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High Dilution On-Stream Isotopic Tracers Annual Report: 1961

Description: Introduction: The primary objective of the work of this report was research and development leading to large-scale applications of low level isotope tracer technology.
Date: May 1961
Creator: Aebersold, Paul C. & Bizzell, Oscar M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THORIUM BREEDER REACTOR EVALUATION. PART I. FUEL YIELD AND FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN FIVE THERMAL BREEDERS. APPENDICES

Description: The performances of aqueous-homogeneous (AHBR), molten-salt (MSBR), liquid-bismuth (LBBR), gas-cooled graphite-moderated (GCBR), and deuterium- moderated gascooled (DGBR) breeder reactors were evaluated in respect to fuel yield, fuel cycle costs, and development status. A net electrical plant capability of 1000 Mwe was selected with continuous processing of fuel and fertile streams. The maximum annual fuel yields were 16, 7, 4, 4, and 4.5%/yr, respectively at a fuel cycle cost of 1.5 mills/kwhr. The minimum estimated fuel cycle costs were 0.9, 0.6, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 mills/kwhr at fuel yields of 7, 1, 1, 2, and 3%/yr. At a fuel yield of 4%/yr, the costs were 0.9, 0.9, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3 mills/kwhr. Only the AHBR and the MSBR are capable of achieving fuel yields substantially in excess of 4%/yr, and therefore only these two can be listed with confidence as being able to satisfy the mdin criterion of the AEC long-range thorium breeder program i.e., a doubling time of 25 years or less. The development effort required to bring the various concepts to the stage where a prototype station could be designed was estimated to be least for the AHBR, somewhat more for the MSBR, and several times as much for the other systems. The AHBR was judged to rank first in regard to nuclear capability, fuel cycle potential, and status of development. (auth)
Date: May 24, 1961
Creator: Alexander, L.G.; Carter, W.L.; Chapman, R.H.; Kinyon, B.W.; Miller, J.W. & Van Winkle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THORIUM BREEDER REACTOR EVALUATION. PART 1. FUEL YIELD AND FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN FIVE THERMAL BREEDERS

Description: The performances of aqueous-homogeneous (AHBR), molten-salt (MSBR), liquid-bismuth (LBBR), gas-cooled graphite-moderated (GGBR), and deuterium- moderated gas-cooled (DGBR) breeder reactors were evaluated in respect to fuel yield, fuel cycle costs, and development status. A net electrical plant capability of 1000 Mwe was selected, and the fuel and fertile streams were processed continuously on-site. The maximum annual fuel yields were 1.5 mills/ kwhr. The minimum estimated fuel cycle costs were 0.9, 0.6, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 mills/kwhr at fuel yields of were 0.9, 0.9, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3 mills/kwhr. Only the AHBR and the MSBR are capable of achieving fuel yields substantially in excess of 4%/yr, and therefore, in view of the uncertainties in nuclear data and efficiencies of processing methods, only these two can be listed with confidence as being able to satisfy the main criterion of the AEC longrange thorium breeder program, viz. a doubling time of 25 years or less. The development effort required to bring the various concepts to the stage where a prototype station could be designed was estimated to be least for the AHBR, somewhat more for the MSBR, and several times as much for the other systems. The AHBR was judged to rank first in regard to nuclear capability, fuel cycle potential, and status of development. (auth)
Date: May 24, 1961
Creator: Alexander, L.G.; Carter, W.L.; Chapman, R.H.; Kinyon, R.W.; Miller, J.W. & Van Winkle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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NPR delayed neutron fractions and decay constants

Description: This report discusses the delayed neutron characteristics of a reactor which are a function of the distribution of fissions in the various fissionable isotopes. The delayed neutron characteristics of the NPRL delayed fraction and decay constants, are presented as functions of exposure to 2000 MWD/T for both room temperature and operating temperature. It is of importance to note that the delayed neutron fraction decreases from 0.693% to 0.539% with increased exposure. Thus 22% less reactivity change represents a prompt critical condition at 2000 MWD/T, compared to the zero exposure condition.
Date: May 26, 1961
Creator: Allen, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A STUDY OF RESONANCES OF THE Z-7r SYSTEM

Description: Recently a T = 1 resonance in the {Lambda}-{pi} system called Y{sub 1} has been observed with a mass of 1385 MeV. Two types of resonances have been predicted that might relate this observation to other elementary-particle interactions: (1) P 3/2 resonances in the {Lambda}-{pi} and {Sigma}-{pi} systems predicted by global symmetry, corresponding to the (3,2/ 3/2) resonance of the {pi}-N system, (2) a spin-1/2 Y-{pi} resonance resulting from a bound state in the {bar K}-N system. The position and the width of the observed Y{sub 1} resonance agree with both theories, but since the spin and parity have not yet been determined, they cannot distinguish between the two theoretical interpretations.
Date: May 23, 1961
Creator: Alston, M.H.; Alvarez, L.W.; Eberhard, P.; Good, M.L.; Graziano,W.; Ticho, H.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Critical Studies of a Dilute Oxide Fast Reactor Core (ZPR-III Assembly 30)

Description: BS>Critical studies of a fast reactor core containing a simulated oxide fuel having an oxygen-uranium atomic ratio of 1: 1 are described. Calculated and experimental critical masses are compared. Experimental results are given for fission ratio, central reactivity coefficient, fuel bunching, and distributed worth measurements. (auth)
Date: May 1961
Creator: Amundson, P. I.; Hess, A. L.; Keeney, W. P.; Long, J. K. & McVean, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BAND-1--A DATA REDUCTION PROGRAM FOR THE IBM-704

Description: BAND-1 is an IBM-704 program to reduce the experimental data obtained from measurements of the neutron activation distribution within a critical facility. The data reduction consists of correcting the measured data, sorting and ordering it, and calculating the critical buckling parameters by means of a least squares analysis. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Anderson, B.L.; Hemphill, A.P.; Jarvis, P.H. & Kettler, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chlorotriammineplatinum(II) Ion : Acid Hydrolysis and Isotopic Exchange of Chloride Ligand

Description: Abstract: The acid hydrolysis of [Pt(NH3)3Cl] has been shown to occur to a measurable extent. for this reaction: [APt(NH3)cCl]+ + H2O [chemical equilibrium symbol with rate constant k-1 above and k1 below] [Pt(NH3)c(H2O)]++ + Cl-, the equilibrium quotient was measured at 25 degree C and 35 degree C. At 25 degree C this quotient was 8.4 x 10-5 at [Mu] (ionic strength) = 0 and 25 x 10-5 at [mu] = .318 M. This variation is consistent with the expected changes in activity coefficients. [Delta]H for the reaction was found to be approximately 0. The rate constant, k1 was 2.3 x 10-5 sec.-1 at 25 degree C and it was nearly independent of ionic strength. The acid hydrolysis provides a mechanism for the exchange of the chloride ligand and Cl-. Exchange experiments with Cl36 showed that in addition to the acid hydrolysis, a process, first order in both, [Pt(NH3)3Cl] and Cl- with a rate constant of 6. 10-5 sec.-1M.-1 contributes to the exchange. The behavior of the entire series of chloro-ammines of platinum(II) toward acid hydrolysis and chloride exchange has been summarized, and a likely mechanism for the process has been discussed.
Date: May 15, 1961
Creator: Aprile, Ferruccio. & Martin, Don S., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Report on the projection welded brazed closure for Zircaloy-2 clad fuel elements

Description: The projection welded brazed closure is being studied as a possible alternate method of closing coextruded Zircaloy-2 clad uranium fuel elements for the NPR. This closure consists essentially of projection welding the Zircaloy-2 cap to the element cladding followed by a fast resistance heating of the cap and exposed uranium face under pressure to braze the cap to the uranium face. The work to date has been entirely on 0.593 inch OD rods and 1.050 inch OD by 0.500 inch ID tubular elements. This closure has the advantage that the entire closure is completed in less than 5 seconds on one machine and consequently the element is at a temperature which would be detrimental to the Zircaloy-2 cladding and uranium bond for a very short time. The amount of uranium removed for this closure is reduced by a factor of 10 over conventional braze closure methods with a substantial savings in uranium and acid milling time. A braze material which is not toxic can be used to bond the cap to the uranium.
Date: May 15, 1961
Creator: Ard, P. A. & Steinkamp, W. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Studies of Metal-Water Reactions at High Temperatures: I. The Condenser Discharge Experiment: Preliminary Results With Zirconium

Description: The condenser-discharge method of conducting molten metal- water reactions at high temperatures was refined. Two methods to measure energy input to specimen wires and, therefore, to compute initial metal temperatures were developed. Calculated metal temperatures were estimated to be accurate to within 100 deg C. Two reaction cells were designed, one for operation at atmospheric pressure with water at room temperature, and the other for operation at high pressure and with water at elevated temperature. Means were developed to determine the surface area of metal exposed to reaction and to determine the total extent of reaction. Pressure transducers were used to record the rate of reactions. The zirconium- water reaction was studied with initial metal temperatures from 1100 to 4000 deg C with 30 and 60-mil wires in room-temperature water. Initial pressures in these runs were the vapor pressures of water at room temperature (20-30 mm). Runs were made with 60-mil wires in water heated to 200 deg C (225 psi). Results in room-temperature water indicated that the reaction became explosive at an initial metal temperature of 2600 deg C. Below this temperature, 20% or less reaction occurred. At higher water temperatures, reaction ranged from 40 to 70%. Runs in heated water showed markedly greater reaction, reaching 50% for fully melted metal at the melting point (1840 deg C). Results suggested that the rates of both solid-state processes and the diffusion of water vapor through the hydrogen blanket surrounding reacting particles must be considered. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Baker, L. Jr.; Warchal, R.L.; Vogel, R.C. & Kilpatrick, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atomic and molecular collision cross sections of interest in controlled thermonuclear research

Description: A graphical compilation is presented of atomic and molecular cross sections of interest to controlled thermonuclear research. The cross sections are shown, as a function of energy, for collision processes involving molecular ion dissociation, charge exchange, excitation, ionization, photoionization, scattering, energy loss, and recombination. Pertinent nuclear cross sections are also included. A bibliography is given covering the literature since 1950. (auth)
Date: May 15, 1961
Creator: Barnett, C. F.; Gauster, W. B. & Ray, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of a Variable Orifice for HNPF Fuel Channels

Description: Control of the exit temperature of the coolant from each fuel channel of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility reactor is obtained by adjusting the coolant flow rate by a remotely operated variable orifice. Two variable orifices were designed and the hydraulic characteristics determined. Both orifice designs utilized a tapered plug moving in and out of a restricted flow passage at the upper end of the fuel channel. Data were obtained on pressure drop as a function of flow rate at different orifice plug positions; all measurements were made using water, and data were converted to equivalent values for sodium. Either type of orifice was capable of adjusting flow rate to match the power output of a fuel element at any location in the reactor core. The temperature sensitivity (change in exit temperature per unit change in orifice plug position) of the first type of orifice was low (lO deg F/in.) when used in combination with a central fuel element, and high (7OO deg F/in.) when used with a peripheral element. The temperature sensitivity of the second type was more uniform (varying from 90 to 250 deg F/ in.). Consequently, the second type of orifice was selected for the HNPF. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Baroczy, C. J.; Hagel, J. A. & Leonard, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TASK XII ANALYTICAL REPORT--SM-1 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS BY ANALOG COMPUTER METHODS

Description: The voltage and frequency response of selected SM-1 plant system parameters to step load changes was analyzed using analog computer measurements. The analog model was that developed for analysis of the SM-2 design. The approach to the analysis, formulation of the model, and analog recordings are presented. The data will be used to prove reliability of the analog model by comparing analog data with test data to be taken at SM-1. (auth)
Date: May 26, 1961
Creator: Barrett, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interim flow increases at B, D, DR, F and H reactors related to the short-range water plant modification program

Description: To provide flow increases in excess of the current water plant capacities at the old reactors, a short-range water modification program has been proposed by Facilities Engineering Section. The proposed program outlined by Facilities Engineering Section includes increased 181 and 183 building pumping capacity at B, D, and H areas, a new filter for F area, and larger impellers for the 190 building pumps at H area. It has been estimated that beneficial use for this proposed increased water plant capability can be obtained by the late fall of calendar year 1962 if prompt project approval can be obtained. In order to obtain an economic benefit from the proposed water plant capacity increases, methods of increasing flow through the reactor must be devised. Initially, various publications discussing this project inferred that rear Parker fitting reaming and installation of larger diameter rear-face pigtails were the only methods by which reactor flow increases could be economically justified. Hence, initially, acceptance of the short-range modification program appeared dependent on Parker fitting reaming and larger rear-face pigtails. Since the possibility of these two modifications will require further investigation, it is desirable to briefly explore alternate methods for increasing reactor flow so that the acceptance of the short-range water plant modification project proposal will not be unnecessarily delayed by these investigations. It is the purpose of this document, to outline potential alternate methods for achieving reactor flow increases.
Date: May 5, 1961
Creator: Benson, J. L. & Graves, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Processing Technology Quarterly Progress Report, October-December 1960

Description: ICPP Operations. Changes made in processing equipment are described, and the use of continuous steam stripping to free waste solvent of Pu is described. Agueous Processing Studies. Studies were made of methods for separating Zr from dissolver solutions of U-Zr alloys. Recovery of U from BeO/ sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ ceramic fuels by grinding-leaching technique using boiling HNO/ sub 3/ reached 75 to 80%. Waste Calcination. Test results of feed spray nozzles for use in the Demonstrational Waste Calcining Facility are given. Studies were made on the calcination of aluminum nitrate and zirconium fluoride waste solutions. Waste Treatment. Removal of Cs and Sr from wastes by adsorption was investigated. The conditions for optimum separation of Fe, Ni, and Cr by Hg cathode electrolysis from waste solutions resulting from processing of stainless steel reactor fuels were determined. Electrolytic Dissolution Systems. The electrolytic dissolution of type 304 stainless steel was studied in the transpassive region as a function of electrode potential and HNO/sub 3/ concentration. An analog simulation study of an electrolytic dissolver is described. A niobium cathode in an electrolytic dissolver dissolving stainless steel in boiling HNO/sub 3/ did not absorb H/sub 2/. The corrosion resistance of several container materials to 1 M HNO/sub 3/ solution containing stainless steel was measured. Electrolytic disintegration of Zircaloy-2 in HNO/sub 3/ was studied. ARCO Process. The ARCO process was adapted to dissolutiom of UO/sub 2/ by addition of Cu as a catalyst to the PbCl/sub 2/-Cl/sub 2/ system. Dissolution rates were measured for Nb in molten PbCl/sub 2/. Equipment Development. Equipment for air pulsing of extraction columns and for preventing criticality of enriched U solutions are described. (D.L.C.)
Date: May 15, 1961
Creator: Bower, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF A CARRIER-PRECIPITATION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF STRONTIUM FROM PUREX WASTES

Description: Strontium recovery from Purex 1WW was investigated with simulated feeds and tracer activities. Initial experiments demonstrated recovery of over 70% of the strontium by sulfate precipitation from partially neutralized 1WW by either increasing the sulfate concentration to about 3 M or by adding carriers such as lead. Precipitation of iron was avoided by addition of one or more moles of tartrate per two moles of iron. Precipitation at elevated temperatures and addition of lead after pH adjustment were shown to be beneficial. Strontium recoveries of over 95% were achieved by precipitation at about 80 deg C at pH values of 0.4 to 4.0 with sulfate concentrations of 0.67 to 3 M and over 0.02 M lead carrier added. High sulfate concentrations were required at low pH, but the sulfate concentration is not critical above pH 1. Some separation of strontium from cerium was observed at pH 2 to 4, with the degree of separation being dependent on both tartrate concentration and pH. Recovery of strontium from the sulfate precipitate by leaching with nitric acid, sodium acetate, or oxalic acid was unsatisfactory because of the large volumes required. Metathesis with sodium hydroxide removed most of the lead as plumbite and converted the precipitate to an acid-soluble form, but resulted in excessive strontium losses. Metathesis with carbonate-- hydroxide mixtures retained the benefits of hydroxide metathesis, and resulted in only very low strontium losses. Selective leaching of rare earths from the suIfate or carbonate precipitates using various complexing agents was generally unsuccessful. Recovery of strontium from the carbonate precipitate by washing with mixtures of nitric and oxalic acids, or by dissolution in nitric acid followed by oxalate precipitation was demonstrated. The techniques developed were successfully applied in the Purex plant in meeting Hanford's megacurie commitment of Sr/sup 90/ for the SNAP program prototypes. …
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Bray, L.A. & Van Tuyl, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Measured cadmium burnup in C reactor HCR`s

Description: C Reactor horizontal control rods were originally designed to have 32 feet of poison, made of 64 six inch ``cans`` each consisting of two concentric cylinders sealed at each end and the annular space between them filled with boron carbide powder. It was discovered before startup that under irradiation the neutron, alpha reaction in the boron could cause a pressure buildup and rupture of the sealed section. As an expediency cylinders wrapped with 72 miles thick cadmium metal were substituted for the boron ``cans`` and the pressure buildup problem was eliminated. However, since for a unit volume, natural cadmium contains fewer high cross-section nuclei than natural boron, the lifetime of one of these cadmium rods in Hanford flux levels is limited. Five of the original 15 cadmium rods were replaced in 1957 with boron rods of improved design. The primary purpose of this document is to present the results of a study to evaluate the extent of burnout in the remaining ten cadmium rods and their present rate of burnout so that replacement can be scheduled before these rods start losing significant reactivity poisoning effectiveness.
Date: May 3, 1961
Creator: Chitwood, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FINAL CYCLE PLUTONIUM RECOVERY BY AMINE EXTRACTION

Description: The flowsheet visualized from development work thus far for final plutonium recovery and purification will accept as feed a Purex partition stream without feed adjustment beyond the usual reoxidation. Extraction with trilaurylamine at approximately 0.3M appears suitable for 20 to 60 g Pu/liter product from 0.5 to 2 g Pu/liter feed. Scrubbing with either ((2 M or))2 M HNO/ sub 3/ is possible. Acetic acid is at present the first choice for stripping agent, with oil-soluble and aqueous-soluble organic reductants as alternates. (auth)
Date: May 24, 1961
Creator: Coleman, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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On the Mechanism of Yielding and Flow in Iron

Description: The activation energy, activation volume, snd frequency factor were evaluated for yielding (delay time for yielding, upper yield stress, lower yield stress, and Luders band propagation) and flow (friction stress, flow stress, and dislocation mobility) for various irons and steels from data in the literature. It was found that the values of these flow parameters and their stress dependence were the same, within experimental error, for both yielding and flow, and for all the materials considered. This suggests that either the same dislocation mechanism is controlling in every case, or that one or more mechanisms possees approximately the same values for these parameters. The dislocation mechanism for which there was closest agreement between theoretical calculations snd experimental data was overcoming the Peierls stress. On the basis of the available experimental data and the present analysis, it is suggested that the upper and lower yield stresses in iron and steel may represent the sudden generation of a large number of dislocations by the double cross-slip mechanism of Koehler and Orowan, rather than the breaking away from a Cottrell atmosphere. (auth)
Date: May 30, 1961
Creator: Conrad, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermal Expansion of Technical Solids at Low Temperatures: A Compilation From the Literature

Description: Report giving tables of the linear contraction relative to 293 ºK, (L293ºLT)/L293, and the linear expansion coefficient, dL/L293dT, of thirty elements, forty-five alloys, twenty-two other inorganic substances and twenty plastics and elastomers in the temperature range, 0 to 300 ºK.
Date: May 19, 1961
Creator: Corruccini, Robert J. & Gniewek, John J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON RADIATION-INDUCED CONTRACTION OF REACTOR GRAPHITE

Description: The distortion behavior of graphite as a function of irradiation temperature is reviewed. The behavior of needlecoke and CSF graphite was examined over moderate exposures in the GETR. Results showed needle-coke to be less contracting than CSF. Details of contraction show a minimum contraction rate per 10/sup 21/ nvt at 600 to 800 deg C for both types. Limitations to be placed on the data presented are listed. (P. C.H.)
Date: May 31, 1961
Creator: Davidson, J.M. & Helm, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SOLUBILITIES OF URANYL AND IRON(III) DIBUTYL AND MONOBUTYL PHOSPHATES IN TBP SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLUTIONS

Description: The solubilities of uranyl dlbutyl phosphate, uranyl monobutyl phosphate, ferric dibutyl phosphate, and ferric monobutyl phosphate were measured in aqueous nitric acid solutions ranging from 0 to 3 M and in 30% TBP in Amsco 125-82 solution containing 0--0.7 M HNO/sub 3/. For the respective compounds in the aqueous phases, as the acidity increased from 0 to 3 M, the solubilities increased from 0.004 to 0.7 g U/liter, O.O5to 50 g U/liter, <1 to 30 mg Fe(III)/ liter, and 0.003 to 3 g Fe(III)/liter; corresponding solubilities in the organic phases increased with acidity from 14 to 165 g U/liter, 11 to 110 g U/liter, <O.5to 4 mg Fe(III)/liter, and <0.002 to 1.5 g Fe(III)/liter. All these compounds foamed or formed very flocculent solids in the aqueous phases snd tended to settle slowly in the organic phases and rise to the surface in the aqueous phases, suggesting that they would be interface seekers in two-phase aqueousorganic systems. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Davis, W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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