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Methodology for characterizing modeling and discretization uncertainties in computational simulation

Description: This research effort focuses on methodology for quantifying the effects of model uncertainty and discretization error on computational modeling and simulation. The work is directed towards developing methodologies which treat model form assumptions within an overall framework for uncertainty quantification, for the purpose of developing estimates of total prediction uncertainty. The present effort consists of work in three areas: framework development for sources of uncertainty and error in the modeling and simulation process which impact model structure; model uncertainty assessment and propagation through Bayesian inference methods; and discretization error estimation within the context of non-deterministic analysis.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: ALVIN,KENNETH F.; OBERKAMPF,WILLIAM L.; RUTHERFORD,BRIAN M. & DIEGERT,KATHLEEN V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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WHITE PAPER ON PROTON - NUCLEUS COLLISONS.

Description: The role of proton-nucleus (p-A) collisions in the study of strong interactions has a long history. It has been an important testing ground for QCD. At RHIC p-A studies have been recognized since the beginning as important elements of the program. These include so-called baseline measurements in cold nuclear matter, essential (along with p-p studies) to a systematic study of QCD at high temperatures and densities in the search for the quark gluon plasma. Also accessible is a study of QCD in the small x (parton saturation) regime, complementary to physics accessible in high-energy e-p and e-A collisions. The role of p-A physics at RHIC was reviewed and brought into sharp focus at a workshop conducted in October 2000 at BNL; the agenda is shown in Appendix 1. This document summarizes the case for p-A at RHIC during the period covered by the next Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan. In subsequent sections we cover the Physics Issues, Experiment Run Plans and Schedule, Detector Upgrade Issues, and Machine Issues & Upgrades.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: ARONSON,S.H. & PENG,J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Innovative Design Approaches for Large Wind Turbine Blades

Description: The primary goal of the WindPACT Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. The initial project task was to assess the fundamental physical and manufacturing issues that govern and constrain large blades and entails three basic elements: (1) a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology, (2) an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport, and install large blades, and (3) identification of promising innovative design approaches that show potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. This report discusses several innovative design approaches and their potential for blade cost reduction. During this effort we reviewed methods for optimizing the blade cross-section to improve structural and manufacturing characteristics. We also analyzed and compared a number of composite materials and evaluated their relative merits for use in large wind turbine blades in the range from 30 meters to 70 meters. The results have been summarized in dimensional and non-dimensional format to aid in interpretation. These results build upon earlier parametric and blade cost studies, which were used as a guide for the innovative design approaches explored here.
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: ASHWILL, THOMAS D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

Description: Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Aaberg, R. L. & Baker, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Prototype gauge for measuring contour and wall thicknesses of hemispherical parts. [Interferometer]

Description: A prototype gauge (gage) was designed and fabricated using air bearings in a new configuration to provide less error and distortion during inspection of hemispherical parts. No wear occurs on the moving parts during operations and accuracy of alignment is maintained. The gauge will check outside radial distance, inside radial, and outside radial and wall, and inner radial and wall thicknesses of parts. The gauge contains only four moving parts, which increases the measuring accuracy. A horizontal table rotates. A table mounted on the horizontal table at 45/sup 0/ rotates through two transducers. All moving parts are mounted on hydrostatic gas bearings. Laser interferometric, air-bearing gauge heads are used to obtain the required data. Investigation of a hemispherical part is in any desired spiral path from equator to pole. Measurement information is obtained from two laser interferometric transducers using linear air bearings. The transducers use a Spectra Physics Model-120 helium and neon laser. Working range of each transducer is 1.5 inches. The fringe voltage signals are amplified and converted to inches to be displayed on a digital readout. A punched paper tape contains the nominal inside diameter (ID) and outside diameter (OD) information in Binary Coded Decimal form. The tape is fed into a digital computer which calculates error information on ID, OD, and wall thickness. This information is converted to analog form and displayed simultaneously on a strip-chart recorder.
Date: March 1, 1976
Creator: Aarts, H. J. & Robertson, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Network load of X terminals at CDF

Description: As an aid to planning future usage of X terminals, the authors measured the network bandwidth used by X terminals on a single Ethernet in a typical application environment at Fermilab. The objectives were twofold. The first objective was to identify the impact of adding one more X terminal onto the CDF Ethernet . The second objective was to determine the maximum number of X terminals allowable on the CDF network. The findings reveal that an X terminal in this environment used, on average, 431 + /{minus}45 bytes/second. This is quite small compared to the utilizable bandwidth of the thinwire Ethernet network (375 Kilobytes/second, equivalent to 30% of total bandwidth). This amounts to an averaged load of .034% on the network per X terminal. This paper addresses the network load solely. It does not address the loads imposed by X terminals on the memory and CPU of the host systems.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Abar, F.; O'Reilly, C. & Wicklund, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Network load of X terminals at CDF

Description: As an aid to planning future usage of X terminals, the authors measured the network bandwidth used by X terminals on a single Ethernet in a typical application environment at Fermilab. The objectives were twofold. The first objective was to identify the impact of adding one more X terminal onto the CDF Ethernet . The second objective was to determine the maximum number of X terminals allowable on the CDF network. The findings reveal that an X terminal in this environment used, on average, 431 + /{minus}45 bytes/second. This is quite small compared to the utilizable bandwidth of the thinwire Ethernet network (375 Kilobytes/second, equivalent to 30% of total bandwidth). This amounts to an averaged load of .034% on the network per X terminal. This paper addresses the network load solely. It does not address the loads imposed by X terminals on the memory and CPU of the host systems.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Abar, F.; O`Reilly, C. & Wicklund, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

Description: The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates and the extent of sulfation reactions involving partially sulfided calcium-based sorbents, and oxygen as well as sulfur dioxide, at operating conditions closely simulating those prevailing in the second stage (combustor) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, calcium sulfate is produced through the reactions between SO{sub 2} and calcium carbonate as well as the reaction between calcium sulfide and oxygen. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction involving SO{sub 2} and oxygen (gaseous reactant); and calcium sulfide and calcium carbonate (solid reactants), will be determined by conducting tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure; and O{sub 2} as well as SO{sub 2} partial pressures on the sulfation reactions rate will be determined. During this quarter, samples of the selected limestone and dolomite, sulfided in the fluidized-bed reactor during last quarter, were analyzed. The extent of sulfidation in these samples was in the range of 20 to 50%, which represent carbonizer discharge material at different operating conditions. The high pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (BPTGA) unit has been modified and a new pressure control system was installed to eliminate pressure fluctuation during the sulfation tests.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Abbasian, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

Description: The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet >750{degree}C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The effect of pre-reduction on the performance of the sorbents as well as the rate of different reactions occurring in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration, were studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sulfidation was conducted with and without H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and with and without pre-reduction in H{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The results of these tests indicate that reduction and regeneration of both sorbents occurs rapidly. Sulfidation of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, in H{sub 2}O-free and H{sub 2}-/H{sub 2}O-free gas indicates the possible sulfidation of both copper and chromium. Small quantities of SO{sub 2}, were released during sulfidation suggesting the possible oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the sorbent. Regeneration of the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was complete while regeneration of the CuO-CeO{sub 2} indicated possible limited sulfate formation.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Abbasian, J.; Hill, A. H.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. & Li Li
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sulfur removal in advanced two-staged pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 1993

Description: The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. A pressurized TGA unit has been purchased by IGT for use in this project.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Abbasian, Javad; Hill, Andy H.; Wangerow, James R. & Rue, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I

Description: This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. …
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Abbott, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Spent Fuel Background Report Volume II

Description: This Volume II contains tables that describe DOE fuel storage facilities and the fuel contained in those facilities.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Abbott, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AGR-1 Data Qualification Report

Description: ABSTRACT Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the data streams associated with the first Advanced Gas Reactor experiment (AGR-1), the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. They include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing, to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documentation that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent quality assurance program. The NDMAS database processing and qualification status of the following five data streams is reported in this document: 1. Fuel fabrication data. All data have been processed into the NDMAS database and qualified (1,819 records). 2. Fuel irradiation data. Data from all 13 AGR-1 reactor cycles have been processed into the NDMAS database and tested. Of these, 85% have been qualified and 15% have failed NDMAS accuracy testing. 3. FPMS data. Reprocessed (January 2010) data from all 13 AGR-1 reactor cycles have been processed into the database and capture tested. Final qualification of these data will be recorded after …
Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Abbott, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Impact evaluation of the energy retrofits installed in the Margolis high-rise apartment building, Chelsea housing authority

Description: As part of a joint demonstration effort involving HUD, DOE, a local public housing authority and Boston Edison, an evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits was conducted for a tall, residential, low-income building located in Boston. The thirteen story building underwent window, lighting, and heating system control renovations in December, 1992. The success of these retrofits was determined using monthly and hourly whole-building consumption data along with a calibrated DOE-2.1D energy simulation model. According to the model developed, post-retrofit conditions showed reductions in annual energy consumption of 325 MWh and in peak demand of 100 kW. These savings resulted in an annual energy cost savings of $28,000. Over 90% of energy and cost savings were attributed to the window retrofit. Interaction of the reduction in lighting capacity with the building`s electric resistance heating system reduced the potential for energy and demand savings associated with the lighting retrofit. Results from the hourly simulation model also indicate that night setbacks controlled by the energy management system were not implemented. An additional 32 MWh in energy savings could be obtained by bringing this system on-line, however peak demand would be increased by 40 kW as the morning demand for space heat is increased, with a net loss in cost savings of $2,500.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Abraham, M. M.; McLain, H. A. & MacDonald, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PL/I programming language

Description: PL/I is a large and powerful multipurpose programming language, designed for use in business and in scientific applications as well as in systems programming applications such as writing operating systems. The data types, declarations, expressions, type conversion, and assignment, storage types, procedures, scopes, and environments, on-units and on-statements, other statements affecting flow of control, files and record input--output, and stream input--output are set forth. 9 references. (JFP)
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Abrahams, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Elastic and strength properties of Hanford concrete mixes at room and elevated temperatures

Description: The effects of long-term exposure to elevated temperatures on the physical properties of concrete mixes used in Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks were determined. Temperature had a significant effect on the elastic modulus of concretes. Poisson's ratio determined by the sonic method remained relatively constant. The splitting tensile strength increased rapidly up to 190 days of age. Then strength decreased to about 350 days and either leveled off or increased from that point on. Compressive strength data were erratic. (FS)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Abrams, M. S.; Gillen, M. & Campbell, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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K-Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization data report 2

Description: An Integrated Process Strategy has been developed to package, condition, transport, and store in an interim storage facility the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) currently residing in the K-Basins at Hanford. Information required to support the development of the condition process and to support the safety analyses must be obtained from characterization testing activities conducted on fuel samples from the Basins. Some of the information obtained in the testing was reported in PNL-10778, K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization Data Report (Abrefah et al. 1995). That report focused on the physical, dimensional, metallographic examinations of the first K-West (KW) Basin SNF element to be examined in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) hot cells; it also described some of the initial SNF conditioning tests. This second of the series of data reports covers the subsequent series of SNF tests on the first fuel element. These tests included optical microscopy analyses, conditioning (drying and oxidation) tests, ignition tests, and hydrogen content tests.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Abrefah, J.; Gray, W.J.; Ketner, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.; Pyecha, T.D. & Thornton, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hydraulic properties of Hanford Waste Vitrification Project 39-4 frit slurries

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for Fluor Daniel Inc. and Westinghouse Hanford Company. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of frit slurries. The effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of the fret slurries was evaluated by testing various concentrations of frit slurries in various sized schedule 40 stainless steel piping. The pressure drop in straight and 90-degree long radius elbow sections was measured as a function of flowrate, pipe size, and solids concentration. The results of testing yielded recommendations for predicting the pressure drop as a function of solids concentration, pipe size, and flow-rate. The contribution of a 90-degree long radius elbow to the pressure drop was measured and recommendations given. Observations were also made on solids settling in the lines, wear on the testing equipment, slurry properties, and measuring equipment performance. The equipment and procedures used for pumping the high solids concentration frit slurry were successful in completing the test.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Abrigo, G. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

Description: (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Abrigo, G. P.; Daume, J. T.; Halstead, S. D.; Myers, R. L.; Beckette, M. R.; Freeman, C. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs for Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1996-1997 Progress Report.

Description: This study was designed to answer the question of whether gas bubble disease (GBD) signs change as a result of the hydrostatic conditions juvenile salmonids encounter when they enter the turbine intake of hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Absolon, Randall F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Flexible cubic spline interpolation

Description: This report describes a simple, efficient, and flexible program for cubic spline interpolation in one dimension, suitable for inclusion in the ANL Subroutine Library and in an interactive timesharing system. Most of the cubic spline programs already available either restrict the boundary conditions to knowledge of the first derivative at both end points, or require the second derivatives to vanish at these points. The program described here removes these restrictions and enables the user to adopt boundary conditions appropriate for his own problem. The advantage is demonstrated for the extreme case of interpolating the function x log (1/x), which has singularities in all its derivatives at x = 0.
Date: March 1, 1972
Creator: Abu-Shumays, I. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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