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AEC Aerospace Safety Programs and Philosophy

Description: Work in aerospace safety analysis, research, development, and testing is discussed. Studies for the SNAP program are outlined. The engineering andd test program for aerospace safety ls described. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Pittman, F. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aerospace Nuclear Safety: October 1 - 4, 1963

Description: Proceedings on aerospace nuclear safety.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Sandia Corporation. Technical Information Division III.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Applied Health Physics Annual Report for 1962

Description: The environmental monitoring data processed during 1962 indicated that Laboratory operations did not contribute appreciably to the contamination of the environment with radioactive materials. However, the effects of airborne radioactive materials generated from nuclear weapons tests conducted at various locations throughout the world continued to be reflected in certain parts of the environmental monitoring data. The concentration of radioactive materials in air (as determined by air filtration techniques) increased by a factor of about 2.5. The concentration of radioactive materials in rain water increased by a factor of 3 to 5. The Sr/sup 90/ concentration in raw milk increased by a factor of about 3. The I/sup 131/ concentration in raw milk increased by a factor of about 12. The general radiation background increased by a factor of 2 in the East Tennessee Area. Gamma measurements taken over river bottom sediment increased by a factor of about 2 in Fort Loudoun Reservoir, a body of water that is fed by the Tennessee River and not affected by liquid waste releases originating from Oak Ridge operations. The calculated average concentration of radioactive materials in the Clinch River resulting from waste releases originating from ORNL operations decreased from 18% of the (MPC)w in 1961 to 7.4% of the (MPC)w in 1962. The measured concentration at a point about 16 miles below the entry of ORNL waste releases averaged 4.9% of the (MPC)w during 1962. There were no personnel exposures recorded during 1982 which exceeded maximum permissible levels. The highest total body dose recorded was 4.8 rem which is 38% of the maximum permissible annual dose. There were no cases involved where the internal deposition of radioactive material in the body was estimated to have exceeded one- half of a maximum permissible body burden averaged over a l2-month period. As of December 31, …
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Hart, J.C. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY RADIOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE TEAM

Description: ABS>The organization, training, equipment, and operation of a radiological assistance team are described. The team renders assistance in the event of incidents involving radiological safety or weapons incidents. (C.H.)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Lonergan, G.T. & Smith, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ceramic to Metal Seals for High-Temperature Thermionic Converters

Description: A rather broad investigation was carried on in the materials and methods which are considered possibly useful in forming ceramic to metal seals and composite structures for use in the environment of cesium-plasma thermionic converters. Initially, studies of five specific meands of joining refractory metals to alumina were undertaken, as well as studies of metallizing methods, of forming graded tungsten-alumina composites, and of the possible metals and ceramics which could be utilized best in structures operated at 2000 deg C. The five joining methods studied are: (1) Formation of a continuous electroplated layer of refractory metal across the adjacent surfaces of metal and ceramic. (2) Welding of a metal member to the ceramic by ultrasonic welding techniques; i.e., without heat. (3) Use of high temperature brazing alloys. (4) Formation of a bond between metal and ceramic by the diffusion of compatible intermediate materials into both structural members. (5) Welding of single oxide ceramics directly to refractory metals using electron-beam welding equipment. The study of metallizing methods was started because the first three of the joining methods listed require the use of a metallized surface of the alumina. It was determined that three of the five methods for joining refractory metals to alumina which were under study were not practically fessible. The methods considered impractical are: formation of a continuous electroplated joint, welding by ultrasonic energy, and welding with electron beam techniques. The studies on these methods were ended. Significant achievements have been made in the other studies. A metallizing process has been developed by which a strongly adherent sintered tungsten film can be applied to commercially available, high-purity, silica-free alumina. No fluxing materials or active metals which are susceptible to attack by cesium are used in this process. Bonding of alumina to molybdenum has been successful by several methods developed …
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Dring, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Cladding Failure Monitor for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Systems

Description: A cladding failure monitor using the principle of detection of rare gas fission products in the cover gas system of liquid metal-cooled reactors, was developed which efficiently discriminates against AR41. This discrimination is accomplished by electrostatic precipitation of the rare gas daughter nuclides; since K41, the daughter of Ar41, is not radioactive, the activity of the precipitation is chiefly due to decay of various Rb and Cs fission products. The monitor equipment is described. Results of monitor testing in EBR-1 are reported; a simulated fuel road failure experiment was made which shows that the charged-wire cover gas monitoring principle should be useful in other sodium-cooled fast reactors systems.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Smith, R. R. & Doe, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Contract Year 1963. Technical Summary Presentation, October 22-23, 1963

Description: The present document is a transcript of presentations by the sponsors of the NERVA Nuclear Subsystem projects described in WANL Work Program. These talks were given at a meeting held at WANL on October 22 and 23, 1963 to review progress in Contract Year 1963. The agenda following gives the order in which the projects were discussed, which is also the order in which they were printed, Projects 2900, 4101, 4300, and 5000 were not discussed. A bibliography of external reports issued during the contract year follows the talks.
Date: October 1, 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Controlled-Environment Steam Corrosion Facility

Description: Abstract; Technical report describing a low-flow autoclave system developed for out-of-pile corrosion testing of materials in controlled environment steam up to 500 C. The system has been set up in triplicate to provide for the exposure of various zirconium alloys to steam at 300, 400, and 500 C. The oxygen and hydrogen of the steam were controlled at 25 ppm and 3 ppm, respectively, to simulate the gas conditions from radiolytic water decomposition found in a boiling water reactor. The autoclave internals were so designed to result in a temperature variation between specimens under test of less than 2C.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Nelson, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design Review and Safety Analysis of Experiments in ORNL Research Reactors

Description: Since 1943 when the oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was put into operation, literally thousands of individual irradiation have been performed in this reactor and in other ORNL research reactors. Over the years there have been many minor incidents caused by experiments. Such incidents have provided a basis cor continued improvement in experiment design review and safety-analysis procedures. The reports lists the Design Review and Safety Analysis (1) objectives, (2) principles and rules of design, and (3) limits of application of the review process. The report includes a review of 19 incidents at ORNL research reactors.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Stanford, L. E. & Costner, R. A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development Program for Increased Output in the Garigliano Nuclear Reactor. Quarterly Report No. 4

Description: The United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), on May 29, and June 18, 1958, signed an agreement which provides a basis for co-operation in programs for the advancement of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. The work described in this report represents the Joint U.S.-Euratom effort. The over-all development program is designed to obtain the test data and operating experience necessary to eventually realize a 50 percent increase in the output of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station located at Sessa Aurunca (Campania, Italy). Two tasks are in progress: Task III-F involves the preparation of test specimens of reactor vessel material for irradiation; Task IV consists of the formulation of specification for a complete data logging and computer system.
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Sorlie, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Electrochemical pH-STAT

Description: An apparatus has been developed which controls automatically the acidity of unbuffered solutions in the region from pH 4 to 10. A potentiostat is used to control the potential of an inert electrode on which the hydrogen gas-hydrogen ion reaction occurs in a solution saturated with hydrogen gas. The inert electrode acts as both a sensing element and a regulating electrode for the control of acidity. Current from the potentiostat passes through the inert electrode and an auxiliary polarizing electrode in an external compartment separated from the main cell by a salt bridge or porous plate. Transients which occur during the regulating action are presented and analyzed. The electrochemical pH-stat may be used to measure corrosion rates. Limitations of the device are discussed and a modification is proposed which makes use of a differential amplifier instead of a potentiostat.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Posey, F. A. (Franz Adrian), 1930-; Morozumi, T. & Kelly, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electron Beam Welding of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Components

Description: The rapid technological development of the nuclear and space industries has placed a great demand on metal joining processes. One of the most promising processes is electron beam welding. Welding with the electron beam ofiers high integrity in addition to the ability to fabricate unusual configurations. Advanced nuclear fuels require both reliability and unusual designs for satisfactory operation under extreme conditions of temperature and stress. To investigate the problems and techniques involved in fabricating large, advanced nuclear fuel components from Zircaloy-2 material, several cladding pieces were designed and built using the electron beam process. These designs included five basic joint types for assembling the cladding. Destructive and nondestructive examinations were employed including corrosion testing and extensive metallographic examination. Weldment size, fit-up'' of the parts to be joined, fixturing and work carriage mechanisms, as they pertain to electron beam welding, are also discussed. The electron beam process has been demonstrated as a very satisfactory method for fabricating unusual fuel cladding. Fuel cladding components with lengths up to 8 ft have been fabricated for in-reactor irradiation. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Klein, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE EMANATION OF RADON 220 FROM SINTERED UO$sub 2$ POWDERS AND PLATES

Description: The emanation of thoron (Rn/sup 220/) from sintered UO/sub 2/ powders and plates was measured as a function of temperature. The uranium oxide samples were indexed with radiothorium by coprecipitation and coevaporation techniques. The emanation measurements were performed in a flow system, using an alpha scintillation detector and a helium-hydrogen carrier gas mixture. Both the radiothorium concentration (5 to 100 mu C/g UO/sub 2/) and the uranium oxide density (71 to 99 percent TD) were varied. The surface areas and densities of the UO/sub 2/ plates were measured by krypton gas adsorption and liquid immersion techniques, respectively. Assuming a diffusion mechanism, diffusion coefficients for thoron in sintered UO/sub 2/ were calculated as a function of temperature. The data were represented by an equation of the form, D = D/sub O/ exp (-Q/RT). An apparent increase in both activation energy (Q) and D/sub O/ with density was observed for the 1100 to 1450 deg C temperature range. For some samples the thoron emanating power could be measured at temperatures as low as 400 deg C. Log D versus 1/T plots from 400 to 1450 deg C gave intersecttng straight lines with different activation energies. One intersection occurred near the Tammann temperature. The emanation of Rn/sup 220/ from UO/sub 2/ apparently involves several types of diffusion processes. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Clayton, J. C. & Aronson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Examination of Irradiated RaLa Source Fuel Rod (Prototype NO. 2) for Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Final Reoprt on Metallurgy Program 6.1.21

Description: A LASL fuel-bearing assembly was irradiated in the Materials Testing Reactor and subsequently examined at ANL. The design was found to be adequate for containing specimens irradiated to high burnup levels if certain defects introduced by the fabrication procedure are corrected. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Paine, S. H.; Murphy, W. F. & Brown, F. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Summary Report of the Gas-Cooled Reactor Experiment-1

Description: Report describing the Gas-Cooled Reactor test facility, its ongoing testing and evaluations of a test reactor, and its operating conditions and characteristics.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Chesworth, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FORMALDEHYDE TREATMENT OF PUREX RADIOACTIVE WASTES

Description: Continuous denitration of Purex acid waste (PAW) with formaldehyde was successfully demonstrated in a fullscale plant prototype unit in the Hanford Purex plant. The reaction is smooth and is easily and safely controlled. Because severe foaming can occur in the reaction vessel, the use of an antifoam agent is required to attain acceptable plant processing rates. Extensive laboratory and pilot plant work, proper equipment design, and satisfactory oper ating procedures were the bases for developing adequate safeguards that assure complete control of the reaction at all times. During operation, the formaldehyde and the preheated PAW stream (with 50 to 100 parts antifoam per million parts PAW) are added continuously to the reactor which is maintained at 95 deg C. From an initial feed concentration of approximately 6.1M, the free acid is reduced to 0.5 to 1.0M in the treated waste. About 2.5 moles of free acid are destroyed per mole of formaldehyde added to the unit for a 60% reaction efficiency. A decontamination factor of 10/sup 4/ from feed to recovered acid is typical, which means that the ratio of radioactivity to HNO/sub 3/ in the recovered acid is reduced by a factor of 10,000 when compared to the same ratio in the high activity waste (PAW). Formaldehyde denitration of the Purex acid wastes reduces the chemical costs of waste treatment and storage. In addition, the process increases the storage capacity of underground tanks because of less salts in the waste, increases the flexibility of waste treatment equipment, and improves the quality of feed for fission product recovery. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Forsman, R.C. & Oberg, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fuel Cycle Program Design and Fabrication of Special Assembly 10-L : Compacted Powder Fuel Rods Clad With 0.127-MM Wall Stainless Steel

Description: Technical report describing sixteen fuel rods clad with thin type 304 stainless steel and filled with vibratory compact powder UO2 that were fabricated and incorporated into a bundle for irradiation testing in the VBWR. The UO2 powders were tested for gas content. N2, CO, and H2 were the principal gases evolved by both type of UO2, but the arc-fused UO2 released about ten times as much gas as the Dyna Pak UO2. The amount of gas released was also a function of particle size and temperature. The gas evolution data were used to design the gas plenum to accommodate the absorbed gases along with the fission gases.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Ogawa, S. Y. & Williamson, N. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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