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Friction in nuclear dynamics

Description: The problem of dissipation in nuclear dynamics is related to the breaking down of nuclear symmetries and the transition from ordered to chaotic nucleonic motions. In the two extreme idealizations of the perfectly Ordered Regime and the fully Chaotic Regime, the nucleus should behave as an elastic solid or an overdamped fluid, respectively. In the intermediate regime a complicated visco-elastic behaviour is expected. The discussion is illustrated by a simple estimate of the frequency of the giant quadrupole resonance in the Ordered Regime and by applications of the wall and window dissipation formulae in the Chaotic Regime. 51 refs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Swiatecki, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sage grouse on the Yakima Training Center: A summary of studies conducted during 1989 and 1990

Description: A two-year study, sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Army and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, was initiated in 1989 to study sage grouse on the Yakima Training Center (YTC). The specific objectives of this study were (1) to obtain detailed information on the distribution and relative density of sage grouse on the YTC, (2) to identify movement and habitat use patterns of sage grouse on the YTC, (3) to identify crucial habitat for sage grouse on the YTC, and (4) to provide management recommendations. Sage grouse were selected for study because they are a US Fish and Wildlife Service candidate species for the threatened and endangered list in Washington, and because the YTC probably contains the largest population of sage grouse left on federally owned lands in this state. The locations of 11 sage grouse leks, or breeding grounds, were determined on the YTC during extensive spring helicopter surveys. The maximum number of sage grouse observed during ground surveys of these leks varied from 2 to 55 birds. One lek, located near Range 19, was probably used by 40 to 50% of the YTC sage grouse population. Fifteen years of counts of males on leks indicate that the YTC sage grouse population was most numerous during the early to mid 1980s. Since the mid-1980s, sage grouse numbers appear to have declined on the YTC and in other locations in Washington. Forty-six sage grouse (17 females and 29 males) were captured and fitted with radio transmitters during 1989 and 1990. Movements by these sage grouse were both erratic and large when compared with other studies. We believe that many of the atypical movements were in response to military training activities. Sage grouse appeared to seek out areas on the YTC where human disturbance was low. Recommendations are made for …
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Eberhardt, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)) & Hofmann, L.A. (Yakima Training Center, WA (USA). Coe-Truman Technologies)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

Description: Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Blink, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P. & Reilly, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Proposed resource evaluation plan. Salton Sea scientific drilling program

Description: The report presents a plan for evaluating the deep geothermal resource in the Salton Sea area of Imperial County, California. The plan is divided into two testing programs, followed by the modeling and evaluation of the underground geothermal resource. The testing program related to geological data collection includes acquiring and analyzing the core, running geophysical and temperature/pressure logs in both the deep well and the injection well, and carrying out extensive mud-logging activities. The flow testing program includes temperature, pressure, and flow measurements made in the well and surface facilities. Sampling and analysis of fluid and scale both in the well and at the surface facilities will also be carried out. 6 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)
Date: March 1, 1985
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

Description: During the reporting period, relatively minor changes have occurred in the research areas of interest to the Division. Nearly all the research of the Division can be classified broadly as mission-oriented basic research. Topics covered include: theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; and preparation and characterization of research materials. (GHT)
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Green, P.H. & Watson, D.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of a multiport groundwater monitoring system

Description: In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater monitoring system in two wells on the Hanford Site: one near the 216-B-3 Pond in the center of the Hanford Site and one just north of the 300 Area near the Columbia River. The system was installed to provide the US Department of Energy with needed three-dimensional data on the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads on the Hanford Site. This study evaluates the ability of the multiport system to obtain hydrogeologic data at multiple points vertically in a single borehole, and addresses the representativeness of the data. Data collected from the two wells indicate that the multiport system is well suited for groundwater monitoring networks requiring three-dimensional characterization of the hydrogeologic system. A network of these systems could provide valuable information on the hydrogeologic environment. However, the advantages of the multiport system diminish when the system is applied to long-term monitoring networks (30+ years) and to deeper wells (<300 ft). For shallow wells, the multiport system provides data in a cost-effective manner that would not be reasonably obtainable with the conventional methods currently in use at the Hanford Site. 17 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Gilmore, T.J.; Hall, S.H.; Olsen, K.B. & Spane, F.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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''Where is everybody. '' An account of Fermi's question

Description: Fermi's famous question, now central to debates about the prevalence of extraterrestrial civilizations, arose during a luncheon conversation with Emil Konopinski, Edward Teller, and Herbert York in the summer of 1950. Fermi's companions on that day have provided accounts of the incident.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Jones, E. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Influence of temperature and lithium purity on corrosion of ferrous alloys in a flowing lithium environment

Description: Corrosion data have been obtained on ferritic HT-9 and Fe-9Cr-1Mo steel and austenitic Type 316 stainless steel in a flowing lithium environment at temperatures between 372 and 538/sup 0/C. The corrosion behavior is evaluated by measurements of weight loss as a function of time and temperature. A metallographic characterization of materials exposed to a flowing lithium environment is presented.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Chopra, O. K. & Smith, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Beam tests of phosphorescent screens

Description: Twelve phosphorescent screens were beam tested for linearity, uniformity, low radiation damage and a suitable emitted wavelength for use with television cameras. One screen was chosen for the construction of several intercepting profile monitors which were used during the SLC Ten Sector Tests to measure the emittance and wakefield effects of a damped electron beam.
Date: March 5, 1985
Creator: Seeman, J.T.; Luth, V.; Ross, M. & Sheppard, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Kinetics and mechanism of desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Thirteenth quarterly report, June 21-September 20, 1978

Description: Studies of competing hydroprocessing reactions catalyzed by Ni-Mo/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and involving quinoline, indole, dibenzothiophene, and naphthalene in n-hexadecane show that marked interactions exist. The naphthalene hydrogenation rate is markedly reduced by the presence of quinoline; whereas the reactivity of quinoline is virtually unchanged by the presence of naphthalene. Similarly the rate of hydrodenitrogenation of indole, a non-basic nitrogen-containing compounds is strongly reduced by the presence of quinoline, whereas the rate of hydro-denitrogenation of quinoline, a basic nitrogen-containing compound, is unaffected by the presence of indole. The hydrogenation reactions in the dibenzothiophene reaction network are inhibited severely as indicated by the reduction in their pseudo first-order-rate constants as are the hydrogenation reactions for naphthalene. Thus the hydrogenation rate is reduced 30-fold by increasing the initial quinoline concentration from 0.0 to 0.5 wt % in naphthalene hydrogenation and in dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurzation. The rate of direct sulfur removal is reduced by only 3-fold by increasing the quinoline concentration from 0.0 to 0.5 wt %. These results clearly show that the rate expressions for the hydrotreating reactions are of the form given in the text.
Date: March 16, 1979
Creator: Gates, B. C.; Katzer, J. R.; Olson, J. H.; Kwart, H. & Stiles, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AC magnetic measurements of the ALS Booster Dipole Engineering Model Magnet

Description: 10 Hz sine wave and 2 Hz sawtooth AC magnetic measurements of he curved ALS Booster Dipole Engineering Model Magnet have been accomplished. Long curved coils were utilized to measure the integral transfer function and uniformity. Point coils and a Hall Probe were used to measure magnetic induction and its uniformity. The data were logged and processed by a Tektronix 11401 digital oscilloscope. The dependence of the effective length on the field was determined from the ratio of the integral coil signals to the point coil signals. Quadrupole and sextupole harmonics were derived from the point and integral uniformity measurements. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Green, M.I.; Keller, R.; Nelson, D.H. & Hoyer, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A national strategy for the export of US geothermal technology

Description: This document presents a proposal for an explicit US strategy to focus this still diffuse interest into a coordinated effort by the public and private sectors to increase exports of US geothermal goods and services over the next five to ten years. This document summarizes the background and need for an explicit US strategy, the factors influencing the development of this strategy, strategy options, and a recommended strategy.
Date: March 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Modeling of the electron distribution based on bremsstrahlung emission during lower hybrid current drive on PLT

Description: Lower hybrid current drive requires the generation of a high energy electron tail anisotropic in velocity. Measurements of bremsstrahlung emission produced by this tail are compared with the calculated emission from reasonable model distributions. The physical basis and the sensitivity of this modeling process are described and the plasma properties of current driven discharges which can be derived from the model are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Stevens, J. E.; Von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Chu, T. K.; Efthimion, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

Description: Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.
Date: March 26, 1986
Creator: Holdener, F. R.; Berglin, E. J.; Fuchs, B. A.; Humpal, H. H.; Karpenko, V. P.; Martin, R. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A survey of available information on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101

Description: As a result of a concerted effort to determine the chemical and physical mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 241-SY-101, more commonly known as tank 101-SY, the Tank Waste Science Panel has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Four of the members of this panel met to screen the available information on tank 101-SY and provide to the remaining members a shortened list of references that could be used to assess the mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 101-SY. This document is the result of this preliminary screening of information for the Tank Waste Science Panel and was provided to the Panel members at their first meeting. 14 refs., 3 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Strachan, D.M. (comp.) (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Siemer, D.D. (Westinghouse Idaho National Engineering Co., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)) & Wallace, R.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Investigation of the elastic modulus of SSC coils

Description: The Materials Development Laboratory at Fermilab has been conducting experiments on the mechanical properties of superconducting coils. Two of these measurements were designed to measure the elastic modulus of actual SSC coils in an effort to increase the precision of previously reported data. The first experiment utilizes a fixture redesigned for increased stiffness, in an attempt to reduce uncertainty in the data. As in the previous fixture of this type, the inner coil radius has been left unconstrained. The second fixture constrains the coil on all sides, allowing for the determination of the radial and azimuthal components of the cured coil modulus. A finite element model of the first test arrangement was also created to predict the compliance of the fixture, and compare numerical predictions with the experimental data. The results from this fixture suggest that the coil modulus is higher than previously reported, at 1.43{plus minus}0.03{times}10{sup 10} Pa (2.08{plus minus}.05{times}10{sup 6} psi). The main difference between the two experiments were the compliance of the fixture, which was found to have been seriously underestimated in last years test. Results from the second fixture suggest a coil modulus of 8.48{plus minus}0.82{times}10{sup 9} Pa (1.23{plus minus}0.12{times}10{sup 6} psi) for the azimuthal modulus, and between 8.96{plus minus}0.822{times}10{sup 9} Pa (1.3{plus minus}0.12{times}10{sup 6} psi) at lower loads and 1.12{plus minus}0.24{times}10{sup 10} Pa (1.63{plus minus}0.35{times}10{sup 6} psi) at higher loads in the radial direction. For a constrained coil, little difference is noted between the radial and azimuthal moduli of the coil. 2 refs., 8 figs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Markley, F.; Kerby, J.; Sizemore, B.; Khoun, C. & King, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Kinetics of combined SO/sub 2//NO in flue gas clean-up

Description: The kinetics of reactions involving SO/sub 2/, NO, and ferrous chelate additives in wet flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification scrubbers are discussed. The relative importance of these reactions are assessed. The relevance of these reactions to spray dryer processes for combined SO/sub 2//NO flue gas clean-up is addressed. 37 refs., 7 figs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Chang, S. G. & Littlejohn, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dynamics of an electron in an rf gap

Description: The purpose of this calculation is to understand the limitation on the energy transfer efficiency of an electron beam to the rf output cavity of a klystron or a lasertron. An output cavity with drift tubes is modeled in this calculation by a region of constant amplitude rf field with exponentially decreasing entrance and exit fringing fields. The exit velocity of an electron traversing such a gap is examined as a function of entrance phase for various values of the ratio of the peak rf cavity voltage to electron entrance voltage. Depending on this ratio, the dynamics of the electron motion can become quite complex. For a gap with fringe fields it is found that, even if the gap voltage and phase are optimized, the maximum energy that can be extracted from a short bunch is always significantly less than 100%. The case in which the electron is created with zero velocity in the gap, and subsequently leaves the gap having extracted energy from the rf field, is also treated. 4 refs., 10 figs.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Farkas, Z. D. & Wilson, P. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fixed-target physics at Fermilab

Description: The Fermilab Energy Saver is now successfully commissioned and fixed-target experimentation at high energy (800 GeV) has begun. In addition, a number of new experiments designed to exploit the unique features of the Tevatron are yet to come on-line. In this talk, we will review recent accomplishments in the fixed-target program and describe experiments in progress and others yet to come.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Bjorken, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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