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open access

Archiving Web Browser Plug-ins

Description: This report explores issues related to the archiving of Web Browser Plug-ins.
Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Bang, Sverre
Partner: International Internet Preservation Consortium
open access

Formulation of the Linear Response Theory in Relativistic LAPW Method. Calculation of Forces in Alpha-Pu

Description: Linear-response (LR) theory in combination with the first-principles band structure codes allows to calculate phonons in an efficient way. In this report a formalism which enables us to apply LR theory within an all-electron framework utilizing the relativistic full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (RFLAPW) method is presented. As first part, the equations for the calculations of the atomic forces are given and they are used for the calculation of forces in {alpha}-Pu. As a second step, a complete set of formulaes for the dynamic matrices calculation is presented.
Date: January 8, 2004
Creator: Kutepov, A L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

Description: This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.
Date: January 4, 2004
Creator: Erskine, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Techniques for Judging Intent Behind Network Based Cyber Attacks

Description: This project developed a prototype system that can rapidly differentiate between undirected cyber attacks, and those that have a more specific and concerning intent behind them. The system responds to important cyber attacks in a tactically significant way as the attack is proceeding. It is also creates a prioritized list for the human analysts allowing them to focus on the threats mostly likely to be of interest. In the recent years the volume of attacks over the internet has increased exponentially, as they have become more and more automated. The result of this is that real threats are harder and harder to distinguish from the general threat. It is possible with our current systems to identify network packets that originated from thousands of IP addresses as probing a site like LLNL in a single day. Human analysis of these threats does not result in information that can be used for tactical response because most of the attacks are short and over before the human starts the analysis. Only a very small percentage of attacks can even be evaluated manually due to the volume. This project developed methods, and prototyped tools, that can identify attacks, slow the attack down and aid in the process of prioritizing detections. The project demonstrated that such methods exist, and that practical implementations exist for modern computers and networks. We call the tools created D.I.A.G. or Determining Internet Attackers Goals.
Date: January 28, 2004
Creator: Allen, J M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Specific PVMaT R&D in CdTe Product Manufacturing: Final Subcontract Report, March 2003

Description: Results of a 3+ year subcontract are presented. The research was conducted under Phase 5A2 of the subcontract. The three areas of effort in the subcontract were (1) manufacturing line improvements, (2) product readiness, and (3) environmental, safety, and health programs. The subcontract consisted of three phases, approximately 1 year each. Phase I included the development, design, and implementation of a high-throughput, low-cost lamination process. This goal was achieved using the support of key experts such as Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) to identify appropriate lamination equipment vendors, and material handling. Product designs were reviewed by Arizona State University Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory and Underwriters Laboratories. Modifications to the module designs were implemented to meet future testing requirements. A complete review of the Environmental, Health, and Safety programs was conducted, along with training by the Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Work conducted during Phase II included the implementation of an improved potting procedure for the wiring junction. The design of the equipment focused on high-throughput, low-cost operations. During Phase III , First Solar made significant progress in three areas: Manufacturing Readiness; Product Performance; and Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S). First Solar's accomplishments in laser scribing significantly exceeded the stated goals. Innovations implemented during Phase III were made possible by adopting a new type of high-frequency, low-pulse-width laser, galvanometer-driven laser-beam system, and numerous advanced, automated, equipment features. Because of the greater than one order of magnitude increase in the throughput and laser life, a factor of two decrease in equipment cost, and complete automation, a major impact on lowering the cost of the PV product is anticipated.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Bohland, J.; McMaster, A.; Henson, S. & Hanak, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Development Strategies for Deployment of Biomass Resources in the Production of Biomass Power: November 6, 2001--February 28, 2003

Description: The study analyzes strategies for deployment of biomass resources for biopower generation. It compares biomass supply databases and the projected biopower market penetration for several alternative incentive scenarios. It analyzes the availability of biomass to meet the projected market demands and recommends future research.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Kaminsky, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Proceedings of Riken Bnl Research Center Workshop: Volume 56 Rbrc Scientific Review Committee Meeting.

Description: The sixth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on November 20-21, 2003, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present members of the Scientific Review Committee are Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (absent), Professor Stephen Sharpe, and Professor Jack Sandweiss, Committee Chair. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his research efforts. In addition, a special presentation was given jointly by our collaborators, Professors Norman Christ and Robert Mawhinney of Columbia University, on the progress and status of the IRBRC QCDSP/QCDOC Supercomputer program. A demonstration of a 64-node (64 Gflops peak speed) QCDOC machine in action followed. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.
Date: January 6, 2004
Creator: Samios, N. P. & Lee, T. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Benson Beach Demonstration Project: Composition and Abundance of Biota at Three Alternative Sump Sites

Description: The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is investigating plans to provide sediment to nourish beaches north of the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR). Under the currently designed proposal, sediment dredged from the MCR will be temporarily stored at one of three proposed areas south of the North Jetty before being redredged and moved by a cutterhead pipeline dredge over the jetty to nourish Benson Beach. Resulting potential impacts to resident Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and fishes represent one of the criteria for evaluating each of the alternative locations. To establish the species composition and relative abundance of crabs and fishes associated with each of the three proposed sump areas, researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Division completed nine field sampling trips from July 8, 2003, to November 1, 2003, for a total of 113 successful trawls comprising an area of over 7.4 ha (74,156 m2). This report documents the results of that effort. To understand the relative risk of losses to crab populations associated with dredging impacts at the sump alternative areas, it is recommended that a modified dredge impact model be developed using the data collected in this study. This model should estimate crab adult equivalent loss and associated error rates to gain a population-level perspective on the potential entrainment impacts at each of the three alternative sump areas. As well, a sustained survey of Dungeness crab distribution and movement within the Columbia River estuary would clarify the relative value of the sump areas as a migratory corridor for crab populations, and support management decisions relative to issues associated with dredged material handling and disposal.
Date: January 15, 2004
Creator: Williams, Greg D.; Pearson, Walter H.; Evans, Nathan R. & Anderson, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Preliminary Thoughts on Introducing Structs to SIDL/Babel: White Paper

Description: In the past 6 months, there has been increased interest in adding something analogous to C structs to the SIDL language and the Babel language interoperability tool [2, 6]. In particular, Rob Armstrong, of the Common Component Architecture [4], said the lack of structs ''is an oft-cited reason that people can't use Babel.'' Because the interest is high and lack of structs is a barrier to Babel adoption, we must carefully consider the current work around, the motivations for structs, the implications of adding structs, and the alternatives for structs in SIDL/Babel. This document provides the background necessary for a discussion of structs in SIDL/Babel. For the purposes of this document, I am going to call the potential new language feature a SIDL struct. The SIDL struct is analogous to a C struct, a Pascal record, or a Fortran 90 (F90) derived data type. It is a collection of data with no methods or behavior associated with it. Each element of the collection has a name and a type. SIDL structs allow for data abstraction, but they do not provide data hiding. All data is public in a SIDL struct.
Date: January 8, 2004
Creator: Epperly, T W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

Description: Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or links to minimize the loss. The loss can be measured in costs, …
Date: January 15, 2004
Creator: Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D & Alvarez, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Estimated (n,f) cross sections for 236,236m237,238-Np, 237,237m-Pu, and 240,241,242,242m,243,244,244m-Am isotopes

Description: Neutron-induced fission cross sections on targets of {sup 236,236m,237,238}Np, {sup 237,237m}Pu, and {sup 240,241,242,242m,243,244,244m}Am have been estimated for incident neutron energies of up to 6 MeV, using the ''surrogate'' technique and the ({sup 3}He,df) and ({sup 3}He,tf) reactions on stable targets to measure fission probabilities. In isotopes where low-lying isomeric states are known to exist, the (n,f) cross section on the corresponding isomeric targets has been estimated, using the surrogate technique. For targets of {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am, measurements of the (n,f) cross section exist, and comparison with the surrogate-method results suggests that the (n,f) cross sections estimated by the surrogate technique are reliable to within 10% for incident neutron energies E{sub n}{approx}>2 MeV. Tabulated values of the estimated (n,f) cross sections are given in an appendix.
Date: January 16, 2004
Creator: Younes, W; Becker, J & Britt, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

Description: Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.
Date: January 13, 2004
Creator: Carrano, C J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRASHORT HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION AND MATTER

Description: The workshop is intended as a forum to discuss the latest experimental, theoretical and computational results related to the interaction of high energy radiation with matter. High energy is intended to mean soft x-ray and beyond, but important new results from visible systems will be incorporated. The workshop will be interdisciplinary amongst scientists from many fields, including: plasma physics; x-ray physics and optics; solid state physics and material science; biology ; quantum optics. Topics will include, among other subjects: understanding damage thresholds for x-ray interactions with matter developing {approx} 5 keV x-ray sources to investigate damage; developing {approx} 100 keV Thomsom sources for material studies; developing short pulse (100 fs and less) x-ray diagnostics; developing novel X-ray optics; and developing models for the response of biological samples to ultra intense, sub ps x-rays high-energy radiation.
Date: January 15, 2004
Creator: Wootton, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analytic Expressions for the Angular Resolution of Compton Gamma-ray Detectors

Description: This paper describes the derivation of analytic expressions for the angular resolution of reconstructing gamma rays detected via Compton interactions. We consider two types of gamma-ray detectors: Compton-ring and electron-tracking devices. In Compton-ring devices, the direction of the scattered electron is not resolved, only the total energy (electron and scattered photon) and the scattered photon direction are measured. The measured quantities define a cone about the axis of the scattered photon direction. The initial photon direction lies along this cone. Thus for single events there is a ring-like ambiguity in the photon direction. By combining multiple events, the intersection of the reconstructed rings will resolve the initial direction of the photon source. In this paper, we derive the resolution of the cone angle for individual rings. Electron-tracking type devices resolve the electron path. Although the scattered electron subsequently undergoes multiple-Coulomb scattering, it is possible to measure the initial electron direction with sufficiently high tracking resolution. By measuring the direction and energy of the electron and the direction of the scattered photon, the initial photon direction can be uniquely determined. The challenge for this type of detector is achieving the high tracking resolution. In Section 2 we derive the well-known Compton formula for Compton-ring devices, an analytic expression for the angular resolution of the cone angle, and discuss the limits for applying the error formula. In Section 3 we repeat the derivation of the error function for the algebraically more complicated electron-tracking device. In the final section (Section 4) we derive the effect of position measurement error on the angular resolution, which applies to both detector types. All of the analytic results are cross-checked against empirical fits to a simple Monte Carlo simulation. Doppler broadening, the effect due to the initial (and intrinsically unknown) momentum of the atomic electron, can be …
Date: January 15, 2004
Creator: Wright, D M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Monitoring Tissue Concentrations of Chromium and Fish Condition in Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

Description: This study involved the collection of juvenile fall Chinook salmon and Columbia River water samples to assess whether fall Chinook salmon population are exposed to chromium that upwells into the river from contaminated groundwater.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Tiller, Brett L.; Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D. & Poston, Ted M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Physics and Advanced Technologies LDRD Final Report:Adaptive Optics Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Solar System

Description: This focus of this project was the investigation of the planets Uranus and Neptune and Saturn's moon Titan using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy at the 10-meter W.M. Keck Telescopes. These bodies share a common type of atmosphere, one that is rich in methane and has a hydrocarbon haze layer produced by methane photolysis. Neptune and Uranus have atmospheric features which change on short timescales; we have investigated their altitude, composition, and connection to events occurring deeper in the planets' tropospheres. Titan has a solid surface located under its atmosphere, the composition of which is still quite uncertain. With spectra that sample the vertical structure of the atmosphere and narrowband observations that selectively probe Titan's surface we have determined the surface reflectivity of Titan at near-infrared wavelengths.
Date: January 21, 2004
Creator: Gibbard, S; Max, C; Macintosh, B & Grossman, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Design Parameters for CVD Shrapnel Tiles

Description: The purpose of the ceramic tiles will be to cover the inside wall of a spherical firing vessel and thus protect the inner liner from shrapnel.
Date: January 23, 2004
Creator: Hollaway, J R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

Description: A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.
Date: January 25, 2004
Creator: Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira & Lurz, Joshua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Automated Image Data Exploitation Final Report

Description: The automated production of maps of human settlement from recent satellite images is essential to detailed studies of urbanization, population movement, and the like. Commercial satellite imagery is becoming available with sufficient spectral and spatial resolution to apply computer vision techniques previously considered only for laboratory (high resolution, low noise) images. In this project, we extracted the boundaries of human settlements from IKONOS 4-band and panchromatic images using spectral segmentation together with a form of generalized second-order statistics and detection of edges and corners.
Date: January 26, 2004
Creator: Kamath, C; Poland, D; Sengupta, S K & Futterman, J H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Plasma-Assisted Coevaporation of S and Se for Wide Band Gap Chalcopyrite Photovoltaics: Phase II Annual Report, December 2002--December 2003

Description: In this work, ITN Energy Systems (ITN) and lower-tier subcontractor Colorado School of Mines (CSM) explore the replacement of the molecular chalcogen precursors during deposition (e.g., Se2 or H2Se) with more reactive chalcogen monomers or radicals (e.g., Se). Molecular species are converted to atomic species in a low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Tasks of the proposed program center on development and validation of monatomic chalcogen chemistry, tuning of low-pressure monomer chalcogen sources, and evaluation of plasma-assisted co-evaporation (PACE) for CIGS co-evaporation. Likely advantages of deposition by plasma-enhanced co-evaporation include: (1) Providing potential for lower deposition temperature and/or for better film quality at higher deposition temperature. (2) Providing potential for decreased deposition times. (3) Providing high material utilization efficiency ({approx}90%) that results in less deposition on other parts of the reactor, leading to lower clean up and maintenance costs, as well as longer equipment lifetime. High material utilization efficiency also reduces the total operating pressure, which is beneficial for the design and control of metal co-evaporation. Advantages include minimal metal-vapor beam spread and lower source operating temperatures. (4) Enabling deposition of wide-bandgap copper indium gallium disulfur-selenide (CIGSS) films with controlled stoichiometry. University researchers at CSM are developing and testing the fundamental chemistry and engineering principles. Industrial researchers at ITN are adapting PACE technology to CIGSS co-evaporation and validating PACE process for fabrication of thin-film photovoltaics. In2Se3 films, which are used as precursor layers in high-efficiency CIGS depositions, were used this year as the first test case for examining the advantages of PACE listed above. Gradually, the investigation is being extended to the complete high-efficiency three-stage co-evaporation process.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Repins, I. & Wolden, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Simple Derivation of the Hauser-Feshbach and Weisskopf-Ewing Formulae, with Application to Surrogate Reactions

Description: The analysis of surrogate reactions, an indirect technique for determining cross sections on unstable nuclei, relies heavily on compound-nuclear reaction models. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an introduction to the principal models, based on the Hauser-Feshbach and Weisskopf-Ewing formalisms, and to show how they are applied to surrogate reactions.
Date: January 5, 2004
Creator: Dietrich, F S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Progress Report FY04 Quarter 1

Description: In this quarter, a simulation has been carried out to validate the FEM model for a production facility mill configuration, focusing on the shape change evolution of the slab. Results of ingot shape evolution for a 13 pass rolling simulation are given in Figure 1. It was observed that the rollover of the slab is strongly dependent on friction. More studies on friction laws may be necessary for more accurate prediction. Another important feature is the mesh dependence of the result. More frequent remeshing may be necessary to be able to capture the deformation behavior more accurately. These issues are currently being investigated. Also, we expect that ATC will provide the refined fracture model to LLNL shortly. Once available, appropriate modifications will be made in the FEM subroutines, and the validation process for slab fracture will continue.
Date: January 29, 2004
Creator: Couch, R G & Wang, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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