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Single particle behavior in plasmas

Description: The paper follows the history of a neutral atom or molecule into a plasma--ionization, dissociation, radiation,--until it becomes a set of charged particles moving in the electromagnetic fields of the plasma system. The various useful forms of the method of averaging are displayed and applied to calculation of constants of motion. The breakdown of these constants is discussed along with some of the implications for fusion systems.
Date: March 10, 1977
Creator: McNamara, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of a High Velocity Solid Particle Launcher for Laboratory Erosion Studies. [Reentry Vehicle Heat Shields]

Description: A solid particle launcher for laboratory erosion studies has been developed and successfully demonstrated. Performance of the launcher is predicted by a two-dimensional, time-dependent theoretical analysis to within the experimental uncertainty. The present device accelerates 100 μm diameter glass spheres to velocities of 2.1+/- 0.6 km/sec. The system is safe, reliable, and has a test repetition of about 2 shots/hour.
Date: March 1, 1975
Creator: Aeschliman, D. P.; Mulac, A. J.; Guzman, J. A.; Eaton, R. R. & Fox, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

Description: A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300/sup 0/C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Turner, P. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stress corrosion cracking of uranium--niobium alloys

Description: The stress corrosion cracking behavior of U-2/sup 1///sub 4/, 4/sup 1///sub 2/, 6 and 8 wt % Nb alloys was evaluated in laboratory air and in aqueous Cl/sup -/ solutions. Thresholds for crack propagation were obtained in these environments. The data showed that Cl/sup -/ solutions are more deleterious than air environments. Tests were also conducted in pure gases to identify the species in the air responsible for cracking. These data showed the primary stress corrodent is water vapor for the most reactive alloy, U-2/sup 1///sub 4/% Nb, while O/sub 2/ is primarily responsible for cracking in the more corrosion resistant alloys, U-6 and 8% Nb. The 4/sup 1///sub 2/% alloy was found to be susceptible in both H/sub 2/O and O/sub 2/ environments.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Magnani, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Compatibility testing of vitrified waste forms

Description: An experimental program to evaluate candidate metals for use in the fabrication of canisters for long-term storage of vitrified radioactive wastes is described. The long-term compatibility of the candidate metal both with the contained vitrified radioactive waste and with the external environments expected in possible final storage locations will be determined. These tests involve heating combinations of waste forms and canister metals in intimate contact for up to 50,000 hr to accelerate any reactions that occur.
Date: March 6, 1978
Creator: Rankin, W.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

Description: A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Ellison, R D & Creswick, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hot-ion distribution function in ORMAK, the Oak Ridge Tokamak

Description: A distortion of the Maxwellian ion-energy distribution function in tokamak-produced plasmas may be revealed in the spectral-line radiation. We report experimental evidence that (1) a change in the value of Z/sub eff/, (2) delayed gas injection, (3) neutral beam injection, and (4) liner cleaning procedures can alter the profile of the Balmer-..cap alpha.. (6563 A) line of hydrogen. The distortion is analyzed in terms of an effective toroidal-drift velocity, ion-temperature relation.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Neidigh, R.V. & Sigmar, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Estimates of the number of large amplitude gusts

Description: Preliminary estimates are presented of the number of occurrences of large amplitude gusts for use in the design of wind energy conversion systems. Existing turbulence information has been combined with an assumed wind speed distribution to arrive at the estimates. The number of large amplitude gusts per year is treated as a function of the annual mean wind speed and terrain roughness. This treatment is based upon the assumptions that the atmosphere has neutral stability during high winds and that the gustiness is induced by flow over surface roughness elements. Large gusts during thunderstorms and other severe weather phenomena are not treated. The results of the study are presented in tabular form as a function of gust amplitude and hourly average wind speed.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Ramsdell, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Only source of energy

Description: Various plants that might play a role in the energy mix of the future are discussed and illustrated. Included among them are the Euphorbias and Guayule. (JGB)
Date: March 22, 1978
Creator: Calvin, G. J. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Studies of nuclear-waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, November 1976--October 1977

Description: The confinement of nuclear wastes in geologic formations is being considered as a method of permanently disposing of the waste. Laboratory experiments (column infiltration, static absorption, and batch partitioning experiments) were performed with nuclides of Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns; Pu in limestone; Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff; and Np in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of each of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating that there was a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of each of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. The results of static absorption experiments indicate that Pu and Am are strongly absorbed from solution by the common rocks studied and that their migration relative to ground-water flow is thereby retarded. In addition, the reaction rates of dissolved nuclides with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Batch partitioning experiments were performed to test whether absorption processes are reversible. After granulated basalt and americium-bearing water were contacted in an absorption step, part of the water was replaced with water free of Am and the Am repartitioned between rock and solution. The distribution of Am after desorption was comparable to its distribution after absorption. In cntrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets. This suggests that reversible reactions of nuclides, between waters and rocks may be upset by treatments such as drying.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.G.; Fried, S.M.; Friedman, A.M. & Steindler, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and technology review

Description: A report is given on the accomplishments of the energy and environmental research and on the unclassified portion of the weapons program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the month of March, 1978. (PMA)
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Shay, H.D.; Crawford; Genin, M.S.; Prono, J.K. & Staehie, J.T. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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''Sensing'' the elliptical torus

Description: A method is given for testing the location of an arbitrary point P=(x,y,z) relative to the toroidal surface generated by rotation of an ellipse (y - y-bar)/sup 2//b/sup 2/ + (z - z-bar)/sup 2//c/sup 2/ = 1, b,c,z-bar > o, about the Y axis. This includes the orientation of P with respect to both the outer and inner surfaces fo the degenerate torus generated by an ellipse with c > z-bar. 2 figures.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Cashwell, E.D. & Everett, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Low strain diameter expansion of internally pressurized Zircaloy-4 tubing at high temperatures

Description: Tests of closed-end, internally pressurized, Zircaloy-4 tubing specimens were utilized to develop low strain creep characteristics as a function of time at temperatures in the range of 1475/sup 0/F to 2000/sup 0/F (802/sup 0/C to 1093/sup 0/C) and hoop stresses in the range of 250 to 2500 psi for use in loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) analyses. The strain rate above the start of the alpha to beta phase transformation region, approximately 1490/sup 0/F (810/sup 0/C), was found to be sensitive to the test procedure (stress-temperature history). This is believed to result from variations in the metallurgical structure. A prediction model is presented which provides a conservative upper bound to the low strain test data provided in this report and reported in the literature.
Date: March 1978
Creator: White, L.S. & Busby, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cross sections for the /sup 7/Li(n,xn) and /sup 7/Li(n,n'. gamma. ) reactions between 1 and 20 MeV

Description: Differential cross sections for the production of secondary neutrons and gamma rays from neutron interactions in /sup 7/Li have been measured at 50/sup 0/ and 126/sup 0/ (lab) for incident neutron energies in the range 1 to 20 MeV. An electron linac was used as a white neutron source. Incident neutron energies were determined using time-of-flight techniques for a source-to-sample distance of 48 m. Secondary spectra were determined by analysis of the pulse-height distributions observed in a NE-213 scintillation counter. The results are compared to the current evaluated data file (ENDF/B-IV, MAT 1272).
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Morgan, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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1975 energy conditions in the South

Description: This report depicts energy supply and demand conditions in the South in 1975 and highlights differences in production and utilization patterns relative to the United States (some of the consumption data is for 1974). Significant changes during the previous three years are noted to provide continuity with the predecessor report, Energy Conditions in the South: 1972. The most important changes are the substantial increase in nuclear generation of electricity, the absolute and relative decline in oil and gas production, and the increase in per capita energy consumption relative to the nation. Each state within the region is described in detail to ascertain important sub-regional differences in energy conditions. The intent is to provide a description rather than analysis of regional energy patterns, noting variations and emphasizing the comparative advantages of the South. Such a presentation can yield insight into the future role of the region in contributing to the economic growth and welfare of the nation as its natural resource base is depleted and the transition to alternative energy sources is made.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Rice, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Penn Grade Micellar Displacement project. First annual report, June 1975--June 1976

Description: The main objective of the Penn Grade-ERDA Micellar Displacement Project is to assess and hopefully, demonstrate the feasibility of commercial application of the micellar-polymer process for tertiary oil recovery from a rather large, but relatively ''tight'' section of the Bradford Third Sand. The initial phase of this project involves pertinent core and field injectivity measurements from a freshly drilled well, as a basis for assessing the feasibility of a small demonstration test flood to be performed under Phase II. This report details the work done and results obtained under Phase I (Injectivity Test) completed during the first year of the project. These results, having indicated that the pattern test envisaged under Phase II is indeed feasible, work is now in progress to carry the project to the pattern test phase, in pursuit of project goals.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Danielson, H. H.; Paynter, W. T.; Midkiff, F. R. & Finalle, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Impact of increased coal consumption in the Pacific Northwest

Description: The objectives of the National Coal Utilization Assessment are: Identification of the environmental, health and socioeconomic impacts to be expected from the increased use of coal; investigation of mitigation strategies that might be used to manage these impacts; and establishment of working relationships with state and regional agencies and utilities. A number of energy issues were identified in the course of the study. Probably the most significant issues in this region are the siting of coal-fired power plants and the tradeoff in water allocation between energy and agriculture. Choices of coal-fired generation sites and water use determine the level of impacts to air, water, land, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and human health and socioeconomics. Air quality impacts were studied by incorporating current and projected emission inventories into both short-range and long-range air quality diffusion models. Results indicate that annual average ambient air quality standards will not be exceeded at any of the sites. Surface water supplies are more than adequate to meet the needs of new coal-fired generating plants located in the Columbia or Snake River; however, future conflicts could arise with agriculture over allocation of water rights. Water quality impacts would be minimal, even in the delicate estuarine and coastal sites, under the assumed control and cooling designs. Terrestrial ecosystems do not appear to be threatened as long as specific sites are selected to avoid identified areas of ''critical'' habitat. Impacts on aquatic biota and habitats seem manageable as long as existing regulations are met. Several rare or endangered species are identified. A computer model was used to facilitate the analysis of socioeconomic impacts to be expected from the addition of coal-fired generating capacity at the candidate sites. A number of issues which are still largely unresolved and deserve further attention are mentioned.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Burnham, J.B. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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