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On Cratering: A Brief History, Analysis, and Theory of Cratering

Description: Cratering is a subject that has been studied by many investigators for many years for many purposes. These purposes range from experimental studies of physical properties to large scale excavations using explosive charges of kiloton size. In the past ten years considerable effort has been devoted to cratering experiments for the purposes of determining the effects of cratering by nuclear explosions, with recent accent on Plowshare applications. From the large amount of data available for craters in alluvian has been possible to establish very reliable relationships between charge size, depth of bursty crater radii, and crater depths. In addition it has been possible to construct a preliminary theory of the mechanics of explosive crater formation. The available experimental data for nuclear and high explosive craters are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the data for desert alluvium, and the pertinent relationships are derived. A theory of the important cratering mechanisms, which has been evolved on the basis of these data and data from other sources, is outlined. (auth)
Date: August 22, 1961
Creator: Nordyke, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnetic Properties of Insulators. Quarterly Report No. 2 Covering Period May 15, 1961 to August 15, 1961

Description: The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of color centers in additively colored KCl crystals is measured to observe the effects of optical bleaching at room temperature. Earlier measurements on the F-center are confirmed and the susceptibility is measured at 78 and 300 deg K over five decades of power, including the very low power region. The width and the saturation properties of the individual multiplets are studied in detail and the technique of making E PR measurements on inhomogeneously broadened lines is discussed. A calculation is presented which shows that a slight departure from a Lorentzian multiplet shape can account for the saturation data. The bleached crystals show a resonance which has a width of 35 gauss and a different rate of saturation than the F- center. This resonance is associated with the B-band which appears in the optical absorption. (auth)
Date: August 30, 1961
Creator: Markham, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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REACTIVITY EFFECTS OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS IN THE BEM-II B

Description: Reactivity effects of 93.2% enriched oralloy, molybdenum, iron, niobium, 310 stainless steel, 304 stainless steel, Inconel X, FeC rAl, zirconium, nickel, nichrome V, and chromium clad with FeCrAl, in the form of foils in the center cell of the BEM-II B minimum void, beryllium moderated critical experiment are reported. Nineteen-energy-level diffusion calculations with cell corrections from both coarse and fine energy detail were correlated with the measurements. The fine energy detail improved the correlation, mainly because resonance self- shielding and flux depression are more adequately treated, and residual discrepancies for the most part can be attributed to inadequacies in the cross section data. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Cooper, K.V. & Henderson, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EVALUATION OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL METHOD FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES. PART I. INTERIM LIQUID STORAGE

Description: As the first part of a study to evaluate the economics of the various steps leading to and including the permanent disposal of high-activity liquid and solid radioactive waste, costs of interim liquid storage of acid and alkaline Purex and Thorex wastes were estimated for storage times of 0.5 to 30 years. A 6- ton/day plant was assumed, processing 1500 tons/year of uranium converter fuel at a burnup of 10,000 Mwd/ton and 270 tons/year of thorium converter fuel at a burnup of 20,000 Mwd/ton. Tanks of Savannah River design were assumed, with stainless steel construction for acid wastes and mild steel construction for neutralized wastes. The operating cycle of each tank was assumed to consist of equal filling and emptying periods plus a full (or dead) period. With interim storage time defined as filling time plus full time, tank costs were minimum when full time was 40 to 70% of the interim storage time, using present worth considerations. For waste storage times of 0.5 to 30 years, costs ranged from 2.2 x 10/sup -3/ to 9.5 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for acid wastes and from 1.7 x 10/sup -3/ to 5.1 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for neutralized wastes. (auth)
Date: August 22, 1961
Creator: Bradshaw, R.L.; Perona, J.J.; Roberts, J.T. & Blomeke, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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REACTOR MAIN COOLANT LOOP

Description: A parametric study was made for the POPR with temperature gradients of 610 to 670 deg F and 6l0 to 684.5 deg F at organic flow rates of 17.8 x l0/sup 6/ and l4.4 x l0/sup 6/ lbs/hr, respectively; and steam turbine conditions at the throttle of 600 and 650 deg F at 800 to l200 psig. The study was made to obtain the most economical layout of the main heat transfer loop system. (B.O.G.)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Terpe, G.R. & Katz, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A PROGRAM OF RESEARCH ON MECHANICAL METALLURGY AS RELATED TO FUEL-ELEMENT FABRICATION. Quarterly Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 1961

Description: Results of crawing experiments using 3/8-in. bars to provide rod and tube test specimens are reported. In mechanical metallurgy investigations on the relation of formability to imperfection structure the peierls potentials for dislocation of Nb, Mo, Ta, and W were measured. Design and construction of a microextensometer reported. The investigations of the effects of grain size on the stored energy cold work were extended to a new lot OFHC Cu. In studies of formability relations with imperfection structure, a detailed study is reported on the internal-friction relaxation spectrum of Ta relatively unmodified by impurities. A summary of interstitial impurity effects on the internal-friction of Ta is given. (J.R.D.)
Date: August 31, 1961
Creator: Trozera, T Z; Koyama, K; White, J L & Chambers, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A PROGRAM OF RESEARCH AND CALCULATIONS OF RESONANCE ABSORPTION. Final Report

Description: A direct numerical integration of the integral equation for the average collision density in the absorber was previously suggested in a discussion of resonance absorption. The implementation of this program is considered. The method of calculation, comparison with experimental data, and the computer code developed are described. The method of integration, computation of cross sections, selection of mesh size, integration interval, outside correction, the Dancoff correction, and unresolved resonances are discussed. Resonance integrals for U/sup 235/ and Th2/sup >/s3>s/sup 2/ were calculated and compared with experiment. (M.C.G.)
Date: August 28, 1961
Creator: Nordheim, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annotated Bibliography of Theories of the Equation of State of Ionized Gases and Strong Electrolyte Solutions

Description: This bibliography lists 297 references on the equation of state of ionized gases and electrolyte solutions, including calculations of closely related quantities such as free energy, partition functions, o smotic pre ssure, activity coefficients, and equilibrium compositions of partially ionized systems. A subject index and a supplementary list of 42 bibliographies on plasma physics and similar topics are included. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Brush, S. G. & Wensrich, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactor Development Program Progress Report (for) July 1961

Description: A summary is presented of activities in reactor and general engineering research programs. Discussions are included for developments in EBWR, BORAX-V, ZPR-III. ZPR-VI, ZPR-IX, EBR-I, and EBR-II. Reactor safety studies were performed for fast and thermal reactors. Nuclear technology developments are discussed for applied nuclear and reactor physics, reactor fuels and materials development, heat engineering studies, separations processes, and advanced reactor concepts. (B.O.G.)
Date: August 15, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Remote Plastic Bag Passout Unit for High-Level Radiochemical Operations

Description: A system is designed for making remote sealed-bag passouts from a multicurie-level chemistry processing enclosure. The polyethylene bags are changed remotely without exposing contaminated surfaces while always maintaining a low leak rate seal. The system employs an interchange box (passout box) attached to the chemistry enclosure. Integrated with the box is a hydraulically operated jack that raises and lowers the bags, and a welder-cutter for sealing them. A single master-slave manipulator teamed with the above units handles all operations. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Fleischer, E. S.; Parsons, T. C. & Howe, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dimensional Behavior of the Experimental Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Element at Elevated Temperatures

Description: The Experimental Gas-Cooled Reactor (EGCR) fuel assemblies consist of a cluster of seven fuel elements contained in a graphite sleeve. Each element is composed of hollow cylindrical UO/sub 2/ pellets encapsulated in a type 304 stainless steel tube. The dimensional behavior of the fuel element was determined in an apparatus which simulated the thermal conditions predicted for the EGCR. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the relationship between the fuel temperature and axial expansion, the radial expansion characteristics of the fuel, the effect of cladding and fuel interaction on heating and subsequent cooling, the effect of rapid temperature excursions on the degradation of the fuel, and accumulative effects in the fuel element due to thermal cycling. An element that contains a radial gap between the cladding and the fuel pellet was found to respond to thermal cycling in the same manner that the individual components would react if subjected to the same thermal conditions and tested separately. Both the axial and radial expansion of the fuel pellet are very nearly a function of the maximum central temperature. The axial expansion of the fuel pellet column can be reduced appreciably at elevated temperatures by "dishing" the ends of the pellets. The pellets fracture radially and circumferentially upon heating, but redistribution of the fuel does not occur. If no radial gap exists between the fuel and the cladding, the expansion characteristics of the element during thermal cycling are a function of the fuel temperature, cladding temperature, and the external pressure exerted on the ele ment by the coolant stream. Thermal cycling may introduce plastic axial strains intc the cladding depending upon the details of the temperature cycle and the pressure conditions. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Martin, W. R. & Weir, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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GAS-COOLED REACTOR PROGRAM. QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR PERIOD ENDING JUNE 30, 1961

Description: Activities are discussed for research in design investigations, and materials development and testing conducted in connection with the development of the EGCR. The discussions are given in terms of: reactor physics; reactor design studies; heat transfer and fluid now investigations; materials development; in- pile and out-of-pile testing of components and materials; and development of test loops and components. (B.O.G.)
Date: August 28, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Processing of Graphite Specimens for High Temperature Irradiation by Hanford

Description: A study was made of the effects of heat treatments to 2900 and 2925 deg C and impregnations on the electric conductivity of HLM-85 and NCC-core graphite specimens. The results are graphed and tabulated. The effects of carbon pickup on the electric conductivty of impregnated samples are shown graphically. (B.O.G.)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Engle, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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REACTOR LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

Description: An exposition is presented comprising a basic set of experiments in reactor physics, engineering, and technology developed by the International Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering. Twenty-two experiments are included in a program which may be divided into groups associated with the Argonaut Reactor, the AGN-201 Reactor, and with other reactors or auxiliary equipment. (J.R.D.)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Sturm, W.J. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN A CYLINDRICAL PINCH TUBE

Description: Magnetic field measurements in a cylindrical linear pinch tube with probes are described. Tests are performed with a discharge current frequency of 20 kilocycles in nitrogen at an initial pressure of 0.1 mm Hg. Initial capacitor voltage is varied from 1000 to 5000 volts. The magnetic field distribution, the radial current distribution, and the current density in the pinch tube are described. The discharges are concluded to be symmetric above 2000 volts. The symmetric discharges have distinct characteristics. At the start of the discharge, current flows near the outer periphery of the pinch tube. A portion of the current concentrates in a thin shell which moves toward the axis at a high velocity. The remainder of the current flows between the rapidly advancing shell and the outer radius of the pinch tube. After the formation of the first shell a second shell may form and move toward the axis. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Donner, T. & Aronowitz, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Spectrographic Determination of Impurities in Hafnium

Description: A spectrographic method using d-c arc excitation in a controlled atmosphere was developed to analyze for seven impurity elements in radioactive hafnium samples. Analysis requires as little as 35 mg of hafnium oxide. (auth)
Date: August 25, 1961
Creator: Ginther, B. E. & Wheeler, G. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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METALLURGY DIVISION ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR PERIOD ENDING MAY 31, 1961

Description: >Fundamental Alloying. Studies of crystal structures, reactions at metal surfaces, spectroscopy of molten salts, mechanical deformation, and alloy theory are reported. Long-Range Applied Metallurgy. A thermal comparator is described and the characteristic temperature of U0/sub 2/ determined. Sintering studies were carried out on ThO/sub 2/. The diffusion of fission products in fuel and of Al/sup 26/ and Mn/sup 54/ in Al and the reaction of Be with UC were studied. Transformation and oxidation data were obtained for a number of Zr alloys. Reactor Metallurgy. A large number of ceramic technology projects are described. Some corrosion data are given for metals exposed to impure He and molten fluorides. Studies were made of the fission-gas-retention Properties of ceramic fuel bodies. A large number of materials compatibility studies are described. The mechanical properties of some reactor materials were studied. Fabrication work was conducted to develop materials for application in low-, medium-, and high-temperature reactors or systems. A large number of new metallographic and nondestructive testing techniques are reported. Studies were carried out on the oxidation, carburization, and stability of alloys. Equipment for postirradiation examination is described. Preparation of some alloys and dispersion fuels by powder metallurgy methods was studied. The development of welding and brazing techniques for reactor materials is described. (D.L.C.)
Date: August 17, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Synthesis of Wave-Forming Networks

Description: Passive networks whose specified wave forms are given as a function of time are discussed. The wave forms may be periodic or a single pulse. Suggestions and techniques are presented which should enable a circuit designer with a basic knowledge of network synthesis procedures to obtain wave-forming networks for a wide variety of cases. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: LaPatra, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MICROSCOPIC AND MACROSCOPIC MODELS IN PLASMA PHYSICS

Description: In choosing a model to describe the behavior of a plasma, a balance must be maintained between the simplicity of a macroscopic description and the detail in a microscopic description. In an ordinary gas, the criterion for behavior as a continuum is that the mean-free-path be small. In a plasma there is a similar criterion; other lengths (Debye, Larmor) may complicate the macroscopic equations but will not destroy their validity. An entirely different criterion (in a collisionless plasma) is that the Larmor radius be small. A consistent treatment of just the lowest order guiding-center particle motion is sufficient to yield, with a minimum of computation, both a microscopic theory (guiding-center gas) and a macroscopic continuum theory (guiding-center fluid). A comparison shows why certain types of arguments conventionally phrased in microscopic terms are exactly equivalent to a potentially less exact macroscopic analysis. (auth)
Date: August 15, 1961
Creator: Grad, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HIGH-FLUX FREE CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER TO WATER UP TO NEAR-CRITICAL CONDITIONS

Description: An investigation was made to increase the basic knowledge of nucleate and film boiling heat transfer to fluids up to their critical pressures. An extensive literature survey of the subject indicated a scarcity of consistent data and an absence of proven methods for analysis. This situation led to the design and construction of experimental apparatus suitable for measuring rates of free convection heat transfer and associated temperature differences for fluid conditions up to 4000 psi and 800 deg F, with provision for visual observation. The apparatus incorporated a stainless steel system for containing the fluid. Ten-mil-diameter cylindrical and 1/8-in.-high vertical-plate platinum test sections were placed in the fluid inside a pressure vessel, 5 in. in inside diameter and 21 in. high. The pressure and temperature of the fluid envirorment were controlled by constant-volume heating of the fluid in the pressure vessel with the aid of seven zones of radiant guard heaters located between the external wall of the pressure vessel and the insulation. Each of these zones was controlled by a differential-thermocouple-sensed circuit that automatically kept the pressure vessel at a prescribed uniform temperature. Fluid pressure was measured with a deadweight tester and a 0-4000-psi Heise gauge. Fluid temperature was measured with a calibrated resistance thermometer and Mueller bridge, purchased specifically for that purpose. The heat flux in the test section was obtained from electrical measurements of the directcurrent power supplied for Joule heating. The temperature of the test section was measured by means of a resistance thermometer. The system was outgassed and filled under a vacuum with water that was deionized, degassed, and deionized again. The quality of the water was maintained during an experiment with the aid of a thermalsiphon deionizing loop which was connected to the system. The results were tabulated and plotted in terms of heat …
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Holt, V.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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