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Transistorized 10-Mc Decade Scaler

Description: This scaler was designed to replace an obsolescent tube design that was in general use at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore. The new design, using solid state devices and printed circuit modules, allows two complete scalers in one frame to occupy the same rack space as the tube design. Switches in the input circuits of the new scaler change input impedance and sensitivity for operation with either tube or transistor circuits. The use of transistors has greatly increased reliability, and has also reduced power by a factor of fifteen. Modular construction of all circuits, including the power supply, minimizes down time since all modules are replaceable without removing the scaler from its rack. Reliability, then cost, were the criteria dictating choice of components and circuits in the scaler design.
Date: October 24, 1963
Creator: Van Den Heuvel, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Test and Evaluation of Large Magnetic Tape-Wound Cores Used in the Astron Accelerator

Description: Project Sherwood is a nation-wide attempt to produce a controlled thermo-nuclear fusion reaction. The Astron experiment, conceived by Nicholas Christofilos, will utilize the effects of a cylindrical layer of relativistic electrons to contain and heat the plasma. A high quality, 200-ampere, 5-Me V electron beam is required to form the electron layer. The electron beam is produced by a linear induction electron accelerator. Three hundred and thirty-three toroidal cores of magnetic material surround an evacuated ceramic accelerating column. The electrons are accelerated by the transverse electric field produced by the changing flux. The magnetic cores are tape-wound toroids of .001", 50% Ni - 50% Fe. Two hundred eighty-eight cores are 24" o.d. x 8-1/2" i. d. x 1/2" thick and the remaining forty-five are 33" o. d. x 18" i. d. x 1/2" thick. Each core is required to support 16 kG for 0.4 psec. The choice of magnetic material was made by testing all available material for the required parameters. Results of these tests are presented.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Sewell, Roger L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cosmic Rays From Large Supernovae

Description: The theory of the hydrodynamic origin of cosmic rays proposed by Johnson and the author (Colgate) has developed to the point where the final evolution of a star to the supernova instability and subsequent explosion can be described with sufficient detail such that cosmic rays with appropriate intensity, composition, and spectrum to account for observations are a logical and necessary result. In the first publication it was pointed out that nuclei in the surface of the star may acquire many orders or magnitude more than the average energy per particle released in the explosion because of the large ratio of matter density between the core and the outer mantle. A shock from a sudden pressure increase in the core intensifies as it advances into lower-density material, thereby imparting extreme relativistic energies to the outermost layers. The shock wave was assumed on the basis that the observed explosion occurred in a time short compared to the traversal time of sound across the dimensions of the star. It was argued without proof that an adiabatic process would be inconsistent with the accepted gravitational instability as the trigger mechanism. In an attempt to confirm this supposition we extend the hydrodynamic calculations to describe in detail the initial gravitational unstable collapse of a highly evolved massive star as first predicted by Burbidge et al.
Date: October 21, 1963
Creator: Colgate, S. A. & White, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ion Exchange Absorption of Cesium by Potassium Hexacyanocobalt(II) Ferrate(II)

Description: Abstract: A description is given of the preparation and properties of a granular form of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) that is a highly selective absorbent for cesium ion. The material is suitable for use in a large-scale ion exchange column, and offers the possibility of isolating and concentrating Cs137 from fission product waste solutions that arise from the processing of nuclear fuels.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: Prout, William E., 1921-; Russell, E. R. & Groh, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operating and Safety Problems in a Research Reactor

Description: Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to present, in the light of 20 years of reactor-operation experience at ORNL, what is being done in preparation for operation of the HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor). This paper considers only the areas of staffing and training; development of operating and maintenance procedures; preoperational testing of water systems; and testing of remote handling tools. The preparatory work in other areas such as the hydraulic tests, neutron tests, etc., is not covered in this presentation.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: McCord, R. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Selection of Personnel for Reactor Operator Training

Description: Over the past six years, the hiring practices of the Reactor Operations Division of Argonne National Laboratory have been conducted to determine the highest level of personnel who would be willing to remain in the position of reactor operator. We have discontinued the hiring of personnel who have a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution or who are close to receiving such a degree. We now hire men from three general categories: (1) graduates from two-year technical institutes, (2) men who have had a number of years of experience in related operating jobs such as the petroleum industry or the chemical industry, and (3) men who have served in the nuclear programs of the armed forces. The following tests are given: (1) Wonderlic personnel Test, score above 43 percentile is mandatory, (2) Oral Directions Test, score above 80 percentile is expected, (3) mechanical Comprehension Test, score above 80 percentile is expected, (4) Arithmetic Reasoning Test, score above 60 percentile is expected, and (5) Primary Mental Abilities Test, used primarily as a check on the other tests given. Applicant is interviewed by at least three supervisors in the Division. All three supervisors must concur before an offer of employment is made.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: Martens, Frederick H. (Frederick Hilbert), 1921-2012.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ML-1 Power Determination

Description: The ML-1 is a nuclearly heated, electrical power producing plant being developed for the U. S. atomic Energy commission and the U. S. Army by Aeroject-General Nucleonics. The power plant is a compact, water-moderated, gas-cooled, nuclear reactor, coupled in a single closed cycle to a gas driven turbine-compressor set and alternator. The plant is designed to produce power up to 500 Kw electrical,using 3 Mw thermal supplied by the reactor. It will operate 10,000 hours without refueling and have a plant life of five years. The total weight is less than 40 tons and no single package weighs more than 15 tons.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: Lightle, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operational Control Rod Reactivity Worths From Observed Heat Generation Rates

Description: Introduction. The reactivity difference associated with a reactor change can be simply related to the coincident changes in the neutron loss and generation rates. Unfortunately, in many instances these rates are difficult to measure directly during high-level operation; thus relativity values are normally found by other methods such as buckling calculations or low-level rising period measurements. However, with certain applicable control rod systems, it may be feasible to use heat generation rate in the rods as a measure of the reactivity-compensation effect. The neutron absorption rate in the Hanford reactor control rods can be determined under equilibrium conditions (and without disturbing these conditions) from the heat transfer rate to the control rod coolant. This information, when combined with a measurement of the change in reactor leakage caused by rod insertion, allows the calculation of control rod strength.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Fredsall, J. R. & Bowers, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A System for Measurement of Wall Thickness of Corroded Aluminum Reactor Process Tubes

Description: A sector gauge was developed for routine measurement and recording of wall thicknesses between the ribs and at the top of installed aluminum reactor power tubes. The basic criteria selected for the device were that it would measure and record wall thickness over the length of the tube with an accuracy of plus or minus 2 mils at an average rate of 3 min per tube. An eddy-current measuring system was used in the device.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Dulin, Ralph V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design Review and Safety Analysis of Experiments in ORNL Research Reactors

Description: Since 1943 when the oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was put into operation, literally thousands of individual irradiation have been performed in this reactor and in other ORNL research reactors. Over the years there have been many minor incidents caused by experiments. Such incidents have provided a basis cor continued improvement in experiment design review and safety-analysis procedures. The reports lists the Design Review and Safety Analysis (1) objectives, (2) principles and rules of design, and (3) limits of application of the review process. The report includes a review of 19 incidents at ORNL research reactors.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Stanford, L. E. & Costner, R. A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Training of Consumers Public Power District Personnel for the Operation of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility

Description: Training of Consumers Public Power District (CPPD) operating personnel for the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility (HNPF) was carried out under two formalized training programs. Both programs were organized and directed by Atomics International (AI). The first program was conducted in 1960 while he HNPF was under construction. The second program was begun in September 1961, prior to the initial HNPF dry critical loading experiment, and was completed in February 1963. The conventional portion of Sheldon Station has been a commercial power plant since July 1, 1961. Sheldon Station CPPD personnel were utilized extensively as instructors for the two formalized HNPF training programs and as responsible engineers for numerous test of the HNPF. CPPD shift personnel constituted the principal operating force throughout HNPF construction, reactor startup, and testing.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Loomis, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Cladding Failure Monitor for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Systems

Description: A cladding failure monitor using the principle of detection of rare gas fission products in the cover gas system of liquid metal-cooled reactors, was developed which efficiently discriminates against AR41. This discrimination is accomplished by electrostatic precipitation of the rare gas daughter nuclides; since K41, the daughter of Ar41, is not radioactive, the activity of the precipitation is chiefly due to decay of various Rb and Cs fission products. The monitor equipment is described. Results of monitor testing in EBR-1 are reported; a simulated fuel road failure experiment was made which shows that the charged-wire cover gas monitoring principle should be useful in other sodium-cooled fast reactors systems.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Smith, R. R. & Doe, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactivity Control Problems in the Plutonium-Fueled EBR-1 Reactor

Description: In contrast with previous EBR-1 reactor cores which were fueled with enriched uranium, the current Mark IV core is a 7 x 8-in. cylinder made of delta-stabilized plutonium alloyed with 1 1/4 w/o aluminum. The reactivity of the reactor is largely controlled by the movement of the entire outer blanket mounted on a hydraulic elevator with a travel of 80 inches. Partial meltdown occurred in November, 1955 during the last experiment scheduled for the core which was directed toward identifying the time constants associated with the components of the over-all reactivity coefficients. The incident is reported elsewhere. The changes in reactivity apparently come about as a result of changing from operation on the high temperature system to the low temperature system or vice versa. Continuous operation from day to day on either system does not effect any significant change in reactivity. Reactivity is not dependent on the duration of a run, but rather on the maximum power attained during that run.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Haroldsen, R. O. (Ray Ottley), 1928-; McGinnis, F. D. & Smith, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Electrochemical pH-STAT

Description: An apparatus has been developed which controls automatically the acidity of unbuffered solutions in the region from pH 4 to 10. A potentiostat is used to control the potential of an inert electrode on which the hydrogen gas-hydrogen ion reaction occurs in a solution saturated with hydrogen gas. The inert electrode acts as both a sensing element and a regulating electrode for the control of acidity. Current from the potentiostat passes through the inert electrode and an auxiliary polarizing electrode in an external compartment separated from the main cell by a salt bridge or porous plate. Transients which occur during the regulating action are presented and analyzed. The electrochemical pH-stat may be used to measure corrosion rates. Limitations of the device are discussed and a modification is proposed which makes use of a differential amplifier instead of a potentiostat.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Posey, F. A. (Franz Adrian), 1930-; Morozumi, T. & Kelly, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sorption Measurements in Ultrahigh Vacuum at Constant Pressure

Description: Introduction. Sorption of gases by surfaces is the primary step in many heterogeneous processes. Because sorption processes are in general pressure-dependent, and very fast at normal pressures, low pressure system are mandatory. In gas-metal interaction studies the flash filament technique with ribbons and filaments and Wagener's technique with evaporated films allow observations at the requisite low pressures. However, these method have two major drawbacks: (1) Since the pressure changes during the sorption experiment, pressure-dependent parameters can only be obtained from indirect evidence; (2) The pressure change in the sorption cell during the experiment may cause significant interaction between the sample and the rest of the system and thus experimental data must be corrected for this effect. These drawbacks have been eliminated in a new approach based on a flow system in which the sample is exposed to constant pressure. This new technique has been employed for the study of adsorption and absorption of gases by filaments and evaporated films. This method can also be used for studying gas-metal solution equilibria.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Gibson, Richard.; Bergsnov-Hansen, B.; Endow, Noboru. & Pasternak, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Specific Zirconium Alloy Design Program Quarterly Progress Report: Sixth Quarter, July - September, 1963

Description: Summary: Fundamental studies in support of the alloy design work are complete except for the experimental determination of the diffusion of oxygen in alloy-doped non-stoichiometric ZrO2. Over 100 oxidation runs have now been made on samples of ZrO2 doped with 1 mole percent of the oxides of Al, Y, Fe, Cr, and Ni. The first round testing of 31 alloys is now essentially complete. Analysis of the steam corrosion rate and hydriding raw data taken at 300, 400, and 500 degrees C indicates that Zr-Cr and Zr-Cu-Fe alloys show the most promise for development for service in steam over the entire temperature range 300-500 degrees C. Maximum resistance to corrosion hydrogen embrittlement requires high initial ductility and thus low, perhaps less than ~2.5 a/o total alloy content. For any composition, susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement depends on crystallographic texture of the component; under certain circumstances hydrogen embrittlement may be high anisotropic. The second-round testing of 10 selected Zr-Cr and Zr-Cu base alloys is now about 50% complete. Three alternate fabrication schedules were evaluated; and the preliminary results indicate that the Zr-Cu alloy tested is less sensitive to heat treatment than is the Zr-Cr alloy tested. Raising the final alpha annealing temperature from 565 degrees C to 788 degrees C gives better over-all corrosion and hydrating performance for both the Zr-Cr and Zr-Cu alloy tested. Beryllium additions to Zr-Cr or Zr-Cu do not appear to be advantageous. Nickel additions to Zr-Cu do not give an over-all improvement. Nickel additions to Zr-Cu give about the same improvement over Zr-Cu as did iron additions to the Zr-Cu in the first-round test.
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Klepfer, H. H.; Jaech, John L.; Douglass, D. L. (David Leslie), 1931-; Blood, R. E. & Perrine, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sodium-Cooled Reactors Program, Fast Ceramic Reactor Development Program: Eighth Quarterly Report, July-September 1963

Description: Quarterly report discussing progress on the Fast Ceramic Reactor Development Program. Information is reported on vented fuel production, fuel testing in TREAT, fuel performance evaluation, fast-flux irradiation of fuel, and reactor dynamics and design.
Date: October 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Program for the Development of Plutonium Recycle for Use in Light Water Moderated Reactors Quarterly Progress Report: July 1 - September 30, 1963

Description: A research program is being conducted to obtain experimental data in the irradiation of plutonium-enriched fuel to confirm a theoretical model for predicting isotopic composition and reactivity changes in plutonium-enriched, light-water-moderated reactors. Quarterly progress: The densitometry procedure (for measurement of alpha autoradiographs of fuel pellets) has been modified to eliminate the need for a second emulsion. The existence of a problem of latent image fading and non-reciprocity of the high-resolution emulsion has been recognized. A tentative procedure has been worked out to correct these emulsion difficulties. the number of polished pellets has been increased to thirteen. The number of hot spots per pellet has not changed appreciably. The largest spot seen is irregular with an estimated volume equivalent to that of a sphere of 35 mil diameter with a PuO2 concentration in the neighborhood of 60%. The VBWR irradiation run now under way is not scheduled to end until October. To the end of the last run the cumulative exposure reached 3703 MWD/T, as logged by VBWR operating personnel. Applying the same scale factor between logged exposure and Ce-Cs analysis of the first fuel sample gives a corrected exposure of 4416 MWD/T. Further debugging of EPITHERMOS, the epithermal extension of the BNL THERMOS code, is in progress. A flux wire exposure is being prepared to map the thermal neutron spectrum in the neighborhood of the test pins in the program fuel element.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Robkin, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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In-Core Instrumentation Development Program Quarterly Progress Report June - September 1963

Description: Introduction: The objective of Project Agreement 22 is to determine the feasibility of covering the complete reactor neutron flux start range from 10(3) - 5 x 10(13) nv by using in-core chambers. The counting mode of operating will be used at low neutron fluxes and the root mean square voltage fluctuation mode will be used at high neutron flux levels. Experiments have been run utilizing various ion chambers, gases, gas pressures, voltage, and cables to measure sensitivities and range operating in the counting and RMS voltage modes. Theoretical discussions are presented showing how the RMS voltage is related to individual pulse at both amplifier input and output. Noise is also compared at amplifier output so that the optimum bandwidth can be selected. Spectral shifts with changes in applied voltage causing signal variations have been examined and can be eliminated by appropriate selection of amplifier bandwidth. In the counting mode, all experiments have been conducted with unterminated cable. The chamber has been designed with geometry, gas, and pressure to completely stop fission fragments in the gas and hence maximize the charge generated in the chamber. Cables have been selected to minimize capacity. Various gases, pressures, and voltages have been used to determine that an optimum design has been achieved.
Date: October 1963
Creator: DuBridge, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of Pulsed Neutron Application to Power Reactor Start-Up Procedures. Sixth Quarterly Progress Report, July 1-September 30, 1963

Description: Activities in a program to develop techniques in the use of pulsed neutron sources to measure shutdown parameters related to large thermal power reactors are reported. The development of pulsed neutron source techniques for large power reactors has led to a new theoretical model recently developed by E. Garelis and J.L. Russell, Jr. The theory is presently based on a bare, one-group model with m-delayed precursors and takes all spatial modes into account. Results indicate, however, that the application of this model is much broader. Experiments were designed and carried out to both verify this new theory and to demonstrate the performance of the experimental hardware in a large power reactor.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Garelis, Edward & Meyer, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development Program for Increased Output in the Garigliano Nuclear Reactor. Quarterly Report No. 4

Description: The United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), on May 29, and June 18, 1958, signed an agreement which provides a basis for co-operation in programs for the advancement of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. The work described in this report represents the Joint U.S.-Euratom effort. The over-all development program is designed to obtain the test data and operating experience necessary to eventually realize a 50 percent increase in the output of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station located at Sessa Aurunca (Campania, Italy). Two tasks are in progress: Task III-F involves the preparation of test specimens of reactor vessel material for irradiation; Task IV consists of the formulation of specification for a complete data logging and computer system.
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Sorlie, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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