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SNAP II Power Conversion System Topical Report No. 16, 2500-Hour Endurance Test of Mercury Rankine Cycle Power System

Description: SNAP 1 is the designation for the 0.5-kw nuclear auxiliary power supply intended for application in a satellite. SNAP 1 was designed to convert thermal energy from the decay of a radioisotope into electrical energy using a Rankine engine with mercury as the working fluid. A successful 2500-hour endurance test is described of a complete developmental version of the SNAP 1 power conversion system utilizing a prototype turbomachinery package, an electrically heated boiler, and an air-cooled condenser. Indications from the data obtained during the test and from inspection of the system following the test were that many more hours of satisfactory operation could have been obtained on all major system components except the rotating unit pump. The mercury-lubricated bearings, the turbine, and the alternator, all demonstrated excellent endurance capability. Based on previous component tests, it is concluded that the pump performance deterioration was caused by air entrainment in the liquid Hg. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1961
Creator: Grevstad, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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On Cratering: A Brief History, Analysis, and Theory of Cratering

Description: Cratering is a subject that has been studied by many investigators for many years for many purposes. These purposes range from experimental studies of physical properties to large scale excavations using explosive charges of kiloton size. In the past ten years considerable effort has been devoted to cratering experiments for the purposes of determining the effects of cratering by nuclear explosions, with recent accent on Plowshare applications. From the large amount of data available for craters in alluvian has been possible to establish very reliable relationships between charge size, depth of bursty crater radii, and crater depths. In addition it has been possible to construct a preliminary theory of the mechanics of explosive crater formation. The available experimental data for nuclear and high explosive craters are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the data for desert alluvium, and the pertinent relationships are derived. A theory of the important cratering mechanisms, which has been evolved on the basis of these data and data from other sources, is outlined. (auth)
Date: August 22, 1961
Creator: Nordyke, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Status Report on the Argonne Advanced Research Reactor

Description: The interim design and development status is reported. The scope of the work was limited to conceptual design studies supported by critical experiments plus heat transfer and hydraulic tests. Design criteria, facility and site, reactor, core geometry and composition, fuel elements, reflector, core and reflector support structure, reactor vessel, control and instruments, primary coolant systems, secondary coolant system, auxiliary systems, experimental facilities, building layout and construction, plant ventilation, heating and air conditioning, critical experiments, reactor physics, heat transfer studies, and shieldings are discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: November 1, 1961
Creator: Lennox, D. H.; Barts, E. W.; Batch, R. V.; Beyer, F. C.; Jorgensen, G. L.; Kelber, C. N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Snap Ii Power Conversion System Topical Report No. 12. Boiler Development

Description: The SNAP II boilers which were designed are summarized. As shown by test results from the three boilers which were tested, a continuous progress in design was achieved. These designs were based on test data from both the SNAP I and SNAP II programs. As the quantity of data increased, physical models describing the heat transfer process were developed. These physical models provide the necessary correlation parameters which permit the extension of existing data to advanced design. Preliminary test sections were designed on the assumption that an allvapor nmodel which ignores the presence of the liquid phase during forced convection boiling could be used to describe the process quantitatively. The conventional Dittus-Boelter equation was applied with the increase in the vapor flow along the tube being ascribed to liquid evaporation. The assumption led to a design that fell short by about an order of magnitude since the exit qualities were only in the range of 10%, far less than required for complete vaporization. As a result, a revision in the concept of the mechanics of boiling was found necessary and a theoretical analysis was formulated, based on a dry wall'' or dropwise'' type boiling phenomenon. The test results of the preliminary test sections and the SNAP I boiler were plotted on the basis of dry-wall boiling parameters containing the area mean temperature difference and mass velocity. A conservative design curve was established and used to design the thirteen tube boiler. The design was found by test to be conservative, and the measured performance and the degree of conservatism were found to be within the expected spread in earlier test data. Dropwise boiling pictures the heat transfer as occurring directly from the wall to the drop through a film created by the vapor being ejected from the underside of the drop. …
Date: July 17, 1961
Creator: Gido, R. G.; Koestel, A.; Haller, H. C.; Huber, D. D. & Deibel, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Modified Purification System Performance Test. Core 1, Seed 2. Test Results T-641124-A. Section 2

Description: The effectiveness of purification in controlling plant radioactivation rates was determined through comparison of the actual effects produced from plant operation with and without purification. With the purification system in service, there was no appreciable difficulty in maintaining the reactor coolant within reference water specifications. In addition, there was no discernible increase of crud deposition in the coolant system as determined by direct radiation measurements of the purification hairpin loop. However, without demineralization as a controlling agent, the gross non-volatile gamma activity levels of the reactor coolant increased and the specific activities of longlived fission products were at higher levels. Although the general levels of water- borne activities increased during the test period, the associated plant systems did not exceed their limits. (auth)
Date: July 21, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HRT CORROSION SAMPLES--ADDITIONAL DATA ON SPECIMENS REMOVED PRIOR TO RUN NO. 20

Description: Results of the examinations of corrosion specimens exposed in the HRT are presented. Specimens examined include core screen samples, core specimen array No. 1, blanket specimen array No. 2, core solution line specimen arrays No. 103 and 103A, and blanket solution line specimen array No. 203. These data include corrosion rates, computed from specimen weight-changes, and results of chemical analyses of scales removed from the specimens or specimen holders. A summary is included of the HRT operating schedule during exposure of the specimens and of the status of examinations for the specimens removed from the reactor prior to run 20. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Baker, J.E.; Silverman, M.D.; Jenks, G.H. & Olsen, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnetic Properties of Insulators. Quarterly Report No. 2 Covering Period May 15, 1961 to August 15, 1961

Description: The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of color centers in additively colored KCl crystals is measured to observe the effects of optical bleaching at room temperature. Earlier measurements on the F-center are confirmed and the susceptibility is measured at 78 and 300 deg K over five decades of power, including the very low power region. The width and the saturation properties of the individual multiplets are studied in detail and the technique of making E PR measurements on inhomogeneously broadened lines is discussed. A calculation is presented which shows that a slight departure from a Lorentzian multiplet shape can account for the saturation data. The bleached crystals show a resonance which has a width of 35 gauss and a different rate of saturation than the F- center. This resonance is associated with the B-band which appears in the optical absorption. (auth)
Date: August 30, 1961
Creator: Markham, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DEVELOPMENT OF A PROCESS FOR SODIUM BONDING OF EBR-II FUEL AND BLANKET ELEMENTS

Description: Procedures for assembling EBR-II fuel elements with annular sodium bonds between the uranium rods and the stainless steel claddings are outlined. The results of several meltdown and uranium-settling experiments are given. Bonding experiments were performed: furnace bonding, submerged canning, ultrasonic bonding, centrifuging, pressure pulsing, and vibratory bonding. Vibratory bonding was chosen for the production of the first EBR-II core. (D.L.C.)
Date: July 1, 1961
Creator: Sowa, E.S. & Kimont, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PILOT PLANT SHUTDOWN AND Pu-Al PROCESSING

Description: The large aqueous pilot plant facilities at ORNL were cleaned and are being put in standby condition. Experience was gained during the year as anion exchange was used to recover more than one kg of plutonium left in the exploded evaporator system. This experience is being applied to a new recovery program just beginning in cell 1 of Building 4507. (auth)
Date: September 25, 1961
Creator: Bresee, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Recording Equipment for Internal Friction Measurements

Description: An apparatus was developed for recording internal friction data in such a manner as to circumvent many of the laborious and time-consuming observations and calculations usually associated with these measurements. An optical lever is used and the passage of the beam across the scale is detected by photoconductive cells. The cells are strategically located so that, when their signals are fed through a multichannel switching circuit to the pens of an operation recorder, a plot of the logarithm of the vibrational amplitude versus the number of cycles is recorded on the chart. From the definitmon of the logarithmic decrement, ( delta ), it can be shown that the slope of this curve is - delta . The apparatus is inexpensive and requires a minimum of maintenance. It has been used for accurate determinations of values of delta from below 0.0001 up to 0.3. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1961
Creator: Stephenson, R. L. & McCoy, H. E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Organic Nuclear Reactors: An Evaluation of Current Development Programs

Description: Organic reactor technology is critically evaluated and areas of research and development work now lacking or inadequate for the successful development of this reactor concept are indicated. The development programs for present organic and heavy water moderated concepts appear generally adequate to reach specific goals. However, the narrow scope of the organic reactor program should be broadened to assure coverage of areas where the application of novel principles might result in marked economic benefits. Further work, principally of a basic nature, is recommended in the fields of chemistry, processing, management, and thermodynamic properties of coolants, in fuel development, and in concept evaluation. (N.W.R.)
Date: May 1, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oscillating Vertical Magnetic Dipole Above a Conducting Half-Space

Description: The electromagnetic field produced by a vertical oscillating magnetic dipole above a plane conducting earth is obtained in integral form. An exact solution in closed form is obtained for the case in which the dipole and the point of observation are both located on the surface of the earth. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Wesley, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mixing and Evaporation in a Packed Vessel

Description: In connection with an evaluation of the operability of a 36-inch diameter remote evaporator at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that was to be packed with a corrosionresistant neutron-poison packing for criticality control, an investigation in a 30-inch diameter vessel proved that air sparging effectively mixes solutions. The data showed that at similar spar;e rates the presence of the packing caused an increase in the time needed for complete mixing. The investigation showed that solutions are readily evaporated in spite of the presence of packing in the tank. (auth)
Date: September 20, 1961
Creator: Cederberg, C. K. & Buckham, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cost Function Studies for Power Reactors

Description: A function to evaluate the cost of electricity produced by a nuclear power reactor was developed. The basic equation, revenue = capital charges + profit + operating expenses, was expanded in terms of various cost parameters to enable analysis of multiregion nuclear reactors with uranium and/or plutonium for fuel. A corresponding IBM 704 computer program, which will compute either the price of electricity or the value of plutonium, is presented in detail. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1961
Creator: Heestand, J. & Wos, L.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EVALUATION OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL METHOD FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES. PART I. INTERIM LIQUID STORAGE

Description: As the first part of a study to evaluate the economics of the various steps leading to and including the permanent disposal of high-activity liquid and solid radioactive waste, costs of interim liquid storage of acid and alkaline Purex and Thorex wastes were estimated for storage times of 0.5 to 30 years. A 6- ton/day plant was assumed, processing 1500 tons/year of uranium converter fuel at a burnup of 10,000 Mwd/ton and 270 tons/year of thorium converter fuel at a burnup of 20,000 Mwd/ton. Tanks of Savannah River design were assumed, with stainless steel construction for acid wastes and mild steel construction for neutralized wastes. The operating cycle of each tank was assumed to consist of equal filling and emptying periods plus a full (or dead) period. With interim storage time defined as filling time plus full time, tank costs were minimum when full time was 40 to 70% of the interim storage time, using present worth considerations. For waste storage times of 0.5 to 30 years, costs ranged from 2.2 x 10/sup -3/ to 9.5 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for acid wastes and from 1.7 x 10/sup -3/ to 5.1 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for neutralized wastes. (auth)
Date: August 22, 1961
Creator: Bradshaw, R.L.; Perona, J.J.; Roberts, J.T. & Blomeke, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effect of Heat Flux on the Corrosion of Aluminum by Water. Part Iii. Final Report on Tests Relative to the High-Flux Isotope Reactor

Description: The effect of very high heat fluxes on the corrosion of 1100 and 6061 aluminum alloys by water was investigated. The test conditions generally simulated those expected to exist during operation of the High-Flux lsotope Reactor. At heat fluxes between 1 and 2 x l0/sup 6/ Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/ and with coolant temperatures and velocities in the ranges of 13l to 250 deg F and 3l to 51 fps, respectively, a layer of boehmite ( alpha Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/0), which has low thermal conductivity, formed on the water-cooled aluminum surfaces during test. When only relatively thin films formed, the boehmite adhered tightly to the aluminum, but in those cases where relatively thick films formed, some boehmite spontaneously spalled from the surface. The rate at which the boehmite formed on the surface (and consequently the rate at which the aluminum temperature increased) was a function of the temperature at the specimen-water interface and the pH of the coolant. The lower the temperature and the lower the pH (in the range of 5.0 to 6.5 with HNO/sub 3/), the lower the rate of corrosion- product formation. Within the ranges investigated, pressure and flow rate were without effect, and the same results were obtained with 6061 and 1100 , aluminum. In those cases where the pH of the coolant was adjusted to 5, corrosion penetration was uniform and even under the most severe conditions did not exceed l.5 mils in 10 days. When the test conditions were such that the rate of oxide formation was high and oxide spalled from the surface of the specimen, localized attack of the aluminum in the form of subsurface voids extending several mils into the metal was always observed. From the experimental data, fluid-film heat- transfer coefficients were calculated and the thermal conductivity of the corrosion …
Date: December 20, 1961
Creator: Griess, J. C.; Savage, H. C.; Rainwater, J. G.; Mauney, T. H. & English, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Progress Relating to Civilian Applications During August 1961

Description: Progress is reported on development studies on reactor materials and components, fuels, fuel elements, gaspressure bonding of ceramic fuel elements, uranium carbides, growth of UO/sub 2/ single crystals, radioisotope and radiation applications, materials evaluations, coated-particle fuel materials, corrosion in fiuoride-volatility processes, cold-bonding processes, radiation effects on MGCR fuel materials, radiation effects on SM-2 fuels, gas-cooled reactor program, and gas-pressure bonding of beryllium-clad fuel elements. (B.O.G.)
Date: September 1, 1961
Creator: Dayton, R. W. & Tipton Jr., C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Waste Treatment and Disposal Progress Report for June and July 1961

Description: 7 7 6 4 : 9 8 9 6 5 : 9 aluminum nitrate waste was calcined in the close-coupled continuous evaporator-pot calciner unit. Waste oxides from TBP-25 waste were incorporated into glassy materials after the addition of phosphate and borate fluxing agents. Melts formed at 850 to 950 deg C were glassy solids when cooled and had densities from 2.41 to 2.47 g/ml. Waste volurne reduction factors were from 7.6 to 9.3. Low-Level Waste Treatment. A demonstration run was completed in the 60 liters/hr scavenging-ion exchange pilot plant on ORNL low-activity waste. Decontamination factors were satisfactory after 1500 resin bed voluumes of waste had been treated, i. e, Sr> 1000, TRE 100, Cs> 100, and sufficiently high for other activities that the waste activity was reduced to <10% of MPC. The physical properties of vermiculite, clinoptilolite, and rock phosphate were found to be suitable for second-stage treatment of process waste. Engineering, Econommc, and Hazards Evaluation. A cost study of the conversion of high-level solutions to solids by pot calcimation was completed. Aging had a negligible effect on costs for processing in a given vessel size. The lowest cost was 0.87 x 10/sup-2/ mill/kwh/sub 3/ for processing acidic Purex and Thorex wastes in 24-in.-dia. vessels, and the highest was 5.0 x 10/sup -2/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for processing reacidifled Purex and Thorex wastes im 6-in.-dia. vessels. Disposal ion Deep Wells. Test drilling at the site of the second fracturing experiment is nearly completed. The upper grout sheet extends out from the injection well some 500 ft to the east and northeast, but only- short distances out in other directions. The lower grout sheet extends largely to the north and northwest, but its outer limits are still undefimed. Disposal in Natural Salt Formations. Stress measurements in the pillars of the Hutchimson mine …
Date: October 24, 1961
Creator: Blanco, R. E. & Struxness, E. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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New Solutions of the Boltzmann Equation for Monoenergetic Neutron Transport in Spherical Geometry

Description: Solutions of the Boltzmann equation for monoenergetic neutron transport in spherical geometry are derived which are respectively singular and regular at the center of the sphere. A few specific partial singular solutions are presented. The regular solutions in spherical geometry are constructed by superposition of solutions in plane geometry which belong to the same k. Finally, the solutions are compared with their representations by a series of spherical harmonics. (D. L.C.)
Date: November 17, 1961
Creator: Kofink, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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REACTOR MAIN COOLANT LOOP

Description: A parametric study was made for the POPR with temperature gradients of 610 to 670 deg F and 6l0 to 684.5 deg F at organic flow rates of 17.8 x l0/sup 6/ and l4.4 x l0/sup 6/ lbs/hr, respectively; and steam turbine conditions at the throttle of 600 and 650 deg F at 800 to l200 psig. The study was made to obtain the most economical layout of the main heat transfer loop system. (B.O.G.)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Terpe, G.R. & Katz, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Proceedings of the University of New Mexico Conference on Organic Scintillation Detectors, August 15-17, 1960

Description: Twenty-three papers are included which were presented at the Conference on Organic Scintillation Detectors. The topics treated range from measurements of organic phosphor properties to liquid and plastic scintillation detectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers. (D.L.C.)
Date: October 31, 1961
Creator: Daub, G. H.; Hayes, F. N. & Sullivan, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Off-Site Radiological Safety Report, Carlsbad, New Mexico

Description: A summary ls presented of the off-slte radiological safety actlvities of the U. S. Public Health Service during the Project Gnome operation. Topics dlscussed include: operational procedures; collection of data by aerial monltoring, mobile monitoring, potash mlne surveys, air sampling, milk sampllng, water sampling, soil and vegetation sampllng, and a film badge program; laboratory control, emergency measures; medlcal services; and veterinary activltles. It was concluded that no persons ln the vlclnlty of the Gnome test site recelved harmful amounts of radlation either lnternally or externally. (M.C.G.)
Date: January 1, 1961
Creator: Placak, O. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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STUDIES IN MICROMERITICS. II. THE DEPOSITION OF PARTICLES IN CIRCULAR CONDUITS DUE TO THERMAL GRADIENTS

Description: The deposition of particles from turbulent gas streams due to thermal gradients was predicted using a simplified flow medel. In the medels particle concentration was assumed constant in the turbulent region. The particle deposition velocity was taken to be the radial velocity of thermal - repulsion in the laminar sublayer. Temperature gradients in the laminar sublayer were calculated for constant wall temperature using the Reynoldss analogy. The loss magnilude of suspended particles from loss due to thermal deposition is not generally greats and is most important for submicron particles. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1961
Creator: Postma, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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