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REACTION OF NITROGEN WITH NIOBIUM

Description: Reaction rates of niobium with nitrogen were determined gravimetrically from 675. to 875 deg C with a recording microbalance and volumetrically from 1100 to 1600 deg C with a modified Sieverts apparatus. Diffusion coefficients and terminal solubilities were determined from 800 to 1600 deg C by the concentration- gradient technique. Tne reaction of nitrogen with niobium follows a parabolic rate law at 675 to 1600 deg C. The expression for the diffusion coefficient for nitrogen in niobium at 800 to 1600 deg C is given as well as the expression for the terminal solubility for nitrogen in niobium. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1959
Creator: Albrecht, William M. & Goode, W. Douglas, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Possible Test Sites in Granitic Rocks in the United States

Description: Introduction: This report describes areas of granitic rocks suitable for underground nuclear tests within Federally-controlled land in the continental limits of the United States. This information was requested of the U. S. Geological Survey by the Albuquerque Operations Office of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, and was compiled during March 1959 by D. C. Alvord, W. J. Carr, P. M. Hanshaw, S. P. Kanizay, C. S. Robinson, R. W. Schnabel, J. A. Sharps, and C. T. Wrucke.
Date: July 1959
Creator: Alvord, Donald C.; Carr, Wilfred James; Hanshaw, Penelope M.; Kanizay, Stephen P.; Robinson, Charles Sherwood; Schnabel, Robert W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Palmolive cycle at Hanford

Description: The Palmolive program is directed toward the recovery of neptunium-237 and production of plutonium-238. The neptunium is recovered during the chemical processing of irradiated uranium and is purified and fabricated into target elements. The target elements are irradiated to produce plutonium-238 by neutron capture of neptunium-237 and are processed to provide plutonium for shipment to the final customer and neptunium for recycle within the system. This report summarizes a preliminary engineering study of the technical and economic factors involved in installing long-term Palmolive manufacturing facilities at Hanford to meet the reduced production goals. Prime emphasis is placed on the process technology and plant equipment requirements for fabricating and reprocessing neptunium target elements on a production basis. The relationships of these phases of the target cycle to the recovery and purification of virgin neptunium in the Purex Plant and irradiation of target elements in the Hanford reactors are reviewed in the light of the reduced plutonium-238 demands.
Date: July 10, 1959
Creator: Beard, S. J. & Judson, B. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PRODUCTION OF HEAVY WATER SAVANNAH RIVER AND DANA PLANTS. Technical Manual

Description: A summary is presented of the basic technical iniormation that pertains to processes that are used at the Dana and Savannah River Plants for the production of heavy water. The manual is intended primarily for plant operating and technical personnel and was prepared to supplement and provide technical support for detailed operating procedures. Introductory sections contain some background information on the history, uses, available processes, and analytical procedures for heavy water. They also include a general comparison of the design and laserformance of the two plants and an analysis of their differences. The technology of the heavy water separation processes used, namely hydrogen sulfide exchange, distillation of water, and electrolysis is discussed in detail. The manufacture and storage of hydrogen sulfide gas and the process water treatment facilities are also discussed. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1959
Creator: Bebbington, W.P.; Thayer, V.R. eds. & Proctor, J.F. comp.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Organic Cooled Reactor Study [Part 3]: Reactor Concept Evaluation

Description: From summary and conclusions: The purpose of this volume is to present the results of design studies to select the optimum-sized electric power station utilizing an organic cooled nuclear reactor and to evaluate and optimize the various reactor concepts, with special attention to selection of the moderator, consistent with the basic design criteria established by the AEC.
Date: July 1959
Creator: Bechtel Corporation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE REACTION OF HYDROGEN WITH ZIRCONIUM-1 AND -25 w/o URANIUM ALLOYS

Description: Hydrogen-absorption isotherms were measured over the range 535 to 835 C for zirconium--1 wt.% and--25 wt.% uranium alloys. X-ray-diffraction studies were made over approximately the same temperature range for the zirconium--1, -- 25, and --50 wt.% uranium alloys. In general, the alloys resenable the zirconium- hydrogen system, modified by the presence of uranium. With 1 wt.% uranium, the phase boundaries of the zirconium--hydrogen system are shifted to slightly lower hy-drogen contents. With 25 wt.% uranium, the first - two-phase-' region shifts to a hydrogen content 20 wt.% greater than in the zirconium--hydrogen system, while the second cctwo-phase'' region is unchanged. The eutectoid temperature is increased from 547 to 601 C. Heats of solution of hydrogen in the alloys were found to range from --25.9 to --47.9 kcal per mole for the 1 wt.% alloy, and from --30.7 to --50.6 kcal per mole for the 25 in.% alloy-. The x-ray-diffraction data support the interpretation that, as hydrogen is absorbed, the alloys break down to form uranium and zirconium, and the latter absorbs the hydrogen. The entire ternary isotherms could not be deduced from the data. However, three aspects appear certains (1) the extent of the phase fields along the zirconium-- hydrogen binary at 1 wt.% uranium, (2) the existence of alpha zirconium, alpha uranium, and ZrH/sub x/ three-phase fields at low temperatures, and (3) the existence of fields containing beta uranium and ZrH/sub x/ at higher temperatures for both the 25 and 50 wt.% alloys. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1959
Creator: Bigony, Harold E.; Doig, J. Robert, Jr. & Krause, Horatio H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Hard-Core Pinch. I

Description: This report analyzes a linear, hard-core pinch tube built to examine tubes afflicted by small-scale instabilities evident from many observations.
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D. H.; Colgate, Stirling A. & Furth, Harold P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Hard-Core Pinch. II

Description: This report describes a toroidal version of the hard-core pinch and the additional information it can obtain to what the analogous linear pinch can get.
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D. H.; Colgate, Stirling A. & Furth, Harold P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Hard-Core Pinch. Part I

Description: It is well known that a pinch column with internal H/sub Z/ and external conducting shell can be made grossly stable, but that small-scale instabilities persist; especiaily in the tubular region of maximum current density. To investigate further these small-scale instabilities of the stabilized pinch,'' we are using 12-in.-i.d. linear pinch tube with a 3-in.-o.d. insulated center rod. By controlling a current along this rod, as well as a current along external conducting straps, and a third current in an external H/sub z/ coil, it is possible to create many grossly stable pinch configurations. The small-scale stability of the tubular region of maximum current density can thus be studied for a wide range of internal and external magnetic field vectors. The magnetic field distribution in each discharge is obtained by a string of 10 magnetic pick- up loops. The distribution of plasma density is determined by modulating the inner or outer wall current and measuring the radial velocity of the resultant compressional Alfven waves. In one experiment, an initial H/sub z/ is entrapped in plasma by preionization, and then pushed radially outward from the rod by a rising H/sub theta /. The resultant field distribution, in which H/sub theta / everywhere falls more rapidly than 1/r, should have absolute hydromagnetic stability. The persistence of small-scale instabilities, as observed by the magnetic probes, in this inverse stabilized pinch'' suggests that the basic trouble is nonhydromagnetic. It is also found that, when the magnetic field approximates a vacuum field distribution, perfectly smooth and reproducible probe signals can be obtained. The absolute plasma current densities at which nearvacuum field distributions have been found stable are larger than current densities at which the 'stabilized pinch'' and inverse stabilized pinch'' distributions have been found unstable. (auth)
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D.H.; Colgate, S.A. & Furth, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE HARD-CORE PINCH. PART II

Description: The toroidal version of the hard-core pinch tube is created by levitating a ring conductor inside a toroidal shell. The magnitude of induced H/ sub theta / necessary for levi-tation is small in terms of field strengths normally desired for energetic pinches. In a 3-in. glass-and-copper toroid of square cross section a 3/4-in. hollow copper ring has been levitated with a 60- cycle current of 3 kiloamperes. A 12-in stainless steel tube of round cross section is being built. The stability of nearvacuum field hard-core configurations is best investigated in toroidal geometry. At high power levels and low plasma densities, the conventional toroidal stabilized pinch'' is subject to an anomalous plasma energy leakage to the wall, which cannot be explained by the observed ultraviolet radiation alone. A critical question is, therefore, whether the relative stability of some hard-core pinches, as reflected by the smoothness and reproducibility of magnetic probe traces, is reflected by an improved containment of the plasma en-ergy leading to high temperature. A toroidal hard-core tube is also useful in studying the nature of the nonhydromagnetic instabilities observed in the linear inverse stabilized pinch.'' The presence and condition of electrodes appear to have a substantial effect on the magnitude of these instabilities, as would be expected if they were, for instance, of electrostatic origin. In order to complement the plasma study of the hard-core pinch, we have developed an analogue method using sodium tubes to simulate the current-carrying layer. In this way the purely hydromagnetic aspect of the plasma behavior can be isolated. (auth)
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Birdsall, D.H.; Colgate, S.A. & Furth, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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1. K+ Charge Exchange - Search For K+ Charge Exchange

Description: An experiment was designed utilizing a charge-exchange reaction to study the decay and interactions of the neutral K mesons produced. The experiment produced no events that could be interpreted as either the decay or interaction of neutral K mesons. The nature of the experiment and the possible explanations of this unexpected result are presented in this paper.
Date: July 29, 1959
Creator: Birge, Robert W.; Courant, Hans J.; Lanou, Robert E., Jr. & Whitehead, Marian N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Technology Division, Unit Operations Section Monthly Progress Report for April 1959

Description: A concentration cell electrode was installed in a fritted glass surface and was used to measure the surface KCl concentration while water was being transpired through the surface into a mixed tank of 0.1 M KCl. The results from the first Fluorox run made with crude UF/sub 4/ showed that 85.3% of the theoretical amount of UF/sub 6/ was accounted for, with 17.9% being collected in cold traps and the remainder being consumed in various side reactions. Installation was completed of apparatus to study the electrolytic removal of nickel on an engineering scale from concentrated HRT fuel solution. An extremely low yield stress of 0.02 lb/sq ft was measured for a thoria-urania slurry containing 2.5 wt.% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and spherical particles of 1.7 micron mean diameter. Preliminary data on the rate of uranium sorption on Dowex 21K from sulfate solutions were correlated with a simple spherical diffusion model. Laboratory scale studies to determine the effect of reflux time, HNO/sub 3/ concentration, and air sparge on chloride removal from APPR-type Darex dissolver product showed that an air sparge is definitely beneficial in chloride removal. Preliminary cyclic cleaning tests showed that boiling 25% caustic solution was adequate for cleaning type F (20 micron) porous metal filter elements fouled in the absence of filter aid with siliceous sludge from Darex solvent extraction feed solutions. Sections of unirradiated stainless steel-clad UO/sub 2/, sheared into lengths of 1/2 in., 1 in., 2 in., and 2 3/4 in., were leached free of UO/sub 2/ with 10 M HNO/sub 3/ in 30, 45, 60, and 75 min, respectively. The abrasive blade cost for the removal of inert end adapters from selected reactor assemblies ranges from 12 for the Gas-Cooled Reactor to 19 for Consolidated Edison. A zirconium dissolution was carried to completion at 600 ction prod- …
Date: July 21, 1959
Creator: Bresee, J. C.; Haas, P. A.; Horton, R. W.; Watson, C. D. & Whatley, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Proposed projection fuel testing program 2

Description: Sufficient changes in the original projection fuel testing schedule have occurred to make the original schedules confusing. It is the intent of this document to revise an up-date those schedules so as to be a more realistic guide for associated development programs.
Date: July 27, 1959
Creator: Callen, A. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operational physics comments on fuel pile operational charge-discharge

Description: This document has been written in part to answer questions concerning the feasibility and advisability of ``quickie`` discharge of ruptures at C Reactor. Justification of full pile operational charge-discharge (OC-D) is based in part on outage savings resulting from improved, rupture removal. Since a portion of the rupture removals might be accomplished within the scram recovery time (quickie) it is necessary to consider recovery time as a function of anticipated future power levels. In addition to answering the questions mentioned above, it was felt worthwhile at this time to discuss equilibrium control problems associated with OC-D which have been apparent during operation of prototype equipment, and on the basis of this information to consider reactor control with full pile OC-D.
Date: July 15, 1959
Creator: Carter, R. D. & Ferguson, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Zirconium Diboride, Boron Nitride, and Boron Carbide Compatibility With Austenitic Stainless Steel

Description: The compatibility of zirconium diboride, boron carbide, and boron nitride with type 304 stainless steel was evaluated as a function of temperature (1000 to 12OO deg C), time (1-3 hr). Appropriate loadings of the boron compounds and stainless steel powder were blended and fashioned into a compact powder metallurgically. Each compact was roll clad into a plate and subsequently heat treated at a temperature equal to the initial sintering temperature. Metallographic examination of the fabricated and heat-treated plates demonstrated that none of the systems was metallurgically stable. The instability was generally manifested by the interaction of the discrete boron compounds with the matrix and precipitation of a hypothetically boron-rich phase throughout the stainless steel matrix material. Of the three compounds, boron nitride was relatively the most stable in a stainless steel matrix under the test conditions. (auth)
Date: July 31, 1959
Creator: Cherubini, J. H. & Leitten, C. F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Xenon calculations for I and E fuel element

Description: This document describes in detail the calculations that are basic to the xenon problem. While much of this work appears elsewhere, herein an attempt has been made to bring it together and make it as understandable as possible. The principle purpose of this document is to calculate the equilibrium xenon poisoning for the I and E geometry fuel element and compare the results to the equilibrium xenon poisoning for the solid geometry fuel element. Further objectives are to provide an understandable reference for those with interest in the basic xenon formulation, and to serve as a training guide for new personnel.
Date: July 2, 1959
Creator: Chitwood, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Junebug Clark Playing Baseball in an Alley]

Description: Photograph of two children playing in an alley. One boy, Junebug Clark, hits a ball with a bat, and another boy, Ron Forth, stands behind him, leaning against garage door. Narrative by Junebug Clark: Home plate is the sewer cover in the alley behind our home at 12135 Klinger, Hamtramck, Michigan. 1st base was a telephone pole. 2nd a squashed tin can in the middle of the alley and third base a trash can. The trick was to hit deep up the middle or you may loose your ball for a day or two if it went in Old Man John's backyard. More info on Ron Forth can be found on page 37 of the "Junebug Clark Scrapbook.pdf" in a Picture Story by Junebug, age 6. "Why Ronnie is My Favorite Pal" Photo by: Joe Clark, HBSS. Signed by: Joe Clark, HBSS Clark PhotoFile: 7766-76
Date: July 17, 1959
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
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Shutdown heat exchangers

Description: Typical transient temperature curves for the reactor outlet coolant have been obtained for the cooldown period. Additional curves showing the relationship of several variables on the required heat exchanger area were obtained.
Date: July 30, 1959
Creator: Condotta, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technology of Non-Production Reactor Fuels Reprocessing Budget Activity 2790. Quarterly Report

Description: Sawing studies were made using a dry function blade for cutting Zircaloy taking. An off-gas filtration system including a rotoclone and a filter assembly was installed to permit studying of the particulate material generated during the friction cutting operations. Studies of mechanical techniques for safety processing the Na or NaK alloy reservoirs present in some non-production fuels have continued. Stainless steel-clad swaged U0/sub 2/ rods and stainless steel- clad U- 10 wt.% Mo alloy rods were sheared under water to investigate the mechanical and particulate handling problems associated with these two major components of the power reactor fuels reprocessing program. The behavior of explosive U- Zr residues in the Zirflex Process was studied. In dissolution of stainless steel cladding from U0/sub 2/ it was found that a more rapid initial U0/ sub 2/ dissolution by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ occurred if the U0/sub 2/ was exposed to the atmosphere. Farther studies on the dissolution of ingot U and sintered U0/ sub 2/ in HNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3/- ferric nitrate are reported. The dissolation of U-Mo alloys is being studied. The corrosion of 304-L stainless steel and Hastelloy-F in nitric acid-ferric nitrate systems was studied. Exploratory experiments were done attempting to define the effect of Al(NO/sub 3/ )/sub 3/ and HF on the formation of explosion sensitive surfaces during the dissolution of U - low Zr alloys. Studies of metallic U dissolution in dilute aqua regia were made. Niflex (HNO/sub 3/- HF) dissolution studies of 304 stainless steel were continued. (W.L.H.)
Date: July 1, 1959
Creator: Cooper, V. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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