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Radioactive Fallout From the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident

Description: This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Beiriger, J. M.; Failor, R. A.; Marsh, K. V. & Shaw, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

Description: The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)
Date: August 29, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear structure of tellurium 133 via beta decay and shell model calculations in the doubly magic tin 132 region. [J,. pi. , transition probabilities, neutron and proton separation, g factors]

Description: An experimental investigation of the level structure of /sup 133/Te was performed by spectroscopy of gamma-rays following the beta-decay of 2.7 min /sup 133/Sb. Multiscaled gamma-ray singles spectra and 2.5 x 10/sup 7/ gamma-gamma coincidence events were used in the assignment of 105 of the approximately 400 observed gamma-rays to /sup 133/Sb decay and in the construction of the /sup 133/Te level scheme with 29 excited levels. One hundred twenty-two gamma-rays were identified as originating in the decay of other isotopes of Sb or their daughter products. The remaining gamma-rays were associated with the decay of impurity atoms or have as yet not been identified. A new computer program based on the Lanczos tridiagonalization algorithm using an uncoupled m-scheme basis and vector manipulations was written. It was used to calculate energy levels, parities, spins, model wavefunctions, neutron and proton separation energies, and some electromagnetic transition probabilities for the following nuclei in the /sup 132/Sn region: /sup 128/Sn, /sup 129/Sn, /sup 130/Sn, /sup 131/Sn, /sup 130/Sb, /sup 131/Sb, /sup 132/Sb, /sup 133/Sb, /sup 132/Te, /sup 133/Te, /sup 134/Te, /sup 134/I, /sup 135/I, /sup 135/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe. The results are compared with experiment and the agreement is generally good. For non-magic nuclei: the lg/sub 7/2/, 2d/sub 5/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/, 1h/sub 11/2/, and 3s/sub 1/2/ orbitals are available to valence protons and the 2d/sub 5/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/, 1h/sub 11/2/, and 3s/sub 1/2/ orbitals are available to valence neutron holes. The present CDC7600 computer code can accommodate 59 single particle states and vectors comprised of 30,000 Slater determinants. The effective interaction used was that of Petrovich, McManus, and Madsen, a modification of the Kallio-Kolltveit realistic force. Single particle energies, effective charges and effective g-factors were determined from experimental data for nuclei in the /sup 132/Sn region. 116 references.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Lane, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fusion-neutron damage in superconductors and magnet stabilizers

Description: Two NbTi and two Cu wires were irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons at 4.2 K to fluences of 6 to 8 x 10/sup 20/ n/m/sup 2/, using RTNS-II. Electrical resistances of Cu were monitored during irradiation. Magnetoresistances were measured in fields up to 12.4 T before and after irradiation and after isochronal annealing up to 273 K. Critical currents of NbTi were measured after irradiation, in feilds up to 10 T. The initial rate of increase of resistivity of the Cu was found to be 2.23 x 10/sup -31/ (..cap omega..-m)/(n/m/sup 2/). This rate could be predicted from fission reactor irradiations using damage energy scaling. The maximum observed change in the NbTi critical was a decrease of 3% at 4 T. At 6, 8, and 10 T there were no significant changes.
Date: August 7, 1981
Creator: Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Guinan, M.W. & Kinney, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Departmentwide audit of the visibility over the status of nuclear materials

Description: Over the last 45 years, DOE has acquired and produced significant quantities of nuclear material. Much of it is in warheads in the custody of the Department of Defense. The rest is at DOE laboratories, production activities, and assembly plants. Uranium, plutonium, and tritium constitute the bulk of DOE's nuclear materials inventory. Nuclear materials managers should know the status of material and how it is being used so that stocks can be acquired, maintained, and disposed of in a safe, economical and environmentally sound manner. DOE requires its field offices to assess the status of contractor-held inventories of the material annually and to report on its use and whether it is still needed to support DOE requirements. This audit was made to determine the accuracy of assessment reports on the status of nuclear materials at DOE's two major users -- weapons research and development (R D) laboratories and production and recovery activities. Specifically, our objective was to determine if the laboratories could support a requirement for materials they reported as in use or needed. At the production sites, our objectives was to determine if the reports properly identified inactive material and described its condition and plans for disposition.
Date: August 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Garden Carrier No. 2. Revision 1

Description: An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Garden Carrier No. 2 was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site radioactive material shipping packages. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the cask complies with the applicable regulations.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Box, W. D.; Klima, B. B.; Seagren, R. D.; Shappert, L. B.; Watson, C. D. & Aramayo, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Neutrinos beyond the Standard Model

Description: I review some basic aspects of neutrino physics beyond the Standard Model such as neutrino mixing and neutrino non-orthogonality, universality and CP violation in the lepton sector, total lepton number and lepton flavor violation, etc.. These may lead to neutrino decays and oscillations, exotic weak decay processes, neutrinoless double /beta/ decay, etc.. Particle physics models are discussed where some of these processes can be sizable even in the absence of measurable neutrino masses. These may also substantially affect the propagation properties of solar and astrophysical neutrinos. 39 refs., 4 figs.
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Valle, J. W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1983. Progress report

Description: Progress is reviewed on the following topics: physics of ultra high energies and cosmology; phenomenology of particle physics; quantum field theory, supersymmetry and models of particles; and geometric formulations and algebraic models. Recent DOE reports resulting from the contract are listed. (WHK)
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Sudarshan, E C.G. & Ne'eman, Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TOUGH User's Guide

Description: This document contains a technical description of the TOUGH computer program, which was developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for simulating the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat in porous and fractured media. The physical processes taken into account in TOUGH are discussed, and the governing equations actually solved by the simulator are stated in full detail. A brief overview is given of the mathematical and numerical methods, and the code architecture. The report provides detailed instructions for preparing input decks. Code applications are illustrated by means of six sample problems.
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Pruess, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis and evaluation of processes and equipment in Tasks II and IV of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Quarterly report, October 1977-January 1978

Description: Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible costs through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry-over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. Consequently, the specific add-on costs of the Cz-process can be expected to be reduced by about a factor of three by 1982, and about a factor of five by 1986. A format to guide in the accumulation of the data needed for thorough techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes has been developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format, and has first been applied, as well as refined, in the Cz crystal pulling analysis. The accumulated Cz process data are presented in this format in the Appendix. The application of this UPPC format with the SAMICS cost and price determination methodology, at least in its Interim Price Estimating Guidelines (IPEG) form, has been established and is detailed.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Goldman, H. & Wolf, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates. [Various analysis methods for supernate, sludge, and salt lake]

Description: Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Gray, L.W.; Donnan, M.Y. & Okamoto, B.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Creep and tensile properties of alloy 800H-Hastelloy X weldments. [HTGR]

Description: Hastelloy X and alloy 800H were joined satisfactorily by the gas tungsten arc welding process with ERNiCr-3 filler and the shielded metal arc welding process with Inco Weld A filler. Test specimens were of two types: (1) made entirely of deposited Inco Weld A and (2) machined transverse across the weldments to include Hastelloy X, filler metal (ERNiCr-3 or Inco Weld A), and alloy 800H. They were aged 2000 and 10,000 h and subjected to short-term tensile and creep tests. Inco Weld A and ERNiCr-3 are both suitable filler metals and result in welds that are stronger than the alloy 800H base metal.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: McCoy, H. E. & King, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Initial Flow Data from MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 Well

Description: Analysis of buildup data from the Initial Flow Test indicates that the MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 Well penetrates a zone of relatively high permeability (approx. 150 md); this high permeability zone, however, extends to a radius of only about 200 ft from the wellbore. The far field permeability (i.e., for r > 200 ft) appears to be rather low (approx. 11 md). No reservoir boundaries can be identified from the Initial Flow Test. Tthe reservoir simulator MUSHRM together with the formation parameters inferred from the buildup data were employed to history match the observed drawdown/buildup pressures and flow data. The calculated buildup pressures closely agree with the measured values; the rather poor agreement between the measured and calculated drawdown pressures is ascribed to the uncertainties in the flow rate data.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Garg, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear startup, testing and core management of the FTR

Description: The Fast Test Reactor (FTR) is a sodium-cooled, mixed-oxide-fueled, 400 MW(Th) fast reactor designed for irradiation testing of FB fuels and materials. The reactor is located near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. The FTR is presently undergoing nonnuclear startup tests, in preparation for the initial fuel loading. The reactor is provided with special irradiation facilities to enhance its experimental capabilities.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Bennett, R. A.; Daughtry, J. V.; Harris, R. A.; Jones, D. H.; Nelson, J. W.; Rawlins, J. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Systems

Description: The overall object was to establish a full experimental correlation between flashing flows of water-steam in actual geothermal wells and flashing flows of refrigerant-114 (R-114) in the Brown University/DOE Two-Phase Flow Facility. Our experiments show that the similarity theory developed in our laboratory during previous phases of this research project can be used to predict accurately the pressure gradient in the two-phase region of a flowing geothermal well using laboratory measurements on R-114. This conclusion holds even when the actual geothermal well contains significant amounts of noncondensable gases. In this case, however, corrections must be introduced to account for the partial pressure of the gases.
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Maeder, P. F. & Kestin, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Albany 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont: data report

Description: Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 1328 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 664 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water and surface water.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Koller, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MARS vessel safety analysis. LATA report No. 115

Description: A previous study was performed to assess the hazards associated with an accidental leakage of cooling water into the crucible of molten /sup 238/U for the MARS laser isotope separation experiment. Since that study found that the probability of such an explosion is extremely low during an accidental cooling system failure, a study was conducted to define a more realistic design basis accident (DBA) for the final MARS configuration. If the vapor-phase explosion is considered to be a significant threat, the design criteria for the vacuum vessel should be a working pressure of 67 psig or 101 psig momentary single pulse equivalent static pressure.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Rigdon, L.D.; Donham, B.J. & Hughes, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geohydrological studies for nuclear waste isolation at the Hanford Reservation. Volume II. Final report

Description: A field testing program to provide data for mathematical modeling of ground water flow in the deep basalts of the Pasco Basin was initiated in FY 1978. Tests performed in DC-2 and water level responses in neighboring DC-1 suggest possible leakage between the three lower piezometers in DC-1 and indicate a downward gradient in the upper basalt layers down to 4000 ft, beneath which there may be an upward gradient. A sharp steepening of the downward gradient near the Umtanum Unit suggest that Umtanum may be acting as a barrier to vertical flow. Pressure testing in well DC-8 in the basalts above the Vantage sandstone at 1700 to 2700 ft indicate a downward gradient. Water level elevations were higher and downward gradients steeper than in wells DC-1/DC-2. Well DC-6 was artesian, with a production rate of about 17 gpm, with 75% of this flow coming from the depth interval 3650 to 3800 ft. Pressure tests between 2200 and 4300 ft indicate artesian conditions in every zone. Water level elevations in the Grande Ronde basalts in DC-6 were higher than in the same zones in DC-1/DC-2. As in DC-1/DC-2, there appears to be a local heat minimum within 600 ft below the bottom of the Umtanum with higher heads at greater depth. The Gable Mountain anticline may be a flow barrier separating Cold Creek Valley from the Columbia River Valley to the north and east. Recharge to the deep basalts in Cold Creek Valley appears small, with drainage occurring to the southeast, parallel to the Cold Creek syncline. The lowest head elevation in DC-2 was 360 ft, which indicates that the deep flow systems in this area may be discharging to the Columbia River, probably at or below the Tri-Cities area. Presence of tritium in DC-2 at 20% of the Columbia …
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Apps, J.; Doe, T. & Doty, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

Description: This report contains three documents describing the progress made by the University of Illinois electromagnetic railgun program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of the United States Department of Energy during the period from July 16, 1990 to August 16, 1991. The first document contains a brief summary of the tasks initiated, continued, or completed, the status of major tasks, and the research effort distribution, estimated and actual, during the period. The second document contains a description of the work performed on time resolved laser interferometric density measurement of the railgun plasma-arc armature. The third document is an account of research on the spectroscopic measurement of the electron density and temperature of the railgun plasma arc.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Kim, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stress studies in EFG. Fourth quarterly progress report, April 1, 1983-June 30, 1983

Description: Stress distributions have been calculated for a creep law predicting a higher rate of plastic deformation than modeled in earlier studies. The expected reduction in stresses is obtained, although quantitative results are not yet available because of difficulties in obtaining convergent solutions. Improved schemes for calculating growth system temperature distributions are being evaluated in a new subtask started at MIT. Other work in temperature field modeling has examined the possibility of using horizontal temperature gradients to influence stress distributions in ribbon. The defect structure of 10 cm wide ribbon grown in the cartridge system has been examined. A new feature is identified from an examination of cross-sectional micrographs. It consists of high density dislocation bands extending through the ribbon thickness. A four-point bending apparatus has been constructed for high temperature (greater than or equal to 1000/sup 0/C) study of the creep response of silicon, and will be used to generate defects for comparison with as-grown defects in ribbon. Another subtask has been started in collaboration with the University of Illinois which will examine the feasibility of laser interferometric techniques for sheet residual stress distribution measurement. The mathematical formalism for calculating residual stress from changes in surface topology caused by an applied stress in a rectangular specimen has been developed, and the system for laser interferometric measurement to obtain surface topology data has been successfully tested on CZ silicon. Testing and calibration of different fiber optics temperature sensor configurations are underway.
Date: August 15, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Abstracts: NRC waste management program reports

Description: This document consists of abstracts of all reports published by the NRC Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Reports are arranged in numerical order, within each category.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Heckman, R.A. & Minichino, C. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles

Description: Electrons are heated at the minimum-B location(s) created by the multiple field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (i) providing mirror, (ii) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (iii) creating a modified bumpy torus.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Yoshikawa, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

Description: Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4/sup 0/K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Morris, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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