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SNAP re-entry orbit; comments on the atmospheric entry and discussion of a proposed test

Description: In order to evaluate entry into the atmosphere of an oblate (equatorial bulge) earth a standard atmosphere was used in conjunction with the standard rotating oblate spheroid. The density variation encountered in any one polar orbit around the earth will vary by about a factor of ten, due to oblateness. Therefore, the important effects on the re-entry trajectory are atmospheric density and oblateness of the earth. The SNAP configuration burn up characteristics will differ considerably between the steep (6/sup 0/) entry of the NASA Scout test and the orbital decay trajectory. However, the test can verify heat transfer rates on the actual configuration, and by proper calculation of material response, the actual decay breakup prediction can be improved.
Date: August 3, 1962
Creator: Ackermann, W. O.; Arthur, P. D. & Nelson, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LOADING AND ELUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES

Description: The cation exchange characteristics of several commercially available zeolites were evaluated, Equilibrium loading characteristics and exchange capacities were determined experimentally in the binary systems cesium-lithium, cesium-- sodium, cesium--potassium, cesium-Tubidium, cesium -- hydrogen, cesium-- ammonium, strontium-- magnesium, strontium-- calcium, strontium-- barium, and strontium-- hydrogen for several zeolites. Exchangeable cation fractions in the equilibrium solutions were varied from 0.2 to 0.00001, while the total normality of the system constituents was held constant. Results were plotted as equivalent fraction of the traced cation on the zeolite at equilibrium vs. the fraction of traced cation remaining in the equilibrium solution. If an influent composition is known, and falls in the system listed above, zeolite column loading may be read directly in univalent-univalent or divalent-divalent systems. However, in the strontium-sodium or strontium-- hydrogen systems, a k value must be used because squared terms appear in the equilibrium expression as follows: 2 Na- zeolite plus or minus Sr-solution in equilibrium 2 Nasolution + Sr-zeolite, or k = (Sr-zeolite)(Na-solution)/ (Na-zeolite)2(Sr-solution). The k for a given cation is a function of zeolite loading with that cation. Several column 50% loading capacities were determined to randomly test the validity of the above curves to predict column capacities, Several columns loaded with known amounts of cesium and strontium radioisotopes were heated to 800 deg C for 24 hours to simulate a zeolite packaging dehydration cycle. Losses of cesium and strontium activity during the 24-hr period were determined. Elution of the remaining activity on the columns was accomplished with various eluting agents including dilute HNO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, CaCl/sub 2/ and La(NO/su b 3/)/sub 3/, and elution curves were calculated. (auth)
Date: August 10, 1962
Creator: Ames, L.L. Jr. & Knoll, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Meteorites and the Early History of the Solar System

Description: The early thermal history of meteoritic matter is discussed. Clues obtained from the mineralogy of the carbonaceous chondrites are described. An attempt was made to establish the origin of the high-temperature minerals that served as the starting material for carbonaceous chondrites and the possible settings for the aqueous stage of the minerals. The occurrence of primordial noble gases in the meteorities is discussed. Chemical fractionations in the chondrites, extinct radioactivity, and general isotopic anomalies are also discussed. A series of possible events in the history of the solar system, based on the conditions discussed, is presented. (M.C.G.)
Date: August 1, 1962
Creator: Anders, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF URANIUM

Description: A technique for the thinning of U for transmission electron microscopy is described. The main difficulty was the removal of the anodic film that formed during electropolishing. However, excellent electroplating results were obtained with a solution of 800 cc ethanol, 500 cc ethylene glycol, and 500 cc H/sub 3/PO/ sub 4/(85%) with the U cathode at 30 ma/cm/sup 2/ and room temperature. The anodic film that formed was then removed by electropolishing in a solution composed of 75 cc H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/(98%), 7cc H/sub 2/O, and 18 cc glycerol with a Pt cathode at 6 v between 0 and 5 un. Concent 85% C. Examples of the structures that were seen in samples prepared in the solutions by the window technique are illustrated. (P.C.H.)
Date: August 1, 1962
Creator: Angerman, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atomic Capture of $mu$$sup -$ Mesons in Chemical Compounds and The "Fermiteller Z Law"

Description: Experimental studies of the relative atomic mu --meson capture probabilities in the constituents of chemical compounds are described. Fermi and Teller had predicted that the atomic-capture probability is proportional to the nuclear charge of the atomic species weighted by its atomic concentration. This is sometimes referred to as the Fermi-Teller Z law.'' Previous experiments indicated no clear systematics to this capture process, and there are conflicts between the results of several measurements made with the same or similar compounds. In these experiments the capturing atom was identified by detection of either mesic x rays or decay electrons from mu /sup -/ mesons bound in the mesic K shell in the atomic species, In these experiments oxides and sulfides of some medium- and high-Z elements as well as two metallic solutions were used, and a nuclear capture product (neutron) rather than the decay electrons was detected. Results show that among the substances examIned, namely CuO, Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3, PbO, CuS, Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/, PbS AgLi, and CuAu, the Z law'' behavior is not indicated either in insulators or in metals, although in all cases there is a preference for capturing in the atom of higher Z. If the atomic-capture probability is proportional to Z/sup n/ (n being any positive or negative number), then it is found that the experimental results fall approximately in the range n = 2/3 to n = 1.4, where n = 1 would define the prediction by Fermi and Teller, The measured atomic-capture ratios are: Cu/O = 6.14 plus or minus 0.85; Sb/O = 1.86 plus or minus 0.096; Pb/O = 4.56 plus or minus 0.53; Cu/S = 1.89i 0.18; Sb/S = 1.64 plus or minus 0.10; Pb/S = 2.87 plus or minus 0.35; Ag/Li = 11.66 plus or minus 3.39; Au/Cu = 0.34 plus or minus …
Date: August 20, 1962
Creator: Baijal, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY: A 1962 PROGRESS REPORT

Description: The possibility of improved detection discrimination between selected materials; the high absorption of several 1ight materials such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron; and the relatively low absorption of many heavy materials are some characteristics which make neutron radiographic inspection attractive as a complementary technique to xradiography. A study of neutron radiography is reported in which the emphasis has been placed upon determining many of the characteristics of various techniques for detecting neutron images. Characteristics of photographic detectors for thermal neutron images are outlined. (R.J.S.)
Date: August 17, 1962
Creator: Berger, Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CALCULATIONS OF THE DOPPLER COEFFICIENT OF LARGE CERAMIC-FUELED FAST REACTORS

Description: ABS>Calculations of the Doppler coefficient of large, ceramicfueled fast reactors containing plutonium were made by means of the ELMOE program to provide accurate flux calculations. The temperature-dependent cross sections of P. Greebler et al., for U/sup 238/ and Pu/sup 239/ were used. Doppler coefficients of the order of 10/sup -5/ ntermediate tem k/ C were obtained, in agreement with Greebler's results. Coefficients of carbide fueled reactors are about 0.7 of those of oxide-fueled reactors at the same fuel enrichment. Effective coarse- group elastic-removal cross sections for light elements are tabulated. It appears that, with tabulations of this sort as a guide, coarse-group sets of cross sections can be constructed to give adequate accuracy in calculations of Doppler coefficients without use of ELMOE. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1962
Creator: Bhide, M.G. & Hummel, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Vapor Containment in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

Description: Containment of the ORR is attained by means of a ventilation system which is capable of exhausting air from the building at a rate sufficient to ensure that all leakage of air at ground level is into the building. The exhaust air is treated by scrubbing and filtration and is discharged from a large stack at a height and velocity sufficient to guarantee that meteorological dispersion will reduce the resulting concentration of radioactive material to an acceptable level. Factors involved in selection of this type of controlled containment are discussed. Original design and modifications are described. Performance is also discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: August 23, 1962
Creator: Binford, F.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Radiation Leakage Survey of the Shield of the Nuclear Ship Savannah

Description: A detailed 4urvey of the radiation from the N.S. Savannah shield was made. The study was accomplished with the reactor at its full power of 69 Mw during a cruise of 2821 miles. The results of the detailed shield survey show that the design dose rate of 0.5 rem/yr for passenger spaces is not exceeded in any region to which passengers have access. ln the area restricted to crew access the design dose rate of 5.0 rem/yr is nowhere exceeded except in a small region on D'' deck in a room to which entry can readily be controlled. Specifications for cargohold dose rates, 0.5 rem/yr at 1/5 full power, are satisfactorily met. Additional data obtained include measurements of special points for comparison with dose rates predicted in design calculations, and an experiment examining the result of loss of water from the Savannah's subreactor shield tanks. Predicted dose rates were conservatively higher than the dose rates measured, and the result of the water-loss experiment showed that even with a total emptying of the tanks a safe condition exists only a few feet from the shield. (auth)
Date: August 29, 1962
Creator: Blizard, E.P.; Blosser, T.V. & Freestone, R.M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Equation of State of Classical Systems of Charged Particles

Description: Recent developments in the classical theory of fully ionized gases and strong electrolyte solutions are reviewed, and are used to discuss the equation of state at high temperatures and low densities. The pressure is calculated using the ring-integral approximation, and quantitative estimates of higher correction terms are given. The effect of short range repulsive forces is shown by comparing the results with two kinds of potential functions hard spheres of diameter a, and soft'' spheres for which the short range potential cancels the Coulomb potential at the origin, and decreases exponentially with distance. It is found that the use of either type of potential extends the range of validity of the ring-integral approximation to considerably higher densities and lower temperatures. Since there is little difference in the results for the hard spheres and the soft spheres in this range, the latter system is investigated more extensively since it is more, easily handled by analytical methods. The expressions derived for the free energy of a system of charged particles can also be used in ionization equilibrium calculations, and the effect of electrostatic interactions on the equilibrium concentrations of various kinds of ions is indicated. 60 references. (auth)
Date: August 21, 1962
Creator: Brush, S.G.; DeWitt, H.E. & Trulio, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Thematic Analysis of Edward Elgar's Oratorio, the Apostles

Description: It is the object of this paper to review Sir Edward Elgar's life as a composer, and to discuss and study the thematic elements of his oratorio, "The Apostles." To understand and evaluate the significance of any person's rise to fame in his own field, it is necessary to reconstruct the surroundings from which he came. If a study of the musical conditions had been made when Elgar's development as a composer was starting to draw attention, it would have been noted that the British public was prepared to listen to music in newer forms only if it was from a country other than England. There was very little done or said to encourage any music in a modern character if it was composed by someone from England.
Date: August 1962
Creator: Burge, Everett Waddell
Partner: UNT Libraries
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GENERAL STANDARDS GUIDE FOR EXPERIMENTS IN ORNL RESEARCH REACTORS

Description: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has three generalpurpose research reactors which accommodate testing loops, target irradiations, and beam-type experiments. Since the experiments must share common or similar facilities and utilities, be designed and fabricated by the same groups, and meet the safe safety criteria, certain standards for these have been developed. These standards deal only with those properties from which safety and economy of time and money can be maximized and do not relate to the intent of the experiment or quality of the data obtained. The necessity for, and the limitations of, the standards are discussed; and a compilation of general standards is included. (auth)
Date: August 20, 1962
Creator: Cagle, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Communication: From Molecules to Mars

Description: An analysis is made of the energetic, molecular, macromolecular and organizational steps which appear to be essential for the development of a living cell from a nonliving origin. Accepting the current view of the primitive atmosphere of the earth, experimental demonstration for the formation of the fundamental molecules of living organisms (amino acids, fatty acids, purines and pyrimidines) under the influence of available energy sources (ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation and electric discharge) is presented.
Date: August 1, 1962
Creator: Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FUEL CYCLES FOR AN 800 Mw(t) PEBBLE-BED REACTOR

Description: Reactivity lifetime calculations were made for an 800Mw(t) pebble-bed reactor on the basis of a batch-fueling cycle, a once-through equilibrium cycle, and a gradedexposure equilibrium cycle. The maximum lifetime, obtained with the graded-exposure equilibrium cycle, was 1.41 fissions per initial fissionable atom. In this case the conversion ratio was 0.62 and the neutron leakage from the core was 0.078. The same fuel composition gave 1.29 fissions per initial fissionable atom on a once-through equilibrium cycle and 0.92 fissions per initial fissionable atom on a batch cycle. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1962
Creator: Carlsmith, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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