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open access

Hydraulic and thermal properties of soil samples from the buried waste test facility

Description: In shallow land burial, the most common disposal method for low-level waste, waste containers are placed in shallow trenches and covered with natural sediment material. To design such a facility requires an in-depth understanding of the infiltration and evaporation processes taking place at the soil surface and the effect these processes have on the amount of water cycling through a burial zone. At the DOE Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, a field installation called the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) has been constructed to study unsaturated soil water and contaminant transport. PNL is collecting data at the BWTF to help explain soil water movement at shallow depths, and specifically evaporation from bare sols. The data presented here represent the initial phase of a cooperative effort between PNL and Washington State University to use data collected at the BWFT.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Cass, A.; Campbell, G.S. & Jones, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

Description: The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.
Date: October 5, 1981
Creator: Felker, B.; Kane, R. J.; Wong, R. L.; Calderon, M. O. & Moore, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Optical techniques for measurement of high temperatures

Description: The availability of instrumentation to measure the high outlet gas temperature of a particle bed reactor is a topic of some concern. There are a number of possible techniques with advantages and disadvantages. In order to provide some baseline choice of instrumentation, a review has been conducted of these various technologies. This report summarizes the results of this review for a group of technologies loosely defined as optical techniques (excluding optical pyrometry). The review has concentrated on a number of questions for each technology investigated. These are: (1) Description of the technology, (2) Anticipated sensitivity and accuracy, (3) Requirements for implementation, (4) Necessary development time and costs, (5) Advantages and disadvantages of the technology. Each of these areas was considered for a technology and a large number of technologies were considered in a review of the literature. Based upon this review it was found that a large number of methods exist to measure temperatures in excess of 2000 K. None of the methods found were ideal. Four methods, however, appeared to warrant further consideration: opto-mechanical expansion thermometry, surface Raman spectroscopy, gas-phase Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). These techniques will be discussed further in this document.
Date: October 25, 1991
Creator: Veligdan, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Design description of the large coil test facility pulse coil

Description: The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being constructed to test up to six large superconducting coils of the configuration needed for tokamak reactors. In order to subject these test coils to conditions which simulate the magnetic environment of an operating tokamak, it is necessary to provide transient vertical fields at the test coil. The LCTF does this by means of a pulse coil set which can be positioned in the bore of each coil. The coils are tested one at a time while the remaining five test coils provide a background toroidal field. Since the pulse coil set is a part of the facility and not considered as a developmental item, it is designed to utilize conventional coil materials and fabrication techniques. The operating environment and magnitude of the induced loads make this coil set somewhat unique. This paper discusses the required operating parameters, the operating environment and loads, as well as the design features of the coils.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Hussung, R.O.; Queen, C.C. Jr. & Chipley, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Potential changes in atmospheric chemistry in the decades ahead: Climate and biosphere interactions and feedbacks

Description: Atmospheric chemistry is a challenging area of research where much knowledge is needed if we are to continue to survive as a species. This paper outlines research needs in the decades ahead in this key area of scientific endeavor. Highlighted are areas of research that are likely to lead to climatic and biospheric impacts and have been given little attention in the past. In particular, the possible organic transformation chemistries that may lead to chemical and physical changes in tropospheric cloud chemistries are highlighted and emphasized as an area where research is needed in the future. 22 refs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Gaffney, J.S. & Marley, N.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Thermal stress analysis and the effect of temperature dependence of material properties on Doublet III limiter design

Description: Temperature and thermal stress parametric design curves are presented for two materials selected for Doublet III primary limiter applications. INC X-750 is a candidate for the medium Z limiter design and ATJ graphite for the low Z design. The dependence of significant material properties on temperature is shown and the impact of this behavior on the decision to actively or passively cool the limiter is discussed. (MOW)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: McKelvey, T.E.; Koniges, A.E.; Marcus, F.; Sabado, M. & Smith, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Characterization of an Energy Source for Modeling Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents in Nuclear Reactors. First Interim Report. [LMFBR]

Description: The expansion characteristics of the detonation products of a high-explosive energy source used to simulate the pressure-volume change relationships for sodium-vapor expansions during hypothetical core disruptive accidents in a Fast Test Reactor were determined experimentally. Rigid cylinder-piston experiments performed at two scales (ratio 1:3) were undertaken to determine a pressure-volume relationship as a function of source mass and expansion environment. Some of these measurements were compared with code calculations for the source.
Date: October 1, 1972
Creator: Cagliostro, D. J. & Florence, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Immobilization of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC: a current appraisal. [Synthetic perovskite and hollandite; natural zirconolite and perovskite]

Description: Results are presented for leach testing at 95/sup 0/C and 200/sup 0/C of SYNROC containing 9% and 20% simulated high level radioactive waste, synthetic hollandite and pervoskite samples, and natural zirconolite and pervoskite samples. Single phase synthetic minerals show much higher leach rates than natural mineral samples and polyphase SYNROC samples. Natural zirconolite samples with low radiation damage have leach rates at 200/sup 0/C based on U which are identical to those measured on SYNROC samples. Natural zirconolites with very large accumulated ..cap alpha.. dose and radiation damage have leach rates at 200/sup 0/C which are only 5 times higher than those of low dose samples.
Date: October 13, 1981
Creator: Oversby, V.M. & Ringwood, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Mechanical considerations for MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

Description: The reconfiguration of MFTF to a tandem mirror machine with thermal barriers has caused a significant expansion in the physical scope of plasma diagnostics. From a mechanical perspective, it complicates the plasma access, system interfaces, growth and environmental considerations. Conceptual designs characterize the general scope of the design and fabrication which remains to be done.
Date: October 19, 1981
Creator: Thomas, S.R. Jr. & Wells, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Heavy-ion inertial fusion: initial survey of target gain versus ion-beam parameters

Description: Inertial-fusion targets have been designed for use with heavy-ion accelerators as drivers in fusion energy power plants. We have made an initial survey of target gain versus beam energy, power, focal radius, and ion range. This provides input for understanding the trade-offs among accelerator designs.
Date: October 26, 1981
Creator: Bangerter, R.O.; Mark, J.W.K. & Thiessen, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

Description: Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Montgomery, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Observation of asymmetric Stark profiles from plasmas created by a picosecond KrF laser

Description: High-resolution extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectra from solid targets irradiated by a picosecond KrF* laser focused to 10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/ have been recorded. The line profiles of transitions in Li-like fluorine and oxygen are asymmetric and up to 2 A in width. Calculations indicate the presence of transitions of the type 2p-3p and other forbidden Stark components. 11 refs., 6 figs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Nam, C.H.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.; Seely, J.F.; Feldman, U. & Woltz, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Guiding-center Hamiltonian for large gyroexcursion particles in mirror configurations

Description: An explicit expression is derived for the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, valid for particles having gyroexcursion rho comparable to the system size, such as the high-energy ring particles in the Berta experiment at Cornell. The form of K is quite simple. It depends on the magnetic field strength B and its radial derivatives, evaluated at an average radius of the particle from the symmetry axis, and allows for a slow but otherwise arbitrary variation of B along the axis. The adiabatic invariant of the gyromotion is related not to the particle's full kinetic energy normal to the field, as is ..mu.. identical with (1/2 mv/sub perpendicular to//sup 2//B in small-rho theories, but rather to the small additional kinetic energy due to the radial wobble of the particle about a constant-radius orbit.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Mynick, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Pulse power for 0. 3 to 0. 5. mu. s durations

Description: Conceptual design studies indicate that the KrF lasers which would drive inertial confinement fusion reactors will obtain their energy from multi-megajoule electron beams with pulse durations of perhaps three to five tenths of a microsecond. This paper discusses the following related topics: (1) pulse forming lines, (2) pulse charged PFN's, (3) Marx PFN, (4) Marx peaking circuit, and (5) other approaches. (MOW)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Smith, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Reliability comparison of forced and natural convection residual heat removal in the GCFR

Description: Loss of cooling consequences for all breeder cores require an increased reliability of the engineered Residual Heat Removal (RHR) systems provided to assure abundant cooling of the core at decay heat levels. An upflow GCFR core design offers the capability for pressurized decay heat removal by natural convection, thus enhancing core cooling reliability and diversity. A quantitative assessment is presented for the Residual Heat Removal reliability achievable with and without natural convection. The reliability gains due to natural convection are limited by the demand frequency for PCRV depressurization and by the equipment which has to change state in order to establish natural convection. The coolant circulation diversity accomplished with natural convection is a major advantage.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Raabe, P.; Taniguchi, T. & Torri, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Some recent silicon detector spectroscopy applications at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Description: The development and fabrication of specialized silicon detectors have long been an integral part of the LBL experimental capabilities. This silicon detector expertise utilizes two basic technologies, oxide-passivated diffused junction and lithium-ion drift. These technologies are complementary, with detectors of 10 {mu}m to 500 {mu}m thick fabricated using the diffused junction process and detectors 500 {mu}m to 10,000 {mu}m using the lithium-ion technique. Particle spectroscopy applications at LBL typically employ a thin diffused, dE/dx, detector followed by a thick lithium drifted, E, detector. Novel position-sensitive dE/dx and E detectors recently employed in two separate experiments conducted at LBL are described. In addition, the requirements for employing thick lithium drifted detectors in an ongoing LBL double beta decay experiment and a LBL dark matter search are also presented. 22 refs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Walton, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Critical scattering of laser light by fluid films and interfaces

Description: Analysis of results of coexistence curve measurements for films of a 2,6-lutidine + water critical mixture, has resulted in the first general confirmation of the scaling theory description of Ising class fluid film critical behavior. For example, we have shown that (3,1) to (2,1) universality class transitions occur in these films as a result of finite size constraints upon the evolution of the correlation length, xi. There exists a generalized law of corresponding states for films. The critical temperature-shift exponent and the crossover temperature critical exponent agree with the values predicted by scaling theory. The 2D regime coexistence curve amplitude dependence upon film thickness is consistent with scaling theory. There exists an unanticipated interaction between the fluid films and the interferometer mirrors in contact with them. This is manifested in a uniform, film thickness dependent, displacement of the entire coexistence curve structure in temperature. We have completed construction of an ellipsometer to be used in studies of the interface between a solid surface and a critical fluid. In addition, we have assembled, and are currently evaluating, a system for studying the intensity autocorrelation of light scattered from critical fluid films. Progress has been made toward developing mathematical techniques for analyzing nonexponential correlation functions in terms of expansions in orthogonal polynomials.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Mockler, R.C. & O'Sullivan, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A faster reactor transient analysis methodology for PCs

Description: The simplified ANL model for LMR transient analysis, in which point kinetics as well as lumped descriptions of the heat transfer equations in all components are applied, is converted from a differential into an integral formulation. All differential balance equations are implicitly solved in terms of convolution integrals. The prompt jump approximation is applied as the strong negative feedback effectively keeps the net reactivity well below prompt critical. After implicit finite differencing of the convolution integrals, the kinetics equation assumes the form of a quadratic equation, the quadratic dynamics equation.'' This model forms the basis for GW-BASIC program, LTC, for LMR Transient Calculation program, which can effectively be run on a PC. The GW-BASIC version of the LTC program is described in detail in Volume 2 of this report.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Ott, K.O. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Kaon mass by critical absorption of kaonic atom x rays

Description: The energy of the kaonic 6h ..-->.. 5g transition has been determined using the calculated ..mu../rho curve. Because the detectors used could not resolve the noncircular transitions, the predictions from a calculated cascade program were used. According to the cascade results for potassium, the number of noncircular x-rays was about 10% of all the transitions between n = 6 to n = 5. Based on the available information, the mass of the kaon was measured to be 493.576/sub -0.069//sup +0.044/ MeV. (GHT)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Lum, G. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments to power plants

Description: This paper describes a simplified methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conserved energy. In addition, a screening curve contains information on competing supply technologies, such as annualized capital costs, variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The information in the screening curve allows policymakers to promptly and conveniently compare the relevant parameters affecting supply and demand-side investment decisions. While many sophisticated computer models have evolved to account for the load shape impacts of energy efficiency investments, this sophistication has, by and large, not trickled down to spreadsheet-level or back-of-the-envelope analyses. This methodology allows a simple summary of load shape characteristics based on the output of the more complicated models. It offers many advantages, principal of which is clarity in analyzing supply and demand-side investment choices. This paper first describes how supply-side screening curves have been used in the past, and develops the conceptual tools needed to apply integrated supply/demand screening curves in the least-cost utility planning process. It then presents examples of supply and demand-side technologies and plots them on a representative screening curve. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Koomey, J.; Rosenfeld, A.H. & Gadgil, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Wood burning fireplace. Final technical report

Description: This project involved the construction of a fireplace to heat a commercial building. The project was successful in that it demonstrated that wood could be used to heat a commercial building in a properly constructed fireplace.
Date: October 5, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Study of the non-histone proteins of the nucleo-chromatin complex. Progress report, May 1978-September 1979

Description: A study of the helix destabilizing protein (HDP) is presented. The purification and characterization of HDP from soluble and particulate phases of normal and regenerating rat liver are described. Parameters and specificities of the nucleic acid helix destabilizing activity of this protein are discussed. Interrelationships between amino acid side-chain modifications and sub-unit dissociations with the activity of the protein are described. The development and application of a radioimmunoassay and other immunological techniques for quantitation, cellular localization, and determination of tissue and species specificity of HDP are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Patel, G L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRAC, FDSys and putting it all together

Description: This presentation discusses TRAC, an open source web-based project management and bug tracking system, and the Federated Digital System (FDSys), an advanced digital system that authenticates, preserves, versions, and provides permanent public access to federal government information.
Date: October 18, 2011
Creator: Phillips, Mark Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Activation of Carbon-Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Hydrogen Bonds by Copper-Nitrenes: A Comparison of Density Functionality Theory with Single- and Multireference Correlation Consistent Composite Approaches

Description: Article on a comparison of density functional theory with single- and multireference correlation consistent composite approaches (ccCA).
Date: October 19, 2009
Creator: Tekarli, Sammer M.; Williams, T. Gavin & Cundari, Thomas R., 1964-
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
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