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527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230

Description: On July 1, 2000, President Clinton signed H.R. 4762, P.L. 106-230. The law amended the Internal Revenue Code [IRC] to require political organizations described in IRC § 527 to disclose their political activities, if they were not already required to do so by the Federal Election Campaign Act [FECA]. This report summarizes the three major changes made by the law and some of the major responses to the legislation. First, all 527 organizations which expect to have over $25,000 in gross receipts during a taxable year and which are not required to report to the Federal Election Commission [FEC] are required to register with the IRS within 24 hours of their formation, whether they are involved in state, local, or federal elections. Second, 527 issue advocacy organizations, which previously reported neither to the IRS nor the FEC, are required to file regular disclosure statements with the IRS. Third, all 527 organizations with gross receipts in excess of $25,000 per year are required to file annual reports with the IRS. The registration statements, disclosure forms, and annual reports will be made public. H.R. 527 and S. 527 in the 107th Congress would exempt most state and local 527 organizations from the requirements of P.L. 106-230.
Date: March 19, 2001
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference Summary of Technology and Power Plans

Description: There were 90 papers presented at the Conference in the category of Technology and Power Plants accounting for about 25% of the total number of contributions. As was the case at the previous meeting, a large number of papers dealt with the ITER-Engineering Design Activity (EDA) and ITER technology R&D. In the author's opinion, the rapid progress made during the ITER EDA extension on the completion of the new ITER-FEAT design and its physics and technology R&D validation stands out as the highlight of the meeting. Steady progress is being made on several other technology fronts as well. The results point towards emerging research trends in the following areas: steady-state operation with advanced performance and the increasingly important role of enabling technologies in achieving this goal, advanced, high-performance, environmentally attractive materials for the fusion energy goal, reactor and near-term applications studies that exploit advances both in the physics and technology fronts for lower cost of electricity and improved safety and environmental features, and socioeconomic studies that are helping to promote the attractive features of fusion and its public acceptance. The remaining sections of this paper are organized along the lines of these major themes; namely, ITER EDA Design, ITER Technology R&D, Progress Towards Advanced Performance and Steady State, Compact Cu Burning Plasma Experiments and Neutron Sources, Advanced Materials Research, Power Plant Design and Economic Forecasts, and Conclusions.
Date: March 9, 2001
Creator: Milora, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ab initio Calculation of Thermodynamic Data for Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Fuels and Radial Breakdown Species: R(OMe)n

Description: There has long been interest in the use of oxygenated hydrocarbon additives to conventional fuels. These oxygenates have been shown to reduce soot emissions in diesel engines and CO emissions in spark-ignition engines; and often allow diesel operation with decreased NO{sub x}. The current widely used additive, MTBE is targeted for elimination as a gasoline additive due to its damaging effects on the environment. This creates a need for alternative oxygenated additives; and more importantly, amplifies the importance to fully understand the thermochemical and kinetic properties on these oxyhydrocarbons fuels and for their intermediate and radical breakdown products. We use CBS-Q and density-functional methods with isodesmic reactions (with group balance when possible) to compute thermodynamic quantities for these species. We have studied hydrocarbons with multiple substituted methoxy groups. In several cases, multioxygenated species are evaluated that may have potential use as new oxygenated fuel additives. Thermodynamic quantities (H{sub 298}{sup 0}, S{sub 298}{sup 0}, C{sub p}(T)) as well as group additivity contributions for the new oxygenated groups are reported. We also report trends in bond-energies with increasing methoxy substitution.
Date: March 23, 2001
Creator: Kubota, A; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Bozzelli, J & Glaude, P-A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ab-Initio No-Core Shell Model

Description: We discuss the no-core shell model approach, an ab initio method with effective Hamiltonians derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials as a function of the finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis space. We present results for three and four nucleon systems in model spaces that include up to 50{Dirac_h}{Omega} and 18{bar h}{Omega} HO excitations, respectively. For these light systems we are in agreement with results obtained by other exact methods. Also, we calculate the properties of {sup 6}Li and {sup 6}He in model spaces up to 10{Dirac_h}{Omega}, and of {sup 12}C for model spaces up to 6{Dirac_h}{Omega}.
Date: March 2, 2001
Creator: Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P & Ormand, W E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Absorption of Bound States in Hot, Dense Matter

Description: Preliminary experiments using a long pulse laser generated X-ray source to back-light a short pulse laser heated thin foil have been performed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) at Ecole Polytechnique in France. In this experiment, a 2 J, 300 ps, 532 nm laser was used to create the X-ray back-lighter. The primary diagnostic was a von Hamos spectrograph coupled to a 500 fs X-ray streak camera (TREX-VHS) developed at LLNL. This diagnostic combines high collection efficiency ({approx} 10{sup -4} steradians) with fast temporal response ({approx} 500 fs), allowing resolution of extremely transient spectral variations. The TREX-VHS was used to determine the time history, intensity, and spectral content of the back-lighter. The second diagnostic, Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI), provides information about the position of the critical density of the target and thus the expansion hydrodynamics, laying the ground work for the plasma characterization. The plasmas were determined to be moderately to strongly coupled, resulting in absorption measurements that provide insight into bound states under such conditions.
Date: March 6, 2001
Creator: Shepherd, R.; Audebert, P.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Geindre, J. P.; Fajardo, M.; Iglesias, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency in the legislative branch. GAO provides Congress with the best information available to help members make informed oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO meets Congress' information needs by (1) evaluating how government programs and policies are working, (2) auditing agency operations to determine whether federal funds are being spent efficiently and effectively, (3) investigating allegations of illegal and improper activities, and (4) issuing legal decisions and opinions. Most GAO work is done at the request of committees or members, but some reports are self-initiated or done in response to congressional mandates included in public laws or committee reports. GAO's annual index is a two-volume set. The first volume--Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000--contains summaries of 878 publicly released reports and testimony listed alphabetically by division or staff office. Classified reports, correspondence, and legal publications are not included. The second volume--Indexes for Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000--contains several indexes to help you locate reports and testimony by issue category, subject matter, title, or GAO witness. The annual index is also available in electronic format on GAO's website (www.gao.gov)."
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

Description: This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of objects that could not be analyzed readily by conventional methods demonstrates a powerful application of the instrument. In conclusion, a comparison of costs associated with the analysis on …
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C. & MILIAN,L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accessing the Inaccessible: The Case for Opening up Russia's Closed Cities

Description: The selling of weapons-related nuclear knowledge by Russian scientists for economic gain constitutes a threat to US national security. Some estimate that the number of Russian scientists seeking permanent employment abroad constitute five to ten percent of all researchers who have left the field of science. And, there is concern that those who have left are ''the better minds.'' Moreover, the issue of brain drain concerns not only those who move abroad permanently, but those who still reside in Russia and travel abroad to sell their knowledge. Of particular concern to the US is the potential sale of WMD knowledge by some. To ''mitigate the risk that economic difficulties...might create the temptation for individuals or institutes to sell expertise to countries of proliferation concern and terrorist organizations,'' the Department of Energy launched a Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI) in 1998 with the goal of creating commercial jobs and economic diversification in the ten closed cities that form the core of Russia's nuclear weapons complex to accommodate the loss of employment in the nuclear weapons industry. However, unless Russia opens access to the areas of its closed cities that are, or could become, involved in commercial activities-while of course carefully controlling access to the sensitive areas of the institutes and laboratories-economic development will be stymied.
Date: March 21, 2001
Creator: Ball, D Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Across-the-Board Tax Cuts: Economic Issues

Description: This report examines economic issues relating to across-the-board tax cuts, focusing primarily on distributional issues. The report is divided into four sections. The first section provides a general overview of the tax system. The next discusses recent proposals relating to across-the-board tax cuts. The third section discusses methods of evaluating alternative types of across-the-board tax cuts. The final section briefly discusses issues of efficiency, simplicity, and stabilization policy.
Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Activation of the Mercury Laser: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Driver for Inertial Fusion

Description: Initial measurements are reported for the Mercury laser system, a scalable driver for rep-rated high energy density physics research. The performance goals include 10% electrical efficiency at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length. This laser is an angularly multiplexed 4-pass gas-cooled amplifier system based on image relaying to minimize wavefront distortion and optical damage risk at the 10 Hz operating point. The efficiency requirements are fulfilled using diode laser pumping of ytterbium doped strontium fluorapatite crystals.
Date: March 7, 2001
Creator: Bayramian, A. J.; Bibeau, C.; Beach, R. J.; Chanteloup, J. C.; Ebbers, C. A.; Kanz, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Active Control of Magnetically Levitated Bearings

Description: This report summarizes experimental and test results from a two year LDRD project entitled Real Time Error Correction Using Electromagnetic Bearing Spindles. This project was designed to explore various control schemes for levitating magnetic bearings with the goal of obtaining high precision location of the spindle and exceptionally high rotational speeds. As part of this work, several adaptive control schemes were devised, analyzed, and implemented on an experimental magnetic bearing system. Measured results, which indicated precision positional control of the spindle was possible, agreed reasonably well with simulations. Testing also indicated that the magnetic bearing systems were capable of very high rotational speeds but were still not immune to traditional structural dynamic limitations caused by spindle flexibility effects.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: BARNEY, PATRICK S.; LAUFFER, JAMES P.; REDMOND, JAMES M. & SULLIVAN, WILLIAM N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Adaptive Management Plan for Sensitive Plant Species on the Nevada Test Site

Description: The Nevada Test Site supports numerous plant species considered sensitive because of their past or present status under the Endangered Species Act and with federal and state agencies. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office (DOE/NV) prepared a Resource Management Plan which commits to protects and conserve these sensitive plant species and to minimize accumulative impacts to them. This document presents the procedures of a long-term adaptive management plan which is meant to ensure that these goals are met. It identifies the parameters that are measured for all sensitive plant populations during long-term monitoring and the adaptive management actions which may be taken if significant threats to these populations are detected. This plan does not, however, identify the current list of sensitive plant species know to occur on the Nevada Test Site. The current species list and progress on their monitoring is reported annually by DOE/NV in the Resource Management Plan.
Date: March 2001
Creator: Wills, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

Description: While interferometry is routinely used for the characterization and alignment of lithographic optics, the ultimate performance metric for these optics is printing in photoresist. Direct comparison of imaging and wavefront performance is also useful for verifying and improving the predictive power of wavefront metrology under actual printing conditions. To address these issues, static, small-field printing capabilities are being added to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) implemented at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This Sub-field Exposure Station (SES) will enable the earliest possible imaging characterization of the upcoming Engineering Test Stand (ETS) Set-2 projection optics. Relevant printing studies with the ETS projection optics require illumination partial coherence with {sigma} of approximately 0.7. This {sigma} value is very different from the coherent illumination requirements of the EUV PS/PDI and the coherence properties naturally provided by synchrotron undulator beamline illumination. Adding printing capabilities to the PS/PDI experimental system thus necessitates the development of an alternative illumination system capable of destroying the inherent coherence of the beamline. The SES is being implemented with two independent illuminators: the first is based on a novel EUV diffuser currently under development and the second is based on a scanning mirror design. Here we describe the design and implementation of the new SES, including a discussion of the illuminators and the fabrication of the EUV diffuser.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.; Batson, Phillip; Denham, Paul; Jackson, Keith et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

Description: The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.
Date: March 31, 2001
Creator: Farthing, G. A.; Amrhein, G. T.; Kudlac, G. A.; Yurchison, D. A.; McDonald, D. K. & Milobowski, M. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Experimental Analysis of Controls on Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction - Final Report - 09/16/1996 - 03/16/2001

Description: Considering the broad influence that microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction can have on subsurface metal/organic contaminant biogeochemistry, understanding the mechanisms that control this process is critical for predicting the behavior and fate of these contaminants in anaerobic subsurface environments. Knowledge of the factors that influence the rates of growth and activity of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria is critical for predicting (i.e., modeling) the long-term influence of these organisms on the fate of contaminants in the subsurface, and for effectively utilizing Fe(III) oxide reduction and associated geochemical affects for the purpose of subsurface metal/organic contamination bioremediation. This research project will refine existing models for microbiological and geochemical controls on Fe(III) oxide reduction, using laboratory reactor systems that mimic, to varying degrees, the physical and chemical conditions of the subsurface. Novel experimental methods for studying the kinetics of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and measuring growth rates of Fe(III) oxide-reducing bacteria will be developed. These new methodologies will be directly applicable to studies on subsurface contaminant transformations directly coupled to or influenced by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction.
Date: March 16, 2001
Creator: Roden, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Technology Vehicle Program of the Maryland Department of Transportation and Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments

Description: A multi-year Clean Alternative program is designed to integrate low-emission advanced technology vehicles into high mileage/high-fuel-use public and private fleets, which are major contributors to high pollution levels. The primary goal of the program is reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from on-road vehicles in the Maryland counties surrounding Washington, DC. The program is targeted at fleets operating in Calvert, Charles, Frederick, Montgomery and Prince George's counties. Eligible types of vehicle applications include taxicabs, shuttles, buses, and delivery vans and trucks. Other types may qualify if they meet certain annual fuel-use or mileage criteria. Minimum requirements have been established for participating companies, including size of fleet and age of firm. The first vehicles under this program were placed in service in 1999. The Clean Alternative provides financial incentives to selected qualified firms that purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles or heavy-duty engines that have been certified to Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emission levels or lower. This program is intended to be flexible and to evolve over time. For instance, in coming years the standards for acceptable emission levels may be tightened. The level of financial incentive will be determined on a case-by-case basis and other types of incentives may be provided in some cases. The range of counties included may be extended in the future or criteria for participation changed to help meet the air quality goals of the region.
Date: March 31, 2001
Creator: Freudberg, Stuart A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Worker Protection System: Final Report

Description: From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety …
Date: March 16, 2001
Creator: Hedgehock, Judson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

Description: Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Marchetti, F; Sloter, E & Wyrobek, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agent Concept for Intelligent Distributed Coordination in the Electric Power Grid

Description: Intelligent agents and multi-agent systems promise to take information management for real-time control of the power grid to a new level. This report presents our concept for intelligent agents to mediate and coordinate communications between Control Areas and Security Coordinators for real-time control of the power grid. An appendix describes the organizations and publications that deal with agent technologies.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: SMATHERS, DOUGLAS C. & GOLDSMITH, STEVEN Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aging in large CDF tracking chambers

Description: The experience of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) with aging in the large axial drift chamber responsible for tracking in the central region is presented. Premature aging in the Run 1 chamber was observed after only 0.02 C/cm. After cleaning much of the gas system and making modifications to reduce aerosols from the alcohol bubbler, the observed aging rate fell dramatically in test chambers. Considerable effort has been made to better understand the factors that affect aging since the replacement chamber for Run 2 will accumulate about 1.0 C/cm. Current test chambers using the full CDF gas system show aging rates of less than 5%/C/cm.
Date: March 19, 2001
Creator: al., M. Binkley et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agricultural Trade: Impacts of the Andean Trade Preference Act on Asparagus Producers and Consumers

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "U.S. asparagus imports increased in the 1990s and now comprise nearly one-half of the asparagus consumed in the United States. Peru is the second largest source of imported asparagus and benefits from duty-free treatment under the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA). ATPA is estimated to have displaced between two and eight percent of the value of domestic production from what it would have been without the act. Although the supply of fresh asparagus from imports has increased since ATPA's enactment, consumer demand has been strong, and prices have risen. In addition, an apparent increase in consumer preference for fresh asparagus has contributed to a downward shift in the domestic demand for processed asparagus. Most of the decline in the domestic production of processed asparagus occurred in Michigan and Washington, the two states that produce most canned and frozen asparagus. If ATPA is reauthorized, domestic producers of asparagus and, in particular, asparagus for processing, will likely face continued displacement, but consumers can expect continued benefits from the year-round availability of fresh asparagus. However, some of this displacement will likely occur even if ATPA is not reauthorized and the normal tariff is imposed. If ATPA is not reauthorized, consumers would likely have decreased availability and pay higher prices to the extent that tariff increases reduce Peruvian asparagus imports and hence total asparagus supplies. Domestic industries can petition the U.S. International Trade Commission to investigate whether increased imports under the ATPA have caused them serious injury or threat of serious injury. If the Commission finds serious injury, it may recommend relief options to the President, including suspending duty-free treatment for imports."
Date: March 15, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agriculture and China's Accession to the World Trade Organization

Description: The prospect of future growth in demand for agricultural products makes China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) an important issue for the U.S. agricultural sector. Most agricultural interest groups strongly support China’s entry into the WTO, because they think it will increase U.S. agricultural exports and enhance farm income. In the 107th Congress, attention is focused on China’s final WTO accession negotiations where differences over agriculture have become an issue.
Date: March 13, 2001
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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