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A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Date: November 13, 1996
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bosnia: U.S. Military Operations

Description: This report outlines U.S. military operations in Bosnia and discusses issues such as U.S. and Allied Participation in Bosnia Peacekeeping (IFOR/SFOR), duration, cost, arms control and military assistance. This report also includes most recent development, background analysis, and legislation.
Date: November 13, 2001
Creator: Bowman, Steven R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fruits and Vegetables: Ongoing Issues for Congress

Description: The FY2001 appropriations for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and related agencies (P.L. 106-387/H.R. 4461) was signed into law on October 28, 2000. The act addressed agricultural emergency assistance (disasters and market losses) for specific fruits, vegetables, and nursery; contingency funding for APHIS to control crop diseases; funding for the methyl bromide transition program; and funding for the National Organic Program. It also would provide for the establishment of a marketing order for Hass avocados, and would redirect the duties charged foreign countries for dumping to injured farmers, ranchers, and others.
Date: November 13, 2000
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Lebanon

Description: No Description Available.
Date: November 13, 2001
Creator: Mark, Clyde R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Former Presidents: Federal Pension and Retirement Benefits

Description: This report provides information about the Federal Pension and Retirement Benefits on Former Presidents. The GSA is authorized by the FPA to provide an office staff and suitable office space at a location in the United States.
Date: November 13, 2003
Creator: Smith, Stephanie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hong Kong's Return to China: Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: In the months approaching China's resumption of sovereignty over Hong Kong on July 1, 1997, policy analysts are trying to assess how the territory will fare under Chinese rule. The answer is important to U.S. interests because of the enormous U.S. economic presence in Hong Kong; because any adverse developments in Hong Kong are likely to affect U.S.-China relations; and because China's promise to give Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy under the "one-China, two-systems" policy has major implications for Taiwan. But given the political situation, the American ability to affect the course of events in Hong Kong seems marginal unless the U.S. decides to confront Beijing more directly. Developments in U.S.-China relations in 1994-1995 suggest Washington might be hesitant to do so.
Date: November 13, 1995
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Description: P.L. 106-429, in which H.R. 5526, the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs appropriations act for 2001 was referenced, contained language prohibiting funding from this bill for the United Nations World Heritage Fund. This Fund provides technical assistance to countries requesting help in protecting World Heritage sites. On May 20, 1999, the House passed (by voice vote) the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act (H.R. 883), which requires congressional approval to add any additional U.S. national parks and monuments to the World Heritage List, a UNESCO-administered list established by the 1972 World Heritage Convention. This paper describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and will be updated periodically.
Date: November 13, 2000
Creator: McHugh, Lois B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Maritime Economic Deregulation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Description: The Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998 ("the Act") (P.L. 105-258, October 14, 1998) takes effect May 1, 1999. The Act requires the Federal Maritime Commission to have implementing regulations in place by January 1, 1999.
Date: November 13, 1998
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress

Description: The Convention provides the most extensive and intrusive verification regime of any arms control treaty, extending its coverage to not only governmental but also civilian facilities. The Convention also requires export controls and reporting requirements on chemicals that can be used as warfare agents and their precursors. The CWC establishes the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to oversee the Convention's implementation. Chemical Weapons Convention implementing legislation, as S. 610, passed the Senate unanimously on May 23, 1997. This legislation, which was an amendment in the nature of a substitute reported from the Judiciary Committee, provides the statutory authority for domestic compliance with the Convention's provisions. It sets criminal and civil penalties for the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer, possession, or use of chemical weapons.
Date: November 13, 2001
Creator: Bowman, Steven R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Iraq: U.S. Casualties

Description: The following casualty data was compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency's press release. Table 1 provides statistics on fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing, as well as on the number of fatalities since May 1, 2003, plus statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. More frequent updates are available at DOD's website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/] under "Casualty Update." A detailed casualty summary that includes data on deaths by cause, as well as statistics on soldiers wounded in action, is available at the following DOD website: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm].
Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Chesser, Susan G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices

Description: Petroleum prices rose sharply in the first half of 2008, at one time reaching more than $140 per barrel of crude oil. Since July, however, petroleum prices and import volumes have fallen at a historically rapid pace; in November, prices of crude oil fell below $55 per barrel. The fall in the cost of energy imports combined with the drop in import volumes as a result of the slowdown in economic activity has reversed the trend of rising energy imports costs and will sharply reduce the overall costs of U.S. energy imports for the rest of 2008. This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the rising oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit.
Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Description: China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States

Description: Over the past several years, China has enjoyed one of the world's fastest growing economies and has been a major contributor to world economic growth. However, the current global financial crisis threatens to slow China's economy. China is a major economic power and holds huge amounts of foreign exchange reserves, and thus it could play a major role in responding to the current crisis. For example, in an effort to help stabilize the U.S. economy, China might boost its holdings of U.S. Treasury securities, which would help fund the Federal Government's purchases of troubled U.S. assets. However, this could raise a number of issues and concerns for U.S. policymakers.
Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Davis-Bacon: The Act and the Literature

Description: The Davis-Bacon Act of 1931, as amended, requires that contractors, engaging in certain federal contract construction, pay workers on such projects not less than the locally prevailing wage for comparable work. In addition, such contractors are required to file payroll reports and to meet other administrative and labor standards requirements. Included in this report is a bibliography of published materials dealing with the Davis-Bacon Act and related issues.
Date: November 13, 2007
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of Free-Stream Reynolds Number, Engine Installation, and Model Scale on Stability Characteristics of a Translating-Spike Inlet at Mach 2.0

Description: Memorandum presenting the effect of free-stream Reynolds number, engine installation, and model scale on inlet stability limits and on the amplitude and frequency of buzz. The data were taken at a free-stream Mach number of 2.0 and angles of attack from 0 to 6 degrees. Results regarding free-stream Reynolds number effect, model scale, and effect of engine on stability are provided.
Date: November 13, 1957
Creator: Musial, Norman T. & Bowditch, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability of the Antisubmarine Rocket Mk 1 Mod 0

Description: Report discussing an investigation to determine the cause and provide a fix for the instability in flight of the antisubmarine rocket Mk 1 Mod 0. The Magnus effects and their nonlinear variation with angle of attack were found to affect the stability, so reducing the Magnus effects should reduce instability in the missiles. The greatest reduction of Magnus effects was found through a combination of nose-ring spoiler and the original direction of the propeller rotation, but the nose ring increased the drag.
Date: November 13, 1952
Creator: Lichtenstein, Jacob H. & Williams, James L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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