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Chemistry of Cement: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, Volume 1, 1960

Description: Document containing principle and supplementary papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, as well as discussions of those papers by members of the Symposium. Index begins on page 551.
Date: August 31, 1962
Creator: United States. National Bureau of Standards.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HAZARDS ANALYSIS. RADIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Description: ABS>Doses were calculated for persons off site and in the EGCR cortrol room following the maximum credible accident (depressurization), and for the public due to normal operational stack release. The assumptions and calculations used in the study are given in detail. (D.L.C.)
Date: August 31, 1962
Creator: Courtney, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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On the Calibration of Cascade Impactors

Description: From Abstract: "In the following paper, the two customary methods of calibrating cascade impactors are compared. It is shown that the method of determining collection efficiency as a function of particle size for each stage provides information for interpreting results in terms of impactor theory, making it possible to establish adequate jet performance."
Date: August 31, 1962
Creator: Mercer, T. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE FERRITE BIASING SYSTEM FOR THE RADIO FREQUENCY CAVITIES OF THE PRINCETON-PENNSYLVANIA 3 Bev PROTON SYNCHROTRON

Description: A description is given of the ferrite biasing system for the four tuned radio frequency cavities of the synchrotron. Each ferrite loaded double cavity has a single turn bias winding which is driven to a peak current of 13,500 amperes by a push-pull transformer arrangement. There is automatic tap changing of the transformer to accommodate the variable impedance load (for power considerations). The programming and frequency response of the system have to be such that each cavity can operate as the reso nant circuit of a self tracking radio frequency amplifier over the frequency range 6.5 to 30 Mc at the 20 cps repetition rate of the synchrotron. Between acceleration cycles it is necessary to program the ferrite to a given magnetic state, near that of maximum radio frequency permeability. (auth)
Date: August 29, 1962
Creator: Rees, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-Temperature Reactions of Type 304 Stainless Steel in Low Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide

Description: Compatibility studies of type 304 stainless steel in helium containing low concentrations of CO and CO/sub 2/ were conducted. The oxidation rates were insensitive to impurity concentrations between 0.0006--0.3 vol% in the temperature range 400--1000 deg C when P/sub co2/P/sub co/ was less than 0.66. Ratios above this value resulted initially in a slow oxidation rate, but was followed by an accelerated attack. The incubation period for the break-away varied with the P/sub co2//P/sub co/ ratio and the pressure of the two gases. The oxidation reactions proceeded through a selective depletion of chromium from the alloy which increased the carbon solubility and depletion of nickel which led to the transformation of austenite to ferrite. Parabolic reaction rates were observed for the formation of the protective oxides. Arrhenius plots of rate constants versus 1/T indicated the presence of several oxides which was confirmed by other methods. Carburization or decarburization reactions occurred coincidentally with oxidation and depended upon temperature and (P/sub CO/)/sup 2/ /P/sub CO2/ and the P/sub co2//P /sub CO/. Neither was detected below 600 deg C. Between 600--900 deg C, only carburization occurred and appeared to be mainly dependent on the temperature. Above 900 deg C, both carburization and decarburization occurred depending upon the (P/sub co/)/sup 2//P/sub co2/ and the P/sub co2//P/sub co/. The interactions of the oxidizing and carburization reactions resulted in carbon maxima at a (P/sub co/)/sup 2//P/sub co2/ ratio of 0.227. The results indicate that it may be impractical or unnecessary to reduce impurity gases to levels which do not cause surface reactions. It is concluded that undesirable oxidation and carburization reactions can be eliminated by controlling the ratios of the impurity gases. (auth)
Date: August 29, 1962
Creator: Inouye, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Pathfinder Atomic Power Plant. Thermal and Hydraulic Design of the Pathfinder Boiling Water Integral Nuclear Superheating Reactor

Description: A thermal and hydraulic design investigation of the Pathfinder Reactor, including analytical and experimental determinations, as well as a complete set of performance calculations, was carried out. A detailed analysis of the reactor energy balance was conducted. Results of the analyses indicated that the reactor will perform within the limits of the material design criteria and operational requirements. Fuel element temperatures are not excessive under the worst combination of circumstances. Thermal stresses in the superheater were minimized by designing the annular element so that temperatures are kept as uniform as possible at every axial location. In all cases, sufficient heat dissipation capacity was found to exist to ensure an ample margin of safety. (M.C.G.)
Date: August 29, 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Radiation Leakage Survey of the Shield of the Nuclear Ship Savannah

Description: A detailed 4urvey of the radiation from the N.S. Savannah shield was made. The study was accomplished with the reactor at its full power of 69 Mw during a cruise of 2821 miles. The results of the detailed shield survey show that the design dose rate of 0.5 rem/yr for passenger spaces is not exceeded in any region to which passengers have access. ln the area restricted to crew access the design dose rate of 5.0 rem/yr is nowhere exceeded except in a small region on D'' deck in a room to which entry can readily be controlled. Specifications for cargohold dose rates, 0.5 rem/yr at 1/5 full power, are satisfactorily met. Additional data obtained include measurements of special points for comparison with dose rates predicted in design calculations, and an experiment examining the result of loss of water from the Savannah's subreactor shield tanks. Predicted dose rates were conservatively higher than the dose rates measured, and the result of the water-loss experiment showed that even with a total emptying of the tanks a safe condition exists only a few feet from the shield. (auth)
Date: August 29, 1962
Creator: Blizard, E.P.; Blosser, T.V. & Freestone, R.M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Scale Transformation in Physics

Description: Some criteria are established to test whether invariance under a continuous transformation will lead to a conservation law. The scale transformation is examined as a special case, and shown not only to lead to no general conservation law, but aiso in fact to be of a trivial nature. This is due to the rather artificial way in which scale invariance is usually introduced. A theory is then constructed by introducing an internal coordinate of dimension (length) in order to allow only the dimensionless ratio of lengths to enter; and by exploiting the gauge-like structure of the scale transformation. In this theory the scale transformation does iead to a new conserved current (as well as to an almost conserved'' one), and the internal coordinate is shown to play the same role for the scale transformation as the internal coordinate spin plays for the case of rotations. (auth)
Date: August 29, 1962
Creator: Greenberger, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE OAK RIDGE RESEARCH REACTOR (ORR), THE LOW-INTENSITY TESTING REACTOR (LITR), AND THE OAK RIDGE GRAPHITE REACTOR (OGR) AS EXPERIMENT FACILITIES

Description: >Characteristics of the ORR, LITR, and OGR that experimenters have found to be important are listed. The results of a survey conducted among experimenters on the utility of the reactors for various types of experiments are discussed, and some changes which might be made to improve the utilization are listed. A brief outline, with references, of most of the experiments currently being performed is included. (auth)
Date: August 28, 1962
Creator: George, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary hazards review: Overboring Hanford reactors (condensed version)

Description: This is a condensed version of an extended hazards safety review of a proposal to modify the six 8 3/8-inch lattice reactors on the Hanford site. The review was intended to satisfy the specifications for a Preliminary Hazards Review as adopted at the third meeting of the General Electric Technological Hazards Council at New York City on June 15-16, 1961. This supplement is a tabular condensation of the information in the general document. One departure is made from the specifications for such a review: since the overbore proposal is a modification to existent production reactors, those items which will not be changed by the modification are not as a rule included.
Date: August 28, 1962
Creator: Nilson, R. & Carlson, P. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactor Controls Reliability and Maintenance at the ORR

Description: Early evaluation and study of the various criteria for the ORR clearly established the requirements for the fundarnental safety and control instrumentation, and the instrumentation was well integrated into the design and construction of the plant. However, it was not designed for the optimum of maintenance convenience and minimum reactor down time in the event of instrument failure. The revisions and additions that have been made in the physical plant and maintenance which have resulted in a definite reduction of reactor down time resulting from instrument failure in the reactor and in the experiments are described. (auth)
Date: August 28, 1962
Creator: West, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Angular Distribution of Fission Fragments From the Fast Neutron-Induced Fission of U-234

Description: Submitted to Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville. The fast neutron-induced fission cross section of U/sup 234/ was measured from threshold to 4-Mev neutron energy. A maximum of 1.26 barns was found at 850 kev followed by a minimum of 1.10 barns at 8050 kev. The angular ani-sotropy of the fragment distribution was measured for neutron energies from 400 kev to 4 Mev. Extrema in the ratio sigma /sub f//( sigma /sub f(90 deg ) were found at 500, 850, and 1050 kev; the distribution at 500 kev showing a maximum in the direction normal to the beam (side-wise peaking) while that at 850 kev showed a maximum along the beam direction. The distribution at 8050 kev showed forward peaking but to a lesser extent than for energies immediately higher or lower. The behavior was analyzed according to the theories of Bohr and Wheeler. The dip in cross section between 850 and 1050 kev is consistent with the suggestion of Wheeler that neutron competition in the decay of the compound nucleus enters with increased strength in this area. Vibration-rotational levels in U/sup 234/ beginning at 790 kev are known to exist and inelastic neutron scattering to these levels serves to depress the fission cross section. The changes in fragment angular distribution are shown to be explainable in terms of the theory of Bohr which states that fission occurs through distinct channels composed of a K-band structure analogous to that observed at low excitations in heavy deformed nuclei. More detailed angular distribution measurements were carried out at 850 and 1050 kev. The overall picture is consistent with a K-band structure in U/sup 235/* near the saddle point deformation of K equals 1/2+, 3/2--, 1/2-- in that order, the bands being separated from each other by a few hundred kilovolts. (auth)
Date: August 27, 1962
Creator: Lamphere, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Method of Solving the Time Dependent Neutron Thermalization Problem

Description: The method of singular eigenfunctions introduced first by Van Kampen and developed later by Case and Mika in connection with a one velocity transport problem, was adapted to solve the time and energy dependent infinite medium problem. The expansion of neutron density and scattering kernel in series of Hermite functions reduces the Boltzmann equation to a system of homogeneous linear equations. The resulting set of regular and singular eigenfunctions is shown to be complete and explicit formulas are found for the normalization integrals and Green's function. (auth)
Date: August 27, 1962
Creator: Koppel, J. U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Analysis of the Inherent Stability of the EOCR

Description: The inherent stability of the EOCR at full power, exclusive of the heat exchanger, is investigated. Space and time dependent differential equations and transfer functions for the nuclear and thermal processes occurring in the reactor core and vessel are derived. Reactor stability is analyzed by application of the Nyquist stability criterion. The results show that the EOCR has an extremely large margin of inherent stability. (auth)
Date: August 24, 1962
Creator: Gossmann, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A feasibility study: The application of cooling towers for reduction of Hanford Plant heat load to the Columbia River

Description: Hanford production reactor operation requires the rejection of very large heat loads. At the present time the heat load is rejected to the Columbia River by the reactor effluent. At low river flows the hot effluent can have appreciable effects on river temperatures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and costs of Cooling Towers as a means of reducing the heat load rejected to the Columbia River. After evaluation of published information, available data, and Hanford plant conditions, it is concluded that: (1) That an induced draft cooling tower, because of its longer cooling range,, would be an effective cooling device for reduction of gross heat load rejected to the Columbia River. Additional study will be required to determine effective use on an area to area basis. (2) That a basically wood, counter-flow, induced draft cooling tower could be installed for approximately $1600 to $2000 per megawatt capacity. This cost is a probable minimum and might be increased by the cost of auxiliary features required for radiation control. (3) That additional study and developmental testing would be required to determine the extent of contamination problems which would result from the cooling tower installation. These problems would include the degree of contamination buildup both within the cooling tower and the surrounding area, the effect on operation and maintenance, and the economics and use of materials other than wood. (4) That certain areas of consideration which affect the installation of cooling towers at Hanford be studied. These areas (beyond the scope of this report) which require study are: cooling economics for reactors, total effluent facilities, and impact of atmospheric loading of contaminated moisture on the Hanford Plant area.
Date: August 24, 1962
Creator: Peck, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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General parameter study of a bare, cylindrical reactor having the same materials as Tory II-C

Description: This memorandum describes studies undertaken to investigate the properties of Tory II-C with the aims of reducing weight and size and in increasing performance. Space and weight limitations aboard existing sea-going launch vehicles required this general parameter study which utilizes a bare, cylindrical reactor having the same materials as Tory II-C.
Date: August 24, 1962
Creator: Stubbs, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear Safety Program Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending June 30, 1962

Description: Progress in nuclear safety research and development is reported. Topics covered include: reactivity effects of fuel displacements in a pool-type reactor, release of fission products on out-of-pile melting of reactor fuels, release of fission products on in-pile melting of reactor fuels, fission product transport evaluations, characterization and control of accident-released fission products, nuclear safety pilot plant, preparation of reactor containment hardbook, and radiochemical plant safety studies. (M.C.G.)
Date: August 24, 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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