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3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

Description: Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: EHGARTNER, BRIAN L. & SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Additional Steam Traps Increase Production of a Drum Oven at a Petroleum Jelly Plant

Description: Additional steam traps were installed on the drum oven at a petroleum jelly production facility at an ExxonMobil plant in Nigeria. The installation improved heat transfer and saved energy.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on San Juan Basin Coal

Description: The major objectives of this project were to (a) measure the adsorption behavior of pure methane, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and their binary and ternary mixtures on wet Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia; (b) correlate the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data using the extended Langmuir model, the Langmuir model, the loading ratio correlation and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson equation of state; and (c) establish sorption-time estimates for the pure components. Specific accomplishments are summarized below regarding the complementary tasks involving experimental work and data correlation. Representative coal samples from BP Amoco Tiffany Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 were prepared, as requested. The equilibrium moisture content and particle size distribution of each coal sample were determined. Compositional coal analyses for both samples were performed by Huffman Laboratories, Inc. Pure gas adsorption for methane on wet Tiffany coal samples from Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 was measured separately at 130 F (327.6 K) and pressures to 2000 psia (13.7 MPa). The average expected uncertainty in these data is about 3% (9 SCF/ton). Our measurements indicate that the adsorption isotherms of the two coal samples exhibit similar Langmuir-type behavior. For the samples from the two wells, a maximum variation of about 5% in the amount adsorbed is observed at 2000 psia. Gas adsorption isotherms were measured for pure methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} on a wet, mixed Tiffany coal sample. The coal sample was an equal-mass mixture of coals from Well No.1 and Well No.10. The adsorption measurements were conducted at 130 F at pressures to 2000 psia. The adsorption isotherms have average expected experimental uncertainties of 3% (9 SCF/ton), 6% (8 SCF/ton), and 7% (62 SCF/ton) for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorption isotherms were measured for methane/nitrogen, methane/CO{sub 2} and nitrogen/CO{sub 2} binary mixtures on wet, mixed Tiffany coal …
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Gasem, K. A. M.; Robinson, R. L. & Reeves, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

Description: The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these technologies and the corresponding early adopters are …
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Ali, Sy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Agricultural Conservation: Survey of USDA State Technical Committee Members

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report presents the views of members of state technical committees on (1) the effectiveness of USDA's conservation efforts in addressing environmental concerns related to agriculture, (2) any program elements that hinder the achievement of related environmental objectives, and (3) any program characteristics that current or new programs might include to better meet these objectives. GAO summarizes the responses of the state technical committee members and stratifies them by geographic region and organization."
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air tightness of new houses in the U.S.: A preliminary report

Description: Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Sherman, Max H. & Matson, Nance E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Alternative Liquid Fuel Effects on Cooled Silicon Nitride Marine Gas Turbine Airfoils

Description: With prior support from the Office of Naval Research, DARPA, and U.S. Department of Energy, United Technologies is developing and engine environment testing what we believe to be the first internally cooled silicon nitride ceramic turbine vane in the United States. The vanes are being developed for the FT8, an aeroderivative stationary/marine gas turbine. The current effort resulted in further manufacturing and development and prototyping by two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers, preliminary development of both alumina, and YTRIA based environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) and testing or ceramic vanes with an EBC coating.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Holowczak, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analyzing Two Federal Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Projects Using ENERGY-10 Simulations: Preprint

Description: A new version of the ENERGY-10 computer program simulates the performance of photovoltaic systems, in addition to presenting a wide range of opportunities to improve energy efficiency in buildings. This paper describes two test cases in which the beta release of ENERGY-10 version 1.4 was used to evaluate energy efficiency and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) for two Federal building projects: an office and laboratory building at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Laboratory in Hilo, Hawaii, and housing for visiting scientists at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland. The paper describes the capabilities of the software, the method in which ENERGY-10 was used to assist in the design, and the results. ENERGY-10 appears to be an effective tool for evaluating BIPV options early in the building design process. By simulating both the building electrical load and simultaneous PV performance for each hour of the year, the ENERGY-10 program facilitates a highly accurate, integrated analysis.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Walker, A.; Balcomb, D.; Weaver, N.; Kiss, G. & Becker-Humphry, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Anchor Glass Container Corporation Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Electricity and Expenditures:Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Glass Assessment Case Study

Description: Plant-wide energy assessments at the Anchor Glass Warner Robins and Jacksonville plants revealed opportunities that could result in significant annual energy savings.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Angle Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of 2-methyl-4-nitroanaline Thin Films

Description: Angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) was performed on thin films of 2-methyl-4-nitroanaline (MNA) vapor deposited onto a Si(001) substrate. The relative concentrations of the different components observed in the MNA film at takeoff angles of 30 and 90 degrees was determined. This allows an estimation of the layer composition and thickness as well as depth of all layers within a region of several electron escape depths from the surface [1]. The results obtained are compared to layer thicknesses from ellipsometric measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Gillman, Edward S.; Seo, Kang & Wang, Liqun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Stock Assessment, 2000 Annual Report.

Description: This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Annual Stock Assessment - Coded Wire Tag Program (ODFW) Project. Tule stock fall chinook were caught primarily in British Columbia and Washington ocean, and Columbia Basin fisheries. Up-river bright stock fall chinook contributed primarily to Alaska and British Columbia ocean commercial, Columbia Basin gillnet and freshwater sport fisheries. Contribution of Rogue stock fall chinook released in the lower Columbia River occurred primarily in Oregon ocean commercial, Columbia Basin gillnet and freshwater sport fisheries. Willamette stock spring chinook contributed primarily to Alaska and British Columbia ocean, and Columbia Basin sport fisheries. Willamette stock spring chinook released by CEDC contributed to similar ocean fisheries, but had much higher catch in Columbia Basin gillnet fisheries than the same stocks released in the Willamette Basin. Up-river stocks of spring chinook contributed almost exclusively to Columbia Basin fisheries. The up-river stocks of Columbia River summer steelhead contributed almost exclusively to the Columbia Basin gillnet and freshwater sport fisheries. Coho ocean fisheries from Washington to California were closed or very limited from 1994 through 1999 (1991 through 1996 broods). This has resulted in a lower percent of catch in Washington, Oregon and California ocean fisheries, and a higher percent of catch in Alaska and British Columbia ocean and Columbia Basin freshwater fisheries. Coho stocks released by ODFW below Bonneville Dam were caught mainly in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia ocean, Columbia Gillnet and freshwater sport fisheries. Coho stocks released in the Klaskanine River and Youngs Bay area had similar ocean catch distributions, but a much higher percent catch in gillnet fisheries than the other coho releases. Ocean catch distribution of coho stocks released above Bonneville Dam was similar to the …
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Lewis, Mark; Mallette, Christine & Murray, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Stock Assessment, 2001 Annual Report.

Description: This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife project 'Annual Stock Assessment - Coded Wire Tag Program (ODFW)'. Results for the 2001 contract period: Objective 1--Over 1 million juvenile salmon were coded-wire by this program (Table 1); Objective 2--ODFW recovered and processed over 40,000 snout collected from coded-wire tagged fish (Table 2); Objective 3--Survival data is summarized below; Objective 4--The last group of VIE tagged coho was released in 2001 and returning coho were samples at Sandy Hatchery. This sampling showed only 1 of 1,160 returning coho VIE marked as juveniles retained the VIE mark as adults.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Lewis, Mark; Mallette, Christine & Murray, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Meeting of the Texas Society, Sons of the American Revolution, 2002

Description: Program for the 107th annual meeting of the Texas Society Sons of the American Revolution, held from March 8 through the 12, 2002 at the Shertaon Tyler Hotel, 5701 S. Broadway, in Tyler, Texas, including a list of sessions for the meeting and related information about the organization and conference. The meeting was hosted by The William Barron Chapter, and was called to order by President Nathan E. White, Jr., in the Constellation Ballrooms of the Hotel.
Date: March 2002
Creator: Sons of the American Revolution. Texas Society.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
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Appleton Papers Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Forest Products Assessment Case Study

Description: Plant-wide energy survey at the Appleton Papers, Inc. West Carrollton paper mill resulted in 21 recommendations for projects to reduce energy consumption and waste production and improve process efficiency.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996--July 1998

Description: A 6-megawatt, 11 turbine wind power development was constructed by Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, southern Vermont, in 1996. To determine whether birds were impacted, a series of modified BA (Before, After) studies was conducted before construction (1993-1996), during (1996), and after (1997) construction on the project site. The studies were designed to monitor changes in breeding bird community (species composition and abundance) on the site, examine the behavior and numbers of songbirds migrating at night over the site and hawks migrating over the site in daylight, and search for carcasses of birds that might have collided with the turbines.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Kerlinger, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

Description: This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of August 2001 through January of 2002. The major activity during this project period was the continuation of the ambient monitoring effort. Work also progressed on organizing the upcoming source characterization effort, and there was continued development of several three-dimensional air quality models. The first PAQS data analysis workshop for the project was held at Carnegie Mellon in December 2001. Two new instruments were added to site during this project period: a single particle mass spectrometer and an in situ VOC instrument. The single particle mass spectrometer has been deployed since the middle of September and has collected more than 150 days of data. The VOC instrument was only deployed during the intensive sampling period. Several instruments experienced operational issues during this project period. The overall data recovery rate for the project has been high.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Robinson, Allen L.; Pandis, Spyros N. & Davidson, Cliff I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

Description: Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu & O'Keefe, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

Description: To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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