluminum components influence the resulting Al surface. In addition, these processing variables interact with the HAPO component production cleaning process to give varying results. Purpose of this document is to define the parameters for selecting, preparing) testing and evaluating the AlSi wetting potential of aluminum components used in the lead-dip process, and to provide a tool for measuring the acceptability of aluminum components for the preparation of fuel elements.
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Burgess, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Radiochemistry for the rupture of a Zircaloy-2 clad uranium fuel element in KER-1

Description: During the 0800--1600 shift on July 7, 1960, the delayed neutron monitor on KER Loop 1 indicated a high coolant activity level. Sympathetic responses were also recorded on the Loop 3 and Loop 4 instruments indicating a possible fuel element failure in Loop 1. The KE Reactor began shutdown operations immediately thereafter. The purpose of this report is to summarize the events pertinent to this reactor outage and to discuss the results obtained from coolant samples and a thermocouple wire sample taken from Loop 1.
Date: February 28, 1961
Creator: Demmitt, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen