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3(omega) Damage: Growth Mitigation

Description: The design of high power UV laser systems is limited to a large extent by the laser-initiated damage performance of transmissive fused silica optical components. The 3{omega} (i.e., the third harmonic of the primary laser frequency) damage growth mitigation LDRD effort focused on understanding and reducing the rapid growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics. Laser-initiated damage can be discussed in terms of two key issues: damage initiated at some type of precursor and rapid damage growth of the damage due to subsequent laser pulses. The objective of the LDRD effort has been the elucidation of laser-induced damage processes in order to quantify and potentially reduce the risk of damage to fused silica surfaces. The emphasis of the first two years of this effort was the characterization and reduction of damage initiation. In spite of significant reductions in the density of damage sites on polished surfaces, statistically some amount of damage initiation should always be expected. The early effort therefore emphasized the development of testing techniques that quantified the statistical nature of damage initiation on optical surfaces. This work led to the development of an optics lifetime modeling strategy that has been adopted by the NIF project to address damage-risk issues. During FY99 interest shifted to the damage growth issue which was the focus of the final year of this project. The impact of the remaining damage sites on laser performance can be minimized if the damage sites did not continue to grow following subsequent illumination. The objectives of the final year of the LDRD effort were to apply a suite of state-of-the-art characterization tools to elucidate the nature of the initiated damage sites, and to identify a method that effectively mitigates further damage growth. Our specific goal is to understand the cause for the rapid growth of …
Date: February 22, 2001
Creator: Kozlowski, M; Demos, S; Wu, Z-L; Wong, J; Penetrante, B & Hrubesh, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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100-K Area electrical power system load and voltage study for project CG-775. Revision

Description: The proposed increased water capacity for 100-K plants will increase the electrical load to be supplied. The load study showed that the capacity of the existing 13.8 kV system is adequate to carry the increased loads proposed for Project CG-775, while for the 5 kV system, an expanded power system is proposed. Likewise, the voltage regulation on the kV system bus will be excessive, and voltage regulators should be added.
Date: February 22, 1960
Creator: Thorson, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests Data Management Analysis Plan

Description: This document provides a plan for the analysis of the data collected during the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests. This document was prepared after a review of the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Plan (Revision 4) [1] and other materials. The plan emphasizes a structured and well-ordered approach towards handling and examining the data. This plan presumes that the data will be collected and organized into a unified body of data, well annotated and bearing the date and time of each record. The analysis of this data will follow a methodical series of steps that are focused on well-defined objectives. Section 2 of this plan describes how the data analysis will proceed from the real-time monitoring of some of the key sensor data to the final analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of suspended solids. This section also identifies the various sensors or sensor systems and associates them with the various functions they serve during the test program. Section 3 provides an overview of the objectives of the AZ-101 test program and describes the data that will be analyzed to support that test. The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can be operated within the operating requirements; (2) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can mobilize the sludge in sufficient quantities to provide feed to the private contractor facility, and (3) to determine if the in-tank instrumentation is sufficient to monitor sludge mobilization and mixer pump operation. Section 3 also describes the interim analysis that organizes the data during the test, so the analysis can be more readily accomplished. Section 4 describes the spatial orientation of the various sensors in the tank. This section is useful in visualizing the relationship of the Sensors in terms of their location in the tank and how the data from these sensors …
Date: February 22, 2000
Creator: Douglas, D. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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300 Area, February 12 through February 18

Description: Extrusion was run on one day, February 2, and a total of 271 billets (178 Type G, 12 type BT, and 81 red band) were processed. Two failures occurred among the red band billets; UM 6610 had begun to melt in the furnace and TX 3323 disintegrated on being extruded through the die. Samples of these billets are being checked chemically and metallurgically in an attempt to ascertain the cause for the hot-short characteristics of these billets. A sample cut from a rod which possessed zero strength (fell apart under no stress other than its own weight) at extrusion temperature was found to contain a large amount of microconstituent not ordinarily found in appreciable quantity on uranium sections. The distribution and appearance of the excess phase suggested at least partial liquation at the working temperature and it could, therefore, be responsible for the hot-short tendency.
Date: February 22, 1946
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Acoustic Separation Technology

Description: Today's restrictive environmental regulations encourage paper mills to close their water systems. Closed water systems increase the level of contaminants significantly. Accumulations of solid suspensions are detrimental to both the papermaking process and the final products. To remove these solids, technologies such as flotation using dissolved air (DAF), centrifuging, and screening have been developed. Dissolved Air Flotation systems are commonly used to clarify whitewater. These passive systems use high pressure to dissolve air into whitewater. When the pressure is released, air micro-bubbles form and attach themselves to fibers and particles, which then float to the surface where they are mechanically skimmed off. There is an economic incentive to explore alternatives to the DAF technology to drive down the cost of whitewater processing and minimize the use of chemicals. The installed capital cost for a DAF system is significant and a typical DAF system takes up considerable space. An alternative approach, which is the subject of this project, involves a dual method combining the advantages of chemical flocculation and in-line ultrasonic clarification to efficiently remove flocculated contaminants from a water stream
Date: February 22, 2002
Creator: Ahrens, Fred & Patterson, Tim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agricultural Conservation: State Advisory Committees' Views on How USDA Programs Could Better Address Environmental Concerns

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Private landowners own more than two-thirds of the continental United States' 1.9 billion acres. Recognizing the critical role that private landowners play in managing soil, water, and wildlife habitat, Congress directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to improve stewardship practices on these lands. USDA currently has more than 70 million acres of privately-owned land enrolled in programs that offer landowners financial incentives to implement conservation practices to protect or improve soil and water quality and wildlife habitat. USDA's conservation efforts address specific environmental concerns, target funding toward state and local environmental priority areas, and promote partnerships with state or local entities to leverage limited funding. State technical committee members indicated that although USDA's conservation programs are generally effective, some targeted programs are more effective than others. Committee members cited several elements of the current programs that hinder achievement of environmental objectives and indicated a preference for more flexibility in new or existing programs. More than two-thirds of members considered program provisions that prohibit landowners from receiving compensation for maintaining previously implemented landowner-financed conservation practices to be a hindrance. Members would like to be able to tailor new or existing programs to the farming practices of producers in their states as well as increase emphasis on programs that keep lands in production."
Date: February 22, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AIDS: The Ryan White CARE Act

Description: This report discusses the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act, which makes federal funds available to metropolitan areas and states to assist in health care costs and support services for individuals and families affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This report discusses related legislation and appropriations.
Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Johnson, Judith A. & Morgan, Paulette C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Algeria: Current Issues

Description: This report examines the current state of Algeria, including the country's associations with terrorism, despite steady decreases of domestic terrorism; the lessening in power of the Algerian military; and growing oil revenues.
Date: February 22, 2011
Creator: Arieff, Alexis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of the role of an interfacility SNM accounting system

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) undertook the task of analyzing the actual and potential value of an interfacility NRC material accounting system in deterring and detecting both material diversion and facility material accounting data falsification. The most important conclusion is that only relatively minor changes are needed to upgrade the current NRC interfacility reporting system. The emphasis of the task was on evaluating the usefulness of an NRC-monitored material accounting information system in providing protection against accounting fraud at the plant management or corporate level. The Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) and the NRC Safeguards Status Report System (SSRS), the principal constituents of the current interfacility NRC material accounting information system, are described. Their relationship is shown in two information flow diagrams. Deterministic accounting checks and balances are discussed, both for the current NRC interfacility material accounting system and for an upgraded system. Detection mechanisms are described that would use currently available data and that could be exercised by the NRC in its safeguards management role. Additional checks and balances are recommended, with corresponding changes in data reporting requirements, to upgrade NRC interfacility material accounting system.
Date: February 22, 1982
Creator: McDonnel, J. L.; Chilton, P. D.; Kufahl, G. E.; Vergari, A. A. & Dunn, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Site Environmental Report: 2006

Description: This report provides information about environmental programs during the calendar year (CY) of 2006 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Menlo Park, California. Activities that span the calendar year; i.e., stormwater monitoring covering the winter season of 2006/2007 (October 2006 through May 2007), are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. SLAC is a federally-funded research and development center with Stanford University as the M&O contractor. SLAC continued to follow the path to self-declare an environmental management system under DOE Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program' and effectively applied environmental management in meeting the site's integrated safety and environmental management system goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are followed so that Worker safety and health are protected; The environment is protected; and Compliance is ensured. Throughout 2006, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems. These systems were also the way SLAC approached implementing 'greening of the government' initiatives such as Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. The SLAC Office of Assurance was created during 2006 in response to DOE Order 226.1. During 2006, there were no reportable releases to the environment from SLAC operations, and there were no Notice of Violations issued to SLAC from any of the regulatory agencies that oversee SLAC. In addition, many improvements in waste minimization, recycling, stormwater drain system, groundwater restoration, and SLAC's chemical management system (CMS) were continued during 2006 to better manage chemical use. Program-specific details are discussed below. SLAC operates its air quality management program in compliance with its …
Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Nuckolls, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Appendix B-3. Statistical Summary of Hydrochemical Data from Ground and Surface Water Samples, Ekalaka, Montana/North Dakota/South Dakota Quadrangle

Description: Appendix containing a statistical summary of hyrogeochemical data from ground and surface water samples to accompany a report on U.S. uranium resources in the Ekalaka Quadrangle in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
Date: February 22, 1980
Creator: Robinson, Keith & Adkisson, Cheryl W.
Location: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

Description: This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.
Date: February 22, 2002
Creator: Sjostrom, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Assessment of the Penetrations in the First Wall Required for Plasma Measurments for Control of an Advanced Tokamak Plasma Demo

Description: A Demonstration tokamak (Demo) is an essential next step toward a magnetic-fusion based reactor. One based on advanced-tokamak (AT) plasmas is especially appealing because of its relative compactness. However, it will require many plasma measurements to provide the necessary signals to feed to ancillary systems to protect the device and control the plasma. This note addresses the question of how much intrusion into the blanket system will be required to allow the measurements needed to provide the information required for plasma control. All diagnostics will require, at least, the same shielding designs as planned for ITER, while having the capability to maintain their calibration through very long pulses. Much work is required to define better the measurement needs and the quantity and quality of the measurements that will have to be made, and how they can be integrated into the other tokamak structures.
Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Young, Kenneth M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding

Description: This report discusses the firefighting activities that are traditionally the responsibility of states and local communities. The report also talks about the funding for firefighters, which is provided mostly by state and local governments. However, during the 106th Congress, many in the fire community asserted that local fire departments require and deserve greater support from the federal government.
Date: February 22, 2013
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding

Description: This report discusses the firefighting activities that are traditionally the responsibility of states and local communities. The report also talks about the funding for firefighters, which is provided mostly by state and local governments. However, during the 106th Congress, many in the fire community asserted that local fire departments require and deserve greater support from the federal government.
Date: February 22, 2011
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

Description: Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric …
Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Wharton, S & Lundquist, J K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements and analysis on Sagem 05R0025 secondary substrate

Description: The summary of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) on Sagem 05R0025 secondary substrate: (1) 2 x 2 {micro}m{sup 2} and 10 x 10 {micro}m{sup 2} AFM measurements and analysis on Sagem 05R0025 secondary substrate at LLNL indicate rather uniform and extremely isotropic finish across the surface, with high-spatial frequency roughness {sigma} in the range 5.1-5.5 {angstrom} rms; (2) the marked absence of pronounced long-range polishing marks in any direction, combined with increased roughness in the very high spatial frequencies, are consistent with ion-beam polishing treatment on the surface. These observations are consistent with all earlier mirrors they measured from the same vendor; and (3) all data were obtained with a Digital Instruments Dimension 5000{trademark} atomic force microscope.
Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Soufli, R; Baker, S L & Robinson, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Azerbaijan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report covers the recent history of Azerbaijan and the purposes for U.S. assistance, according to the Obama Administration. Azerbaijan has been a useful ally since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, granting over-flight rights to the U.S. and approving numerous landings in their civilian airport.
Date: February 22, 2013
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bankruptcy and Student Loans

Description: This report discusses This report provides a comprehensive overview of the various legal issues related to whether, and under what circumstances, a debtor may discharge a student loan in bankruptcy. The report begins by providing general background on bankruptcy law and the principles governing the discharge of outstanding debt. In so doing, the report explains how and why the Bankruptcy Code generally makes student loans nondischargeable absent an "undue hardship." The report then describes the various legal standards that courts have applied when determining whether a particular debtor is entitled to an undue hardship discharge. The report closes by describing various potential considerations for Congress, including ways in which Congress could alter the Bankruptcy Code's current treatment of student loans.
Date: February 22, 2018
Creator: Lewis, Kevin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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