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Some Metallurgical Applications of Autoradiography

Description: Macro- and high-resolution methods for autoradiography were used to investigate a number of problems concerning the distribution of uranium and other active elements in metal specimens. Illustrations are presented of the behavior of some of these materials with various henting and cooling treatments and in the presence of metals with which intermetallic phases are formed. Techniques are discussed for handling and examining autoradiographic stripping films by means of various types of metallurgical and conventional microscopic equipment. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1961
Creator: Adams, M. D. & Steunenberg, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactor Development Program Progress Report: September 1966

Description: Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory discussing progress made within the Reactor Development Program for September, 1966. The report includes highlights of the different project activities including plutonium utilization, fast breeder reactors, general reactor technology, advanced systems research, and nuclear safety. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: October 26, 1966
Creator: Adams, R. M. & Glassner, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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KER loop 1 tube temperatures

Description: No Description Available.
Date: October 1, 1962
Creator: Agar, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Old pile HCR operating temperatures

Description: A study was made to determine operating temperatures of old pile HCR sheaths. The calculations were performed with the aid of a FORTRAN coded program for the IBM 7090. The difficulty of determining the correct value for the contact coefficient between the HCR and the graphite channel at any point in the channel length resulted in performing the calculations in a parametric style. The independent system parameters were varied during the calculations. These parameters are diametral spacing between the poison rings and the outer aluminum sheath, heat generation rate or reactor power level, the heat transfer contact coefficient between the rod and the graphite channel, and the cooling water temperature or cooling flow rate. For contact coefficients between 200 and 700 Btu/hr -- ft{sup 2} -- {degree}F and for diametral clearances around the poison of 5 mils to 20 mils, the maximum sheath temperature was calculated to vary between 350{degree}F and 650{degree}F. The dependence of sheath temperature upon the rod coolant temperature or coolant flow rate was found to be small enough to be neglected in the normal flow range of 12 gpm to 15 gpm. For a given increase of the average coolant temperature, the maximum sheath temperature increased about one half as much. Reversing the coolant flow in an HCR would not significantly reduce the maximum sheath temperature.
Date: October 10, 1963
Creator: Agar, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Theoretical Feedback Analysis in Boiling Water Reactors

Description: The dynamic behavior of boiling-water reactors for small perturbations was investigated in a systematic way. General expressions for the transfer functions associated with the individual feedback mechanisms were obtained for an arbitrary flux distribution, weighting function, and steam velocity distribution. Specific forms were derived in the case of a first power flux weighting, a uniform steam velocity distribution, and a sinusoidal flux distribution with an adjustable wave length. These forms were simplified and single time-constant transfer functions were obtained. The error involved in the lumped time-constant approximation was shown to be as large as 4 db in amplitude in certain feedback mechanisms. Theoretical results were applied to the experimental power-void transfer function obtained at Ramo-Wooldridge Research Laboratory, and to the EBWR transfer function. In the former case, the agreement was found to be reasonably good, but yet more systematic experimental data were needed to reach a definite conclusion as to the validity of the proposed model, which assumes a time lag associated with steam formation and a steam perturbation speed greater than the steady-state steam velocity. In the second application, the agreement between the experimental and calculated reactor responses was proved to be better than 5 db in amplitude and 10 deg in phase, in the entire frequency range from 0.01 to 100 rad/sec. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Akcasu, A. Ziya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fast Flux Test Facility. Design and Development Quality Assurance Requirements for the FFTF

Description: The document is presented to provide general management requirements for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and contractor design and development quality assurance programs to assure the required quality level of the various items required for the FFTF. The document is applicable as imposed by the contract to FFTF contractors and subcontractors. The document is also applicable to PNL design and development activities related to the FFTF.
Date: October 23, 1968
Creator: Albert, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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GAUGE FOR MEASURING BOW OF TUBES

Description: A mechanical gage was designed to measure the bow over any one-foot length of long cylindrical material. The gage was used successfully for measuring bow in components of tubular fuel elements at the Savannah River Laboratory. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1962
Creator: Alewine, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Production Test PT-IP-810 installation of flat aluminum horizontal control rod, D Reactor

Description: The two small reactors (B and D) currently utilize a flat aluminum horizontal control rod consisting of three cooling tubes surrounded by boron carbide-aluminum neutron absorber rings and an outer casing of aluminum. Two adverse and complementary characteristics of these rods have served to limit the functional reliability of the rods under current and anticipated reactor operating conditions. The construction of the rod presents a relatively high resistance to transfer of heat from the sheath to the cooling water and the neutron to transfer of heat from the sheath to the cooling water and the neutron absorber rings show evidence of significant dimensional increase with high accumulated exposure to neutrons. With poor heat transfer and current reactor operating levels, the rod sheath temperature may exceed that for which aluminum is suited and the material loses its strength by annealing. Swelling of the neutron absorber rings further aggravates the overheating by increasing the cooling tube to ring gap. The net result is a tendency for hot spots to occur in the rod sheath and in the more advanced cases, these develop into e step plug. blisters which cause the rod to bind in the channel and/or the step plug. A new aluminum horizontal control rod (HCR) has been designed to avoid the above problem as a part of Facilities Engineering Section`s program to provide means of alleviating horizontal control rod problems at all of the reactors. The purpose of this Production Test is to authorize installation of a newly designed flat aluminum HCR prototype in HCR channel No. 2 at D Reactor for test.
Date: October 11, 1965
Creator: Alexander, W. K. & Hutton, P. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Boiling of Freon-114 in a Three-Foot Straight Tube Evaporator

Description: Introduction: this report covers two series of tests run on a Freon evaporator containing a vertical copper tube having an outside diameter of 7/8 of an inch, heated externally for a length of 35 inches by steam condensing in a concentric jacket.
Date: October 19, 1961
Creator: Allen, Charles F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A RESONANCE IN THE Lambda pi SYSTEM

Description: The authors report a study of the reaction K{sup -} + p {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0} + {pi}{sup +} + {pi}{sup -} produced by 1.15 Gev/c K{sup -} mesons and observed in the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory's 15-in. hydrogen bubble chamber. A preliminary report of these results was presented at the 1960 Rochester Conference. The beam was purified by two velocity spectrometers. A hyperon/observed during the run and the preliminary cross sections for various K{sup -} reactions at 1.15 Bev/c have been reported previously. Reaction (1) was the first one selected for detailed study, because it appeared to take place with relatively large probability and because the event, a 2-prong interaction accompanied by a V, was easily identified. In a volume of the chamber sufficiently restricted so that the scanning efficiency was near 100%, 255 such events were found. These events were measured, and the track data supplied to a computer which tested each event for goodness of fit to various kinematic hypotheses. The possible reactions, the distribution of events, and the corresponding cross sections are given in Table I. An event was placed in a given category of Table I if the {chi}{sup 2} probability for the other hypotheses was < 1%. It appears likely that the majority of the events in group(e) are also reactions of type (I). This belief is based on the following arguments: (1) since the kinematics of a {Lambda} {pi}{pi} fit (four constraints) are more overdetermined than those of a {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} fit(two constraints), it is relatively easy for a {Lambda} {pi}{pi} reaction to fit a {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} reaction, but only very few {Sigma}{sup 0} configurations can fit the {Lambda} {pi}{pi} reactions. (2) The events of group(e) when treated as {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} reactions give a {chi}{sup 2} distribution which is much worse than …
Date: October 24, 1960
Creator: Alston, Margaret; Alvarez, Luis W.; Eberhard, Philippe & Wojcicki, Stanley G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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In Vivo Gamma Lung Measurements--a Mathematical Model

Description: A low-background facility is described for rneasuring lung burdens of U, Th, and other nuclides in vivo. Problems associated with this method of radiation measurement are discussed. A mathennatical, computer-oriented simulation was devised to gain insight into the relation of the net observed radiation spectrum to the burden of radioactivity in the body or its organs. Chest cavities for persons of three sizes were synthesized in a three-coordinate space comprised of one-inch cubes and including a 9-in.-diameter crystal detector. Data, describing the tissue composition of each cube in the body and the characteristic radiation attenuation for each tissue-type, were coded for use with a program on a high-speed digital computer. Efficiencies for measuring radiation emitted by numerous point sources of enriched uranium were calculated. Data on in vivo measurement efficiency were obtained assuming uniform distribution of radioactive material throughout the lungs and also for nonuniform deposits. The effects of individual size and geometry, and of detector position on the measurement efficiency were determined for these twvo categories and radiation flux distributions on the detector face were computed in some cases. Data are appended and a flow diagram of the computer program is included. (C.H.)
Date: October 20, 1961
Creator: Ammann, P. R.; Wilson, C. W. & Mohr, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Damage Flux in Critical Assemblies

Description: An important limitation on the design of an inpile thermionic reactor is the fast neutron irradiation damage to the insulators, which is expressed quantitatively by the energy weighted neutron flux, or damage flux. The behavior of the damage flux has been investigated for a set of hypothetical critical assemblies containing different types of fuel and different amounts of moderator. It is shown that for a given fuel, the damage flux is reduced by moderating the neutron spectrum, and for a given amount of moderator the damage flux is reduced by increasing the amount of fuel in the fuel pin. Some effects of damage flux considerations on reactor design are also shown.
Date: October 31, 1968
Creator: Anderson, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Vibrational Analysis of Unfired Horizontal Bayonet Tubes in a Fluidized Bed Calciner

Description: The heat exchanger of the calciner consists of a vessel into which unfired, horizontal, bayonet tubes extend in a fluidized bed. Strain measurements were taken on several of the tubes under simulated operating conditions and the associated dynamic stresses were calculated. Vibrations greater than design limitations for indefinite operation were found to exist. To restrict these vibrations and prevent further tube fatigue cracking, a tube support was installed. Since the installation of the support, the calciner has operated satisfactorily over 1275 hours. (auth)
Date: October 19, 1962
Creator: Anderson, S.D. & Hirschi, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ACTIVITY RELEASE FROM THE N.S. SAVANNAH IN THE MAXIMUM CREDIBLE ACCIDENT

Description: The release of fission products that would occur following the maximum credible accident aboard the N.S. Savannah has been examined. Four significantly different, but realistic, operating histories were considered. The rate of release of noble gases and of iodine isotopes as a function of time after the accident was determined for each operating history and for both normal and emergency reactor-compartment ventilation systems. The influence of radioactive decay and of the time delay in release and transport of activity through the containment system was investigated. Most of the results are expressed in terms of activity release and resultant individual exposures, although some consideration is given to population exposures and to the interpretation of these results in the light of stationary reactor site criteria. (auth)
Date: October 16, 1963
Creator: Anderson, T. D.; Buchanan, J. R.; Cottrell, W. B.; Fontana, M. H.; Klepper, O. H. & McCurdy, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Stresses in Bellows

Description: Abstract: Design charts and systematic design forms are presented for simplified calculations to check the number of convolutions and thickness required to limit the deflection and pressure stress range in three types of bellows.
Date: October 15, 1964
Creator: Anderson, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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