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A Cladding Failure Monitor for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Systems

Description: A cladding failure monitor using the principle of detection of rare gas fission products in the cover gas system of liquid metal-cooled reactors, was developed which efficiently discriminates against AR41. This discrimination is accomplished by electrostatic precipitation of the rare gas daughter nuclides; since K41, the daughter of Ar41, is not radioactive, the activity of the precipitation is chiefly due to decay of various Rb and Cs fission products. The monitor equipment is described. Results of monitor testing in EBR-1 are reported; a simulated fuel road failure experiment was made which shows that the charged-wire cover gas monitoring principle should be useful in other sodium-cooled fast reactors systems.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Smith, R. R. & Doe, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Controlled-Environment Steam Corrosion Facility

Description: Abstract; Technical report describing a low-flow autoclave system developed for out-of-pile corrosion testing of materials in controlled environment steam up to 500 C. The system has been set up in triplicate to provide for the exposure of various zirconium alloys to steam at 300, 400, and 500 C. The oxygen and hydrogen of the steam were controlled at 25 ppm and 3 ppm, respectively, to simulate the gas conditions from radiolytic water decomposition found in a boiling water reactor. The autoclave internals were so designed to result in a temperature variation between specimens under test of less than 2C.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Nelson, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design Review and Safety Analysis of Experiments in ORNL Research Reactors

Description: Since 1943 when the oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was put into operation, literally thousands of individual irradiation have been performed in this reactor and in other ORNL research reactors. Over the years there have been many minor incidents caused by experiments. Such incidents have provided a basis cor continued improvement in experiment design review and safety-analysis procedures. The reports lists the Design Review and Safety Analysis (1) objectives, (2) principles and rules of design, and (3) limits of application of the review process. The report includes a review of 19 incidents at ORNL research reactors.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Stanford, L. E. & Costner, R. A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of Pulsed Neutron Application to Power Reactor Start-Up Procedures. Sixth Quarterly Progress Report, July 1-September 30, 1963

Description: Activities in a program to develop techniques in the use of pulsed neutron sources to measure shutdown parameters related to large thermal power reactors are reported. The development of pulsed neutron source techniques for large power reactors has led to a new theoretical model recently developed by E. Garelis and J.L. Russell, Jr. The theory is presently based on a bare, one-group model with m-delayed precursors and takes all spatial modes into account. Results indicate, however, that the application of this model is much broader. Experiments were designed and carried out to both verify this new theory and to demonstrate the performance of the experimental hardware in a large power reactor.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Garelis, Edward & Meyer, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development Program for Increased Output in the Garigliano Nuclear Reactor. Quarterly Report No. 4

Description: The United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), on May 29, and June 18, 1958, signed an agreement which provides a basis for co-operation in programs for the advancement of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. The work described in this report represents the Joint U.S.-Euratom effort. The over-all development program is designed to obtain the test data and operating experience necessary to eventually realize a 50 percent increase in the output of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station located at Sessa Aurunca (Campania, Italy). Two tasks are in progress: Task III-F involves the preparation of test specimens of reactor vessel material for irradiation; Task IV consists of the formulation of specification for a complete data logging and computer system.
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Sorlie, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Electrochemical pH-STAT

Description: An apparatus has been developed which controls automatically the acidity of unbuffered solutions in the region from pH 4 to 10. A potentiostat is used to control the potential of an inert electrode on which the hydrogen gas-hydrogen ion reaction occurs in a solution saturated with hydrogen gas. The inert electrode acts as both a sensing element and a regulating electrode for the control of acidity. Current from the potentiostat passes through the inert electrode and an auxiliary polarizing electrode in an external compartment separated from the main cell by a salt bridge or porous plate. Transients which occur during the regulating action are presented and analyzed. The electrochemical pH-stat may be used to measure corrosion rates. Limitations of the device are discussed and a modification is proposed which makes use of a differential amplifier instead of a potentiostat.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Posey, F. A. (Franz Adrian), 1930-; Morozumi, T. & Kelly, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental Testing of a B4C-Ni Prototype Control Rod

Description: Summary: A prototype control rod containing absorber plates made from an electro- deposited dispersion of boron carbide in nickel was tested in the VBWR. It was exposed to the reactor environment of 545 degree F boiling water and thermal neutron fluxes (perturbed) which ranged from 0.6 to 1.1 x 10/sup 13/ nv for 2236 hours over a period of six months. The maximum B/sup 10/ burnup achieved during the test period was 1.8 percent. After irradiation, the rod was examined. The results of the examination are summarized below: (1) The B/sub 4/C-- Ni plate assembly did not undergo significant dimensional changes during irradiation. (2) Numerous blisters developed on both the outer and inner surfaces of three of the four plates. Blistering was more severe on the outer surface than on the inner, and was most severe in a large region located in the lower half of plate 4. Metallographic examination revealed that the blisters were located only in the 2- mil protective nickel overlay covering the B/sub 4/C-- Ni dispersion. It was concluded that they formed from the buildup of gas pressure at the Ni: Ni-- B/sub 4/C interfaces, rather than from corrosion attack. Helium from the B/sup 10/(n alpha )Li/sup 7/ reaction probably contributed to this pressure. However it is conjectured that the major gas was very likely hydrogen, possibly generated and dissolved in the nickel during electroplating and then released to defects at the Ni: Ni--B/sub 4/C interface during reactor exposure. The variation in the degree of blistering among the four plates of the prototype indicated that the blistering was related to variations in the fabrication process. Failure of the nickel overlay was not observed in any of the blisters examined metallographically, and the underlying B/sub 4/C-- Ni appeared to be in good condition. (3) Evidence of corrosion …
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Megerth, F. H. & Zimmerman, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Summary Report of the Gas-Cooled Reactor Experiment-1

Description: Report describing the Gas-Cooled Reactor test facility, its ongoing testing and evaluations of a test reactor, and its operating conditions and characteristics.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Chesworth, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fuel Cycle Program Design and Fabrication of Special Assembly 10-L : Compacted Powder Fuel Rods Clad With 0.127-MM Wall Stainless Steel

Description: Technical report describing sixteen fuel rods clad with thin type 304 stainless steel and filled with vibratory compact powder UO2 that were fabricated and incorporated into a bundle for irradiation testing in the VBWR. The UO2 powders were tested for gas content. N2, CO, and H2 were the principal gases evolved by both type of UO2, but the arc-fused UO2 released about ten times as much gas as the Dyna Pak UO2. The amount of gas released was also a function of particle size and temperature. The gas evolution data were used to design the gas plenum to accommodate the absorbed gases along with the fission gases.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Ogawa, S. Y. & Williamson, N. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fundamentals in the Operation of Nuclear Test Reactors: Volume 2, Materials Testing Reactor Design and Operation

Description: Second volume of reports on the operation of nuclear test reactors. It includes six chapters: engineering description fo the materials testing reactor, reactor control components and instrumentation, reactor control circuitry, reactor operation, reactor shutdown and tank work, and supplemental facilities at the materials testing reactor.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Phillips Petroleum Company
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Health and Safety Laboratory Fallout Program Quarterly Summary Report: June 1, 1963 - September 1, 1963

Description: Report that summarizes multiple laboratories' reports on global fallout deposition. Reports include data on Strontium-90 deposition recorded by the Health and Safety Laboratory, data from other laboratories, related interpretive reports, and recent publications related to fallout.
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr.; Rivera, Joseph & Collins, William R., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High Power Density Development Project: Fourteenth Quarterly Progress Report, July-September 1963

Description: Development of nuclear reactor cores having high power density, long fuel life, and low fabrication costs is the objective of this program sponsored by the AEC. Five tasks are in progress: (1) Task 1A-High Power Density Fuel Development. The number of assemblies has been reduced to seven as a result of the failure of two pellet fuel assemblies. The average burnup of the group operating as of September 1 is 7500 MWD/T. (2) Task 1B-Fuel Fabrication Development. Assembly. Assembly 12S gave positive signals of being a leaker under the multi-type in-core sampler and was declared failed based on the in-core results and visual observation of a cracked rod. Modifications to the instrumented fuel assembly probes were made by removing the failed flow meter rotors to allow continued use of the flux detectors and thermocouples. Flux detectors and thermocouples performed properly after reactor start up. Flux wire tubes were found to be kinked such that their use was prohibited. (3) Task II-Stability, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. A series of noise recordings of fluxes, flows, and temperatures has been made at 91 MWt at the Big Rock Point plant. Preliminary analyses of some of the these records were made to obtain noise amplitude as a function of frequency. Thermocouple response tests were performed to verify the temperature measurement obtained during the steady-state noise tests at Big Rock. (4) Task III-Physics Development. Plans for achieving optimum performance from the Big Rock plant are being based on the concept of maintaining a fixed power shape throughout each operating cycle. The desired shape for the present cycle has been computed. Methods of selecting control rod patterns to maintain this shape are being investigated for use in the on-line computer. The computer was put on line during plant startup in August, and is presently performing …
Date: October 1963
Creator: Holladay, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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In-Core Instrumentation Development Program Quarterly Progress Report June - September 1963

Description: Introduction: The objective of Project Agreement 22 is to determine the feasibility of covering the complete reactor neutron flux start range from 10(3) - 5 x 10(13) nv by using in-core chambers. The counting mode of operating will be used at low neutron fluxes and the root mean square voltage fluctuation mode will be used at high neutron flux levels. Experiments have been run utilizing various ion chambers, gases, gas pressures, voltage, and cables to measure sensitivities and range operating in the counting and RMS voltage modes. Theoretical discussions are presented showing how the RMS voltage is related to individual pulse at both amplifier input and output. Noise is also compared at amplifier output so that the optimum bandwidth can be selected. Spectral shifts with changes in applied voltage causing signal variations have been examined and can be eliminated by appropriate selection of amplifier bandwidth. In the counting mode, all experiments have been conducted with unterminated cable. The chamber has been designed with geometry, gas, and pressure to completely stop fission fragments in the gas and hence maximize the charge generated in the chamber. Cables have been selected to minimize capacity. Various gases, pressures, and voltages have been used to determine that an optimum design has been achieved.
Date: October 1963
Creator: DuBridge, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ion Exchange Absorption of Cesium by Potassium Hexacyanocobalt(II) Ferrate(II)

Description: Abstract: A description is given of the preparation and properties of a granular form of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) that is a highly selective absorbent for cesium ion. The material is suitable for use in a large-scale ion exchange column, and offers the possibility of isolating and concentrating Cs137 from fission product waste solutions that arise from the processing of nuclear fuels.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: Prout, William E., 1921-; Russell, E. R. & Groh, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ML-1 Power Determination

Description: The ML-1 is a nuclearly heated, electrical power producing plant being developed for the U. S. atomic Energy commission and the U. S. Army by Aeroject-General Nucleonics. The power plant is a compact, water-moderated, gas-cooled, nuclear reactor, coupled in a single closed cycle to a gas driven turbine-compressor set and alternator. The plant is designed to produce power up to 500 Kw electrical,using 3 Mw thermal supplied by the reactor. It will operate 10,000 hours without refueling and have a plant life of five years. The total weight is less than 40 tons and no single package weighs more than 15 tons.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: Lightle, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operating and Safety Problems in a Research Reactor

Description: Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to present, in the light of 20 years of reactor-operation experience at ORNL, what is being done in preparation for operation of the HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor). This paper considers only the areas of staffing and training; development of operating and maintenance procedures; preoperational testing of water systems; and testing of remote handling tools. The preparatory work in other areas such as the hydraulic tests, neutron tests, etc., is not covered in this presentation.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: McCord, R. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operational Control Rod Reactivity Worths From Observed Heat Generation Rates

Description: Introduction. The reactivity difference associated with a reactor change can be simply related to the coincident changes in the neutron loss and generation rates. Unfortunately, in many instances these rates are difficult to measure directly during high-level operation; thus relativity values are normally found by other methods such as buckling calculations or low-level rising period measurements. However, with certain applicable control rod systems, it may be feasible to use heat generation rate in the rods as a measure of the reactivity-compensation effect. The neutron absorption rate in the Hanford reactor control rods can be determined under equilibrium conditions (and without disturbing these conditions) from the heat transfer rate to the control rod coolant. This information, when combined with a measurement of the change in reactor leakage caused by rod insertion, allows the calculation of control rod strength.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Fredsall, J. R. & Bowers, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Photographic Study of Boiling Flow

Description: From abstract: A high speed motion picture study was conducted of boiling flow in a vertical, rectangular channel at atmospheric pressure. Three different visual flow regimes were defined and described.
Date: October 25, 1963
Creator: Vohr, John Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Prediction of Two-Phase Critical Flow Rate

Description: Technical report of a proposal of an analytical model to predict two-phase critical flow rate. The model is based upon thermal equilibrium, a "lumped" treatment of the two-phase velocity (each phase is represented by a single mean velocity), and upon the neglect of frictional and hydrostatic pressure losses. A comparison, of the proposed predictions with available test results and previous analyses shows that: (1) The present model agrees very well with the published test data. (2) In contrast to all other analyses, the model requires no assumption about the gas void fraction.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Levy, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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