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Standard X-ray Diffraction Powder Patterns : Section 16. Data for 86 Substances

Description: Report documenting standard x-ray diffraction powder patterns for various compounds, intended to replace previous data or provide information for new substances. It describes the methods and, for each substance, outlines any previous data as well as information about the sample used and structural data, with a table of diffraction patterns.
Date: October 1979
Creator: Morris, Marlene C.; McMurdie, Howard F.; Evans, Eloise H.; Paretzkin, Boris; de Groot, Johan H.; Hubbard, Camden R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technology Assessment of Changes in the Future Use and Characteristics of the Automobile Transportation System—Volume III: Public Participation

Description: This report—volume III—presents the findings of a nationwide public participation effort conducted in 1978 in conjunction with the assessment. The intent of the public participation program was twofold: to solicit commentary on the issues, alternatives for personal transportation, and Federal Government policy options; and to facilitate the public’s participation in OTA’s technology assessment process.
Date: October 1979
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Benefits of Increased Use of Continuous Casting by the U.S. Steel Industry

Description: An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the United States steel industry, particularly various processes of casting currently used by the industry.
Date: October 1979
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Pest Management Strategies in Crop Protection: Volume 1

Description: An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) intending to "assess crop protection problems, current and emerging control technologies," "evaluate Federal constraints to improved pest management in the United States," and "review the problems, potentials, and impacts of the transfer of North American crop protection technology to the developing world" (p. 3).
Date: October 1979
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analytical study of TATB preheating methods

Description: TATB (1,3,5 - triamino 2,4,6 - Trinitrobenzene) is a very stable explosive that is remarkably insensitive to severe impact and thermal environment. Experiments on its initiation and detonation characteristics have found it difficult to initiate under the energy transfer of thin flyer plates accelerated by electrically exploded metal foils. Figure 1 shows the propagation of a detonation front in such an experiment. Generally, the detonation waves are confined in the region directly in front of the flyer impact surface, leaving a substantial portion of the HE undetonated. It has been suggested by Lawrence Livermore personnel that a preheated TATB charge may improve its sensitivity and thus reduce or eliminate this deficiency. The above experiments were performed at the sample temperatures ranging from -54{degrees} to +74{degrees}C. As the temperature was lowered while the flyer impact velocity remained the same, a pronounced increase in the curvature of the detonation front was observed. This results in a significant decrease in the divergence of the detonation wave. Although an accurate relationship between the wave front divergence and the sample temperature is not available, it is generally believed that, due to an accelerated rate of chemical reaction, the detonation will significantly improve at higher temperatures. It is assumed that desired results may be obtained if we preheat the TATB to 100{degrees}C at a depth of 1 cm from the flyer impact surface. Many parameters influence the methods to be considered for carrying out this HE preheating. The most important among them are the time allowed and the amount of energy available. The task is made extremely difficult by the fact that TATB is a poor thermal conductor and that deflagration occurs at around 250{degrees}C. In this study, we investigate several heating arrangements and predict the temperature distributions under prescribed boundary conditions.
Date: October 29, 1979
Creator: Chou, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Unavailability Modeling and Analysis of Redundant Safety Systems

Description: Analytical expressions have been developed to estimate the average unavailability of an m-out-of-n (m/n, 1 less than or equal to m less than or equal to n less than or equal to 4) standby safety system of a nuclear power plant. The expressions take into account contributions made by testing, repair, equipment failure, human error, and different testing schemes. A computer code, ICARUS, has been written to incorporate these analytical equations. The code is capable of calculating the average unavailability, optimum test interval, and relative contributions of testing, repair, and random failures for any of three testing schemes. After verification of the methodology and coding in ICARUS, a typical auxiliary feed-water system of a nuclear power plant was analyzed. The results show that the failure modes associated with testing and true demands contribute considerably to the unavailability and that diesel generators are the most critical components contributing to the overall unavailability of the system.
Date: October 1979
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Reactor Analysis and Safety Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LIMBO Computer Code for Analyzing Coolant-Voiding Dynamics in LMFBR Safety Tests

Description: The LIMBO (liquid metal boiling) code for the analysis of two-phase flow phenomena in an LMFBR reactor coolant channel is presented. The code uses a non-equilibrium, annular, two-phase flow model, which allows for slip between the phases. Furthermore, the model is intended to be valid for both quasi-steady boiling and rapid coolant voiding of the channel. The code was developed primarily for the prediction of, and the posttest analysis of, coolant-voiding behavior in the SLSF P-series in-pile safety test experiments. The program was conceived to be simple, efficient, and easy to use. It is particularly suited for parametric studies requiring many computer runs and for the evaluation of the effects of model or correlation changes that require modification of the computer program. The LIMBO code, of course, lacks the sophistication and model detail of the reactor safety codes, such as SAS, and is therefore intended to compliment these safety codes.
Date: October 1979
Creator: Bordner, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mechanical Properties Test Program on Structural Materials in a Sodium Environment

Description: This document describes in detail the ongoing and planned US Test program on the mechanical properties of sodium-exposed Type 316 austenitic stainless and Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo ferritic steels. The test program is based on the Development Requirement Specifications (DRS) established by the DOE/Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) Program Office, the general need for the development of LMFBR structural-design criteria established by the Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook, and the need for a fundamental understanding of materials behavior in a sodium environment, which is generic to LMFBR systems. The planned test program is an extension of work based on current knowledge of sodium chemistry and the influence of sodium purity on the mechanical properties of structural materials.
Date: October 1979
Creator: Natesan, K.; Chopra, O. K. & Kassner, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Numerical Method for Solution of Transient, Homogeneous, Equilibrium, Two-Phase Flows in One Space Dimension

Description: This report presents a solution method for transient, homogeneous, equilibrium, two-phase flows of a single-component fluid in one space dimension. The method combines a direct finite-difference procedure and the method of characteristics. The finite-difference procedure solves the interior points of the computing domain; the boundary information is provided by a separate procedure based on the characteristics theory. The solution procedure for boundary points requires information in addition to the physical boundary conditions. This additional information is obtained by a new procedure involving integration of characteristics in the hodograph plane.
Date: October 1979
Creator: Shin, Yong W. & Wiedermann, Arne H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Laser Microsampling Method for Determination of Retained Fission Gas in Irradiated Nuclear Fuels

Description: A small ruby laser adapted to fire through a microscope is used to release fission gases from specific sites on a plane surface of an irradiated fuel specimen. Interaction of the focused laser pulse with the specimen surface results in a conical crater from which sampled material has been vaporized; the crater is surrounded by a heat-affected zone in which intergranular fracture and grain separation allow release of grain-boundary gases. Procedures for measuring the amount of krypton-85 released by laser heating and the volume of material from which the release occurred are presented. The data obtained may be used to obtain local krypton fission-gas concentrations and the intragranular/intergranular distribution.
Date: October 1979
Creator: Graczyk, D. G.; Bandyopadhyay, G.; Gehl, S. M.; Hughes, J. P. & Goodspeed, H. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary Cost Estimates of Pollution Control Technologies for Geothermal Developments

Description: This is the first report from the EPA estimating the cost of technology for mitigating pollution that might arise from geothermal power systems. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an initial step towards the establishment of regulatory standards for the geothermal industry by preparing a document entitled Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development. This report supports that document by providing pollution control cost information. The objective of this report is to provide preliminary cost estimates for air and water pollution treatment and disposal technologies applicable for geothermal energy conversion systems. Cost estimates include both annualized capital investment and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for various levels of environmental requirements. [DJE-2005]
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Sung, R.; Houser, G.; Richard, G.; Cotter, J.; Weller, P. & Pulaski, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Procedure for the Qualitative Interpretation of Fuel Centerline Thermocouple Response to Step-Power Decreases

Description: This report reviews the present calculational techniques that may be used to interpret the transient response of fuel centerline thermocouples to step decreases in rod power. A new technique developed herein involves plotting the natural logarithm of the normalized thermocouple data versus time, plotting various calculations in the same way, and observing the curvature of the resulting lines. Also described is the small computer code, MWRAM, which facilitates testing various models against transient data. Transient data from IFA-513 is presented. This test assembly in the Halden Reactor, Norway, is jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Halden Project. A comparison of MWRAM calculations with this data has shown that fuel cracking appears to greatly influence the heat transfer modes in the fuel rod. A method of estimating the effective fuel-cladding gap size from this transient data is also discussed in this report .
Date: October 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FLAT FLAME BURNER ANALYSES

Description: Velocity and temperature fields in the sintered material surrounding an embedded cooling coil in a Kaskan type flat flame burner are predicted. An approximate two-dimensional velocity field is obtained in closed form using a potential flow analogy. The velocity profile above the burner surface will be flat if the distance from the burner surface to the plane of the coil is sufficiently large that the coil wake is ameliorated. Quantitative results for this minimum distance are presented. Several approximations to the temperature field are discussed. Detailed temperature profiles are given for the simplest - one-dimensional with uniform velocity - and the most complex - two-dimensional with potential flow velocity field. The influence of the burner and cooling geometries, fuel type and stoichiometry, flow rate, ambient and cooling water temperatures and sintered material properties, are all described by a small set of dimensionless parameters. Optimization of burner performance in terms of these parameters is discussed. It is hoped that the results will be useful in the design of burners for flame structure studies.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Pagni, P. J.; Ortega, A. & Toossi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage

Description: The production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beet, and wheat using geothermal resources at the Raft River area of idaho is being evaluated. The south central section of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beet and 24 million cwt potatoes annually. Based on these production figures, a 20 million gallon/yr ethanol facility has been selected as the largest scale plant that can be supported with the current agricultural resources. The plant will operate on all three feedstocks nominally processing potatoes for five months, sugar beet for four months and wheat for three months of the year. The process facility will use conventional alcohol technology utilizing geothermal fluid at a maximum of 280 F as an energy source. The process flow diagrams for all three feedstocks are currently being prepared. There will be basically three feedstock preparation sections, although the liquefaction and saccharification steps for potatoes and wheat will involve common equipment. The fermentation, distillation and by-product handling sections will be common to all three feedstocks. Three geothermal energy extraction systems were considered to accommodate the energy requirements of the ethanol facility (flashed steam, pressurized fluid and secondary heat transfer). Pressured geothermal fluid with direct heat transfer has been selected as the usage mode to minimize scale deposition. Tentatively, the geothermal supply wells will be laid out in square grids with 1/4 mile spacing. The number of wells required will be determined after the process heat load is calculated.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: May, S.C.; Stenzel, R.A.; Weekes, M.C. & Yu, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geothermal resource potential of the Socorro Area, New Mexico

Description: This report provides a regional synthesis of geology, geochemistry, hydrology and geophysical data for the Socorro, New Mexico, area. It is based principally on extensive drill-hole data supplied by, and proprietary to, Gulf Mineral Resources Company and Sunoco Energy Development Co. These temperature-gradient and heat-flow data are integrated with older gradient and heat-flow data, groundwater chemistry, studies of local seismicity, regional and local geologic mapping, and other data. This synthesis yields a revised estimate of the geothermal energy potential for the Socorro area. it should be recalled that attention has been focused on Socorro and vicinity because of reported high heat flow and probable magmatic bodies within the shallow crust. Some 20 man-days of effort have gone into this study, exclusive of time spent earlier in logging temperature gradients and studying drill-hole cuttings.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Petersen, C.A. & Koenig, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mass Balance Results for Pricetown I Underground Coal Gasification

Description: A mass balance model was applied to the Pricetown I test data. This model gave the values of various parameters such as water influx, percent devolatilization, percent gasification, amount of coal affected, thermal efficiency, etc., for the various phases of the test. Both hourly and daily values of the test data were used. At certain times, there was air loss to the coal seam or air gain from the coal seam as related to the underground reactor. Mass balances are modified accordingly. Realistic pyrolysis temperatures have been chosen for the different phases of the test based on the thermocouple responses. The nitrogen and argon balances gave similar results. The mass balance results showed that approximately 702 tons of coal was affected during the test. Approximately 232 tons of coal was completely gasified. The reverse combustion linkage through the virgin coal seam was dominated by the devolatilization and accounted for approximately 80% devoltilization whereas the same accounted for only 26% devolatilization during the gasification phase. During the enhanced linkage phase, the percent devolatilization ranged between that observed for the RCL and gasification phase. There was net influx of water and amounted to 0.59 barrels per ton of coal affected. The percent energy recovery for the gasification phase was 72% based on gas chromatographic data, and accounting the sensible heat of the gas and the latent heat of the water vapor in the gas.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Agarwal, A. K.; Seabaugh, P. W. & Zielinski, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Monthly and Annual Water Budgets of Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin, 1972-1977

Description: From abstract: This report presents estimated annual and monthly water budgets for lake Wingra and the adjacent wetland area for January 1972 through September 1977. Annually, inputs from precipitation, surface runoff, and ground-water inflow are approximately equal (31, 34, and 35 percent, respectively). Outputs include outflow from the lake into Murphy Creek (70 percent), evotranspiration from the lake and wetland (26 percent), and ground-water outflow (4 percent).
Date: October 1979
Creator: Novitzki, R. P. & Holmstrom, B. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Enhanced Radiation Weapons: The "Neutron Bomb"

Description: This report discusses the ramifications of President Jimmy Carter's production and deployment decisions of enhanced radiation weapons.
Date: October 10, 1979
Creator: Cronin, Richard P. & Bell, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Intermediate-depth geothermal temperature study. Gradient holes: 11-33 and 63-33, Soda Lake, NV

Description: During 1979, Chevron Resources Company drilled two 2000 ft holes near Soda Lake in the Nevada Carson Sink area to obtain subsurface data for inclusion in the US Department of Energy's Northern Basin and Range geothermal reservoir assessment program. Drilling information together with detailed lithologic, geophysical and temperature log data were compiled for each hole and is summarized in this report. Maximum stabilized temperatures of 297/sup 0/F and 367/sup 0/F were encountered at total depth in each of the holes, respectively.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Hill, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of an extended-burnup Mark B design. First semi-annual progress report, July-December 1978. Report BAW-1532-1. [PWR]

Description: The primary objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an improved PWR fuel assembly design capable of batch average burnups of 45,000-50,000 MWd/mtU. To accomplish this, a number of technical areas must be investigated to verify acceptable extended-burnup fuel performance. This report is the first semi-annual progress report for the program, and it describes work performed during the July-December 1978 time period. Efforts during this period included the definition of a preliminary design for a high-burnup fuel rod, physics analyses of extended-burnup fuel cycles, studies of the physics characteristics of changes in fuel assembly metal-to-water ratios, and development of a design concept for post-irradiation examination equipment to be utilized in examining high-burnup lead-test assemblies.
Date: October 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Feasibility Studies of in-Situ Coal Gasification in the Warrior Coal Field. Quarterly Report

Description: Studies in support of in-situ gasification involved bench-scale combustor experiments using forward combustion and coke as a fuel. Measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and reactivity were made on several cokes over a range of temperatures. (LTN)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Douglas, George W. & McKinley, Marvin D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Axisymmetric instability in a noncircular tokamak

Description: The stability of dee, inverse-dee and square cross section plasmas to axisymmetric modes has been investigated experimentally in Tokapole II, a tokamak with a four-null poloidal divertor. Experimental results are closely compared with predictions of two numerical stability codes - the PEST code (ideal MHD, linear stability) adapted to tokapole geometry and a code which follows the nonlinear evolution of shapes similar to tokapole equilibria.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Lipschultz, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Statistics of wind fluctuations over complex terrain

Description: This report deals with the properties of relative turbulence intensities, turbulent spectra and frequency distributions over uniform and complex terrain. As to intensities of turbulence, the report concentrates on properties of sigma/sub u//u/sub */, sigma/sub v//u/sub */, sigma/sub w//u/sub */, where the sigma's are the standard deviations of the longitudinal, transverse and vertical velocity components, respectively, and u/sub */ is the friction velocity. Given these ratios, relative turbulent intensities (such as sigma/sub u//U, where U is the wind speed) can be obtained with the standard wind profile formulae. Such formulae, though developed for homogeneous terrain, may turn out to be useful over complex terrain, provided u/sub */, is taken to be the friction velocity at the surface.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Dutton, J A; Panofsky, H A; Larko, D; Shirer, H N; Stone, G & Vilardo, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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