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Development of a High Velocity Solid Particle Launcher for Laboratory Erosion Studies. [Reentry Vehicle Heat Shields]

Description: A solid particle launcher for laboratory erosion studies has been developed and successfully demonstrated. Performance of the launcher is predicted by a two-dimensional, time-dependent theoretical analysis to within the experimental uncertainty. The present device accelerates 100 μm diameter glass spheres to velocities of 2.1+/- 0.6 km/sec. The system is safe, reliable, and has a test repetition of about 2 shots/hour.
Date: March 1, 1975
Creator: Aeschliman, D. P.; Mulac, A. J.; Guzman, J. A.; Eaton, R. R. & Fox, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Retrospective examination of geothermal environmental assessments

Description: Since 1976, the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a variety of programs and projects dealing with the exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal energy. This report presents an overview of the environmental impacts associated with these efforts. Impacts that were predicted in the environmental analyses prepared for the programs and projects are reviewed and summarized, along with measures that were recommended to mitigate these impacts. Also, for those projects that have gone forward, actual impacts and implemented mitigation measures are reported, based on telephone interviews with DOE and project personnel. An accident involving spills of geothermal fluids was the major environmental concern associated with geothermal development. Other important considerations included noise from drilling and production, emissions of H/sub 2/S and cooling tower drift, disposal of solid waste (e.g., from H/sub 2/S control), and the cumulative effects of geothermal development on land use and ecosystems. Mitigation measures were frequently recommended and implemented in conjunction with noise reduction; drift elimination; reduction of fugitive dust, erosion, and sedimentation; blowout prevention; and retention of wastes and spills. Monitoring to resolve uncertainties was often implemented to detect induced seismicity and subsidence, noise, drift deposition, concentrations of air and water pollutants, and effects on groundwater. The document contains an appendix, based on these findings, which outlines major environmental concerns, mitigation measures, and monitoring requirements associated with geothermal energy. Sources of information on various potential impacts are also listed.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Webb, J. W.; Eddlemon, G. K. & Reed, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

Description: A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300/sup 0/C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Turner, P. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stress corrosion cracking of uranium--niobium alloys

Description: The stress corrosion cracking behavior of U-2/sup 1///sub 4/, 4/sup 1///sub 2/, 6 and 8 wt % Nb alloys was evaluated in laboratory air and in aqueous Cl/sup -/ solutions. Thresholds for crack propagation were obtained in these environments. The data showed that Cl/sup -/ solutions are more deleterious than air environments. Tests were also conducted in pure gases to identify the species in the air responsible for cracking. These data showed the primary stress corrodent is water vapor for the most reactive alloy, U-2/sup 1///sub 4/% Nb, while O/sub 2/ is primarily responsible for cracking in the more corrosion resistant alloys, U-6 and 8% Nb. The 4/sup 1///sub 2/% alloy was found to be susceptible in both H/sub 2/O and O/sub 2/ environments.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Magnani, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Murakami density limit in tokamaks and reversed-field pinches

Description: A theoretical upper limit for the density in an ohmically heated tokamak discharge follows from the requirement that the ohmic heating power deposited in the central current-carrying channel exceed the impurity radiative cooling in this critical region. A compact summary of our results gives this limit n/sub M/ for the central density as n/sub M/ = (Z/sub e//(Z/sub e/-1)/sup 1/2/n/sub eo/ (B/sub T//1T)(1m/R) where n/sub eo/ depends strongly on the impurity species and is remarkably independent of the central electron temperature T/sub e/(0). For T/sub e/(0) approx. 1 keV, we have n/sub eo/ = 1.5 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ for beryllium, n/sub eo/ = 5 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ for oxygen, n/sub eo/ = 1.0 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ for iron, and n/sub eo/ = 0.5 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ for tungsten. The results agree quantitatively with Murakami's original observations. A similar density limit, known as the I/N limit, exists for reversed-field pinch devices and this limit has also been evaluated for a variety of impurity species.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Perkins, F.W. & Hulse, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

Description: The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Davey, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SPXCPL: two-dimensional modeling program of self-potential effects from cross-coupled fluid and heat flow (User's Guide and documentation for Version 1. 0)

Description: The program is applicable to the calculation of self-potential effects due to fluid flow (electrokinetic effects) and heat flow (thermoelectric effects). The geological structure is two dimensional but the sources can be either finite line sources or point sources. The accuracy of the calculated potentials depends on the model discretization and the distance from the source(s). For the default mesh, the accuracy is usually a few percent at a distance of about one unit from the source. Surface boundary conditions for the primary problem require careful consideration as the form of the flow near the air-earth interface can have a profound effect on the resultant electric potentials. For temperature problems the appropriate boundary condition is a constant temperature, which is taken as zero. With this boundary condition there is a normal flux of heat at the surface and there will be induced electrical sources here, if the surface medium has a nonzero coupling coefficient. In the models, zero temperature at the surface is produced by giving the air a very large thermal conductivity.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Sill, W. R. & Killpack, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

Description: A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Floyd, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Second Nuclear Era

Description: The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Weinberg, Alvin M.; Spiewak, Irving; Barkenbus, Jack N.; Livingston, Robert S. & Phung, Doan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Characterization of solids in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor defueling water: Addendum

Description: Shortly after ORNL/TM-10362 was issued, it was discovered that a series of 31 figures had been inadvertently omitted. These figures, which consist of scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence scans, provide significant information about the results obtained in the tests performed with water sample W3. This Addendum includes these figures. Details of and comments on the SEM photographs may be found in ORNL/TM-10362.
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Campbell, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of the risk of transporting liquid chlorine by rail

Description: This report presents the risk of shipping liquid chlorine by rail. While chlorine is not an energy material, there are several benefits to studying chlorine transportation risks. First, chlorine, like energy materials, is widely used as a feedstock to industry. Second, it is the major purification agent in municipal water treatment systems and therefore, provides direct benefits to the public. Finally, other risk assessments have been completed for liquid chlorine shipments in the US and Europe, which provide a basis for comparison with this study. None of the previous PNL energy material risk assessments have had other studies for comparison. For these reasons, it was felt that a risk assessment of chlorine transportation by rail could provide information on chlorine risk levels, identify ways to reduce these risks and use previous studies on chlorine risks to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the PNL risk assessment methodology. The risk assessment methodology used in this study is summarized. The methodology is presented in the form of a risk assessment model which is constructed for ease of periodic updating of the data base so that the risk may be reevaluated as additional data become available. The report is sectioned to correspond to specific analysis steps identified in the model. The transport system and accident environment are described. The response of the transport system to accident environments is described. Release sequences are postulated and evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a direct comparison with other reports in this series.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Andrews, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts

Description: Review and analysis of the literature data on electron transfer itself and electron transfer oxidation of alkyl radicals was done in order to understand the mechanism by which methyl radical can be oxidized to CH{sub 3}{sup +} and further substituted by OH{sup {minus}} to form methanol. This allowed to compare and classify the various possible reaction patterns, understand the mechanism and circumstances of operation of each of them and select those which can be involved in oxidation of methyl radical. As a result an approach that is complementary to catalytic test studies was proposed. It consists of investigation of a set of partial reactions which reproduce a whole catalytic cycle in order to prove the reaction mechanism. Synthesis of new oxide catalysts of the delafossite type, containing concentrated double redox sites, were designed. Synthesis of hydrozincite as a starting material for the preparation of doubly doped zinc oxide was performed.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G. & Sojka, Zvigniew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

Description: A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Ellison, R D & Creswick, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Institutional and Financial Guide to Geothermal District Heating. Serial No. 2

Description: General planning considerations which affect nearly every community are reviewed, and alternative operating structures which are available to communities are reviewed, including local governments, nonprofit cooperatives, private enterprises, and joint ventures. The financing options available to publicly-owned and privately-owned district heating systems are then summarized. The geothermal production and distribution activities most appropriate to each type of operating structure are reviewed, along with typical equity and debt funding sources. The tax advantages for private developers are described, as are the issures of customer contracts and service prices, and customer retrofit financing. The treatment is limited to an introductory overview. (LEW)
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Microwave longitudinal coupling impedance in ISABELLE vacuum chamber

Description: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the modes above the cutoff frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber, and to measure some typical values of the longitudinal coupling impedance. (The investigation was limited to only those modes that have fields in the beam pipe.) Measurements show that the impedance, Z, between 2.6 and 2.8 GHz, can be as high as 10 x n ohms, where n is the ratio of the excitation frequency of the beam divided by the fundamental rotational frequency of the ISABELLE ring. Future work calls for an investigation of the coupling impedance above 2.8 GHz; preliminary work indicates that these impedances Z/n, can be considerably higher than 10 ohms.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Giordano, S. & Votruba, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The demand-side management program development process: A utility perspective

Description: This report describes an aspect of DSM that has received little attention, namely, how utilities develop DSM programs. The selection of utilities to study purposely was biased in favor of those with reputations for being experienced DSM program developers so as to optimize the chances to obtain detailed information. The DSM planning process is affected by organizational factors and external influences: (1) the location of the demand-side planning department within the utility; (2) the demand-side planning group's functional responsibilities; (3) upper management participation in the DSM program development process; and (4) the organizational relationship between (or, separation of) supply-side and demand-side planning. Organizational factors reflect utilities' views of DSM programs and thus can affect the adoption of a technology- or customer-oriented approach. Despite repeated claims of the uniqueness of the demand- side planning process and its resistance to standardization, two general approaches to program development were discerned, namely technology- or customer-orientation. Although utilities consider customer related and technological factors in their DSM program development process, utilities can be differentiated by their emphasis on one or the other approach. 25 refs.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Wolfe, A.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) & Yourstone, N.E. (Yourstone (Evelin), Albuquerque, NM (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-temperature turbine technology program hot-gas path development test. Part II. Testing

Description: This topical report of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) Phase II program presents the results of testing full-scale water-cooled first-stage and second-stage turbine nozzles at design temperature and pressure to verify that the designs are adequate for operation in a full-scale turbine environment. Low-cycle fatigue life of the nozzles was demonstrated by subjecting cascade assemblies to several hundred simulated startup/shutdown turbine cycles. This testing was accomplished in the Hot-Gas Path Development Test Stand (HGPDTS), which is capable of evaluating full-scale combustion and turbine nozzle components. A three-throat cascade of the first-stage turbine nozzle was successfully tested at a nozzle inlet gas temperature of 2630/sup 0/F and a nozzle inlet pressure of 11.3 atmospheres. In addition to steady-state operation at the design firing temperature, the nozzle cascade was exposed to a simulated startup/shutdown turbine cycle by varying the firing temperature. A total of 42 h at the design point and 617 thermal cycles were accumulated during the test periods. First-stage nozzle test results show that measured metal and coolant temperatures correspond well to the predicted design values. This nozzle design has been shown to be fully satisfactory for the application (2600/sup 0/F), with growth capability to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature. A post-test metallurgical examination of sectioned portions of the tested nozzles shows a totally bonded structure, confirming the test results and attesting to the successful performance of water-cooled composite nozzle hardware.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Horner, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hot-ion distribution function in ORMAK, the Oak Ridge Tokamak

Description: A distortion of the Maxwellian ion-energy distribution function in tokamak-produced plasmas may be revealed in the spectral-line radiation. We report experimental evidence that (1) a change in the value of Z/sub eff/, (2) delayed gas injection, (3) neutral beam injection, and (4) liner cleaning procedures can alter the profile of the Balmer-..cap alpha.. (6563 A) line of hydrogen. The distortion is analyzed in terms of an effective toroidal-drift velocity, ion-temperature relation.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Neidigh, R.V. & Sigmar, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Estimates of the number of large amplitude gusts

Description: Preliminary estimates are presented of the number of occurrences of large amplitude gusts for use in the design of wind energy conversion systems. Existing turbulence information has been combined with an assumed wind speed distribution to arrive at the estimates. The number of large amplitude gusts per year is treated as a function of the annual mean wind speed and terrain roughness. This treatment is based upon the assumptions that the atmosphere has neutral stability during high winds and that the gustiness is induced by flow over surface roughness elements. Large gusts during thunderstorms and other severe weather phenomena are not treated. The results of the study are presented in tabular form as a function of gust amplitude and hourly average wind speed.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Ramsdell, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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OTEC-1 Power System Test Program: test plan for first deployment

Description: This report describes in detail all tests planned for the first eight-month deployment of OTEC-1, a test facility constructed by the US Department of Energy in order to test heat exchangers for closed-cycle power plants using ocean thermal energy. Tests to be performed during the first-deployment period are aimed primarily at determining (1) the effectiveness of countermeasures in preventing biofouling of the heat exchanters, (2) the extent of environmental impacts associated with operation of an OTEC facility, and (3) the performance of a 1-MWe, titanium shell-and-tube evaporator and condenser pair. The condenser to be tested has plain tubes, and the evaporator employs the Linde High Flux surface on the working-fluid (ammonia) side to enhance the heat-transfer rate. This plan provides a statement of the objectives and priorities of the test program, describes the test equipment, gives a detailed account of all tests to be performed and the test schedule, and discusses provisions for management of the test program.
Date: March 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mitigation of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) effects from commerical electric power systems

Description: A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth's magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)) & Vance, E.F. (Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Criteria for the Design of the Thorium Fuel Cycle Development Facility

Description: Criteria for the conceptual design of the proposed Thorium Fuel Cycle Development Facility to be located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory were established and are presented. In addition, conceptual layouts of the building and equipment are included. Reference fuel elements and processes that were selected as a basis for developing criteria for the facility are described. (auth)
Date: March 1, 1962
Creator: Irvine, A.R. & Lotts, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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