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Theoretical Feedback Analysis in Boiling Water Reactors

Description: The dynamic behavior of boiling-water reactors for small perturbations was investigated in a systematic way. General expressions for the transfer functions associated with the individual feedback mechanisms were obtained for an arbitrary flux distribution, weighting function, and steam velocity distribution. Specific forms were derived in the case of a first power flux weighting, a uniform steam velocity distribution, and a sinusoidal flux distribution with an adjustable wave length. These forms were simplified and single time-constant transfer functions were obtained. The error involved in the lumped time-constant approximation was shown to be as large as 4 db in amplitude in certain feedback mechanisms. Theoretical results were applied to the experimental power-void transfer function obtained at Ramo-Wooldridge Research Laboratory, and to the EBWR transfer function. In the former case, the agreement was found to be reasonably good, but yet more systematic experimental data were needed to reach a definite conclusion as to the validity of the proposed model, which assumes a time lag associated with steam formation and a steam perturbation speed greater than the steady-state steam velocity. In the second application, the agreement between the experimental and calculated reactor responses was proved to be better than 5 db in amplitude and 10 deg in phase, in the entire frequency range from 0.01 to 100 rad/sec. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Akcasu, A. Ziya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A RESONANCE IN THE Lambda pi SYSTEM

Description: The authors report a study of the reaction K{sup -} + p {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0} + {pi}{sup +} + {pi}{sup -} produced by 1.15 Gev/c K{sup -} mesons and observed in the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory's 15-in. hydrogen bubble chamber. A preliminary report of these results was presented at the 1960 Rochester Conference. The beam was purified by two velocity spectrometers. A hyperon/observed during the run and the preliminary cross sections for various K{sup -} reactions at 1.15 Bev/c have been reported previously. Reaction (1) was the first one selected for detailed study, because it appeared to take place with relatively large probability and because the event, a 2-prong interaction accompanied by a V, was easily identified. In a volume of the chamber sufficiently restricted so that the scanning efficiency was near 100%, 255 such events were found. These events were measured, and the track data supplied to a computer which tested each event for goodness of fit to various kinematic hypotheses. The possible reactions, the distribution of events, and the corresponding cross sections are given in Table I. An event was placed in a given category of Table I if the {chi}{sup 2} probability for the other hypotheses was < 1%. It appears likely that the majority of the events in group(e) are also reactions of type (I). This belief is based on the following arguments: (1) since the kinematics of a {Lambda} {pi}{pi} fit (four constraints) are more overdetermined than those of a {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} fit(two constraints), it is relatively easy for a {Lambda} {pi}{pi} reaction to fit a {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} reaction, but only very few {Sigma}{sup 0} configurations can fit the {Lambda} {pi}{pi} reactions. (2) The events of group(e) when treated as {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} reactions give a {chi}{sup 2} distribution which is much worse than …
Date: October 24, 1960
Creator: Alston, Margaret; Alvarez, Luis W.; Eberhard, Philippe & Wojcicki, Stanley G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Southwest Retort, Volume 13, Number 2, October 1960

Description: This publication of the Dallas-Fort Worth Section of the American Chemical Society includes information about research, prominent scientist, organizational business, and various other stories of interest to the community. Published monthly during long academic semesters. This issue includes information for the regional meeting in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Date: October 1960
Creator: American Chemical Society. Dallas/Fort Worth Section.
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Production Test IP-358-AC: Replacement of carbon dioxide with nitrogen as a constituent of the K reactor atmosphere

Description: Compensation for the positive long-term reactivity transient associated with Hanford reactor may be accomplished in two ways: The addition of a poisonous material (rods, splines, etc.) to the reactor, or cooling the moderator by changing the gas composition. The objective of this study is to investigate the reactivity and temperature effects and the associated operating problems if any, resulting from the use of nitrogen instead of carbon dioxide as a constituent of the reactor atmosphere.
Date: October 3, 1960
Creator: Bailey, G. F. & Benoliel, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mixing of a Cold Liquid Jet With a Boiling Liquid Stream

Description: The turbulent mixing of a cold liquid jet with a stream of vapor bubbles and saturated liquid is analyzed for a single axial liquid jet. The cases where the issuing jet velocity is very much greater than and nearly equal to the free stream velocity are considered. Transport of axial momentum and of scalar quantities in the stream are calculated and the results applied to the transport of enthalpy in a bubbly mixture. (D.L.C.)
Date: October 21, 1960
Creator: Bankoff, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE PATH OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Description: Biosynthesis begins with photosynthesis. Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms use the energy of absorbed visible light to make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These organic compounds are the starting point for all other biosynthetic pathways. The products of photosynthesis provide not only the substrate material but also chemical energy for all subsequent biosynthesis. For example, nonphotosynthetic organisms making fats from sugars would first break down the sugars to smaller organic molecules. Some of the smaller molecules might be oxidized with O{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and water. These reactions are accompanied by a release of chemical energy because O{sub 2} and sugar have a high chemical potential energy towards conversion to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In a biochemical system only part of this energy would be released as heat. The heat would be used to bring about the conversion of certain enzymic cofactors to their more energetic forms. These cofactors would then enter into specific enzymic reactions in such a way as to supply energy to drive reactions in the direction of fat synthesis. Fats would be formed from the small organic molecules resulting from the breakdown of sugars. Thus sugar, a photosynthetic product, can supply both the energy and the material for the biosynthesis of fats.
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Bassham, J.A. & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Numerical results of production test IP-326-I, Low-flow calibration tests at B, D, F, and H Reactors

Description: Recent reviews of the last-ditch water backup system at the old reactors had shown that complete adequacy could not be demonstrated at all of the reactors under all conditions. However, these conclusions were based in part on conservative calculations using basic data with a sizeable amount of possible error. Subsequently, recommendations were made to run several tests which would increase the accuracy of the basic data and thereby allow an increase in the demonstratable level of last-ditch vater backup adequacy. The water supply capabilities of the last-ditch system are normally measured with a tripout test where reactor riser pressures are recorded over a period of time while the reactor vater supply is transferred to the last-ditch system. These riser pressure readings are then converted to reactor flows later by means of a reactor hydraulic demand curve, so the inaccuracy in the low-flow region of these curves result in an inaccurate assessment of the water flow obtained from the last-ditch system during the tripout test. The purpose of this document is to report the results of the aforementioned low-flow calibration tests at B, D, F, and H Reactors.
Date: October 18, 1960
Creator: Benson, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TABLE OF ELECTRON WAVE FUNCTIONS AT THE NUCLEAR SURFACE

Description: The beta and gamma radiations of 21-hr I/sup 133/ were investigated by single-crystal and multicrystal scintillation spectrometers, and a scheme is proposed for the energy levels of Xe/sup 133/. The level scheme of Ge/sup 74/ was obtained by means of single-crystal and multicrystal beta- and gammaray spectrometry using sources of Ga/sup 74/ and As/sup 74/. The angular correlation for the 0.60-0.60-Mev cascade was measured. Both beta- and gamma-ray single- crystal measurements and gamma-beta and gamma-gamma coincidence experiments were performed on the decay of I/sup 132/. Also, gamma-gamma angular correlations were measured for all the prominent gamma rays. This information has led to a level scheme in Xe/sup 132/ involving excited states at 0.673, signments of 2, 4, 3, and 4 for the first four of these. A study of 2.7-hr Pm/sup 150/ established that the most energetic beta ray, at 3.16 plus or minus 0.11 Mev, decays to the first excited state of Sm/sup 150/ at 0.333 Mev. A partial decay scheme based on beta-gamma coincidence spectrometry was formulated with excited states in Sm/sup 150/ at 0.333, 1.18, 1.66, and 2.08 Mev. The measurement of the neutron- absorption cross sections of Ce/sup 141/ and Ce/sup 144/ by the activation method is in progress. Separation of the 5.9-hr Pr/sup 145/ daughter of the 3-min Ce/ sup 145/ produced by the (n, gamma ) reaction on Ce/sup 144/ from the associated cerium isotopes was accomplished by the extraction of tetravalent cerium with di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid in n-heptane. Preliminary results of several irradiations of Ce/sup 144/ in the LITR indicate an effective neutron cross section of (6 plus or minus 2) x 10/sup -24/ cm/sup 2/atom. Flux depressions in the vicintty of and within infinite cadmium slabs were calculated using the SNG reactor code on the IBM-704 computer at K-25. These results are pertinent …
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Bhalla, C. P. & Rose, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear Battery-Thermocouple Type Summary Report

Description: The potential usefulness of approximately 1300 radioactive isotopes as a heat source for the thermoelectric generator was investigated. Only 47 were found to have the proper characteristics of high specific activity and usable haif-life combined with an easily absorbable radiation. These isotopes are discussed showing possible sources of supply, the hazards involved, and the expected performance. Three large Po/sup 210/ heat sources were designed and constructed (for battery use), including one for the SNAP III generator. One small Tl/sup 204/ test heat source was made by irradiation. Eight thermoelectric generators were developed and two of these were used as thermoelectric batteries. Theoretical equations for non-semiconductor thermoelectric materials and experimental measurements to verify the Thompson and Peltier effects are given. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Blanke, B. C.; Birden, J. H.; Jordan, K. C. & Murphy, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Enriched fuel element column charge length optimization

Description: Results of the study on the best charge length of enriched fuel to be used in the reactors Indicate that with the present quality of fuel elements there is no economic incentive to change the charge lengths from those currently being used. The expected returns for operating D and C reactors at optimum conditions with different length enriched fuel charges are given in figures. Detailed results from calculations concerning the other reactors would also exhibit similar trends.
Date: October 24, 1960
Creator: Blyckert, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SLOP-1, A THERMAL MULTI-GROUP PROGRAM FOR THE IBM-704

Description: SLOP-I, a thermal multi-group program written for the IBM-704, is discussed. It was used extensively to test the utility of various H/sub 2/O scattering kernels, and to assess the accuracy of other computing methods. The problems solved by the code, the physical approximations in the program and library, the method of solution, and suggested modes of operation are described. Derivaticns of all basic equations and complete input and running instructions are included. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Bohl, H.; Gelbard, E.; Buerger, P. & Culpepper, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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METALLURGY DIVISION QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR PERIOD ENDING OCTOBER 31, 1952

Description: Physieal Metallurgy. In the study of Th alloys, it has been found that the addition of Nb and V to Th produces a slight strengthening effect with the first small additions, but that large additions result in a lowering of strength with corresponding increases in ductility. The melting point of iodide Th was measured as being 1755 deg C. Studies of a series of Th--C alloys, with C content up to 0.13%, indicate that C does not affect the temperatures for the start and completion of recrystallization. ANP Program. Welding specifications were prepared for the joining of Inconel pipe dan fitting. for use with highly corrosive media. The production of spherical particles of alloys of U with Ni, V, Nb, and Mo is being studied. The effect of small differences in test temperature in the stress-rupture life and creep rate of Inconel was studied. The effect of different cleaning procedures on the corrosive action of the fluorides on Inconel is being studied. Additional static and dynamic tests were run in an attempt to find inhibitors for the mass transfer and corrosion exhibited in the metal-hydroxide systems. The study of the compounds formed by the interaction of Ni in the hydroxides has shown the appearance of two new compounds: NaNiO/sub 2/ and LiNiO/sub 2/. Ceramics Research. A ceramic coating was successfully applied to Ni, and a Ni radiator assembly is being coated for the ANP Project. A technique for the synthesis of hafnium carbide was developed. Fabrication Research. Production of enriched U fuel and control red elements for operation of the MTR is described. (W.L.H.)
Date: October 31, 1960
Creator: Bridges, W.H. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Purification of mercury contaminated lithium hydroxide

Description: The object of this investigation was to determine an economical method of preparing pure lithium hydroxide from a mercury-contaminated lithium hydroxide monohydrate salt presently produced as a waste product. Pure lithium hydroxide has application for chemical removal of carbon dioxide from air and general open market sale if the mercury contamination is reduced to approximately one part per billion. Because of the uncertainty of the form of the mercury contaminant, different purification methods were explored on a laboratory scale which could be applied to the industrial waste stream. The experimental results indicate that the predominant mercury contaminant existed as mercuric oxide, which was deposited in the by-product salt when the solubility of mercuric oxide, 60 ppm, was exceeded in aqueous lithium hydroxide solution. To purify a fraction of the industrial by-product salt, a crystallization system, utilizing the difference in solubility of lithium hydroxide and mercuric oxide, is proposed. Total stream purification, using sulfide treatment, is expected to be less effective than recrystallization due to the difficulty in physical removal of the mercury contaminant, as mercuric sulfide, from solution.
Date: October 18, 1960
Creator: Bronfin, B. R.; Jenkins, D. M. & Wright, E. E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ALUMINA COATING OF UO$sup 2$ SHOT BY HYDROLYSIS OF ALUMINUM CHLORIDE VAPOR

Description: Uniform, dense coatings of alumina about 5 to 150 mu thick were applied to uranium dioxide particles 44 to 350 mu in diameter by hydrolysis of aluminum chloride vapor in a fluidized bed of the particles at 1830 deg F. The coated particles were resistant to nitric acid leaching, to oxidation in 1830 deg F air, and to thermal cycling from 6OO to 2500 deg F. After low neutron exposures, the coated particles showed excellent fission-gas retention at temperatures up to 2400 deg F in inert gas. Although not optimized in the study, the coating process appears to have commercial feasibility. (auth)
Date: October 25, 1960
Creator: Browning, M. F.; Veigel, N. D.; Cook, T. E.; Diethorn, W. S. & Blocher, J. M., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Improved Nuclear Density Gauge. Quarterly Report No. 2 Covering Period September 1 to December 1, 1959

Description: Techniques for improving stability of scintillation counter chopper systems and their development for use in industrial control applications are being investigated. Tests are being performed to determine the causes of fluctuations. An integration and frequency converter is being developed in which the anode current of the photomultiplier tube is alternately switched between two integrating condensers by action of a commutator switch. The voltages developed across the two condensers are proportional to the respective intensities of the two radiation beams seen by the scintillation counter. Slective sampling by the use of Loss filters is scheduled for future investigations and a literature search on counter stabilization is also planned. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 31, 1960
Creator: Burgwald, G. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MAGNETIC RECORDER FOR NUCLEAR PULSE APPLICATION. Covering Period: August 6, 1959 to October 5, 1959

Description: Direct recording of nuclear pulse height data on magnetic tape is being investigated. The characteristics of various brands of commercial tape are being investigated and a waveform analysis is being performed in an attempt to determine the most favorable frequency range for available tapes. Use of the magnetic modulator head is being investigated to minimize variations due to short term tape speed variations. (W.L.H.)
Date: October 31, 1960
Creator: Burgwald, G. M. & Stone, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AN IMPROVED NUCLEAR DENSITY GAUGE. Period covered: October 2 to November 1, 1959

Description: Progress is reported on development of a scintillation detector which alternately views the radiation transmitted through a sample and through a calibrated wedge. From this information density and thickness data can be obtained. Long term stability measurements are being made on the commutating system and the causes of fluctuations are being investigated. Information concerning procurement and fund expenditure are given. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 31, 1960
Creator: Burgwald, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AN IMPROVED NUCLEAR DENSITY GAUGE. Period covered: September 2 to October 1, 1959

Description: Progress in development of a nuclear density gage for use in thickness and density measurements is reported. A Ross filter system for energy discrimination in the alpha ray region was constructed. Soller slits for collimating the radiation entering and leaving the filters so that a constant absorber thickness is seen by the radiation beam is under construction. Comments by visiting Russian scientists on the density gage and a discussion of their work in this area are included. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 31, 1960
Creator: Burgwald, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Critique - NPR fuel

Description: The current status of the NPR fuel fabrication and testing program has been reviewed; suggestions have been made concerning areas requiring more information. This report is divided into a series of sections, each of which is a complete entity so a specific problem area can be considered apart from the entire NPR Fuel process. The final section incorporating conclusions and recommendations reaffirms the factors of major importance as well as evaluating those areas which are interrelated. Process problems have been considered from the aspect of manufacturing, not engineering.
Date: October 14, 1960
Creator: Bush, B. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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C pile mark 1 overbore fuel element design

Description: It is necessary to provide the option of using either aluminum or zirconium tubes in the C pile 20-tube overbore test. A bumper-type fuel element has been designed to fit a fixed ribbed aluminum tube size; zirconium tube dimensions were then determined which will provide the same flow and pressure drop when the fuel element is changed from bumper type or self-supported without changing other fuel dimensions.
Date: October 6, 1960
Creator: Cahoon, R. D. & Nechodom, W. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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