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Report on the Investigation Into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election [Redacted Version]

Description: Final report documenting the investigation of Russian interfefence in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and outlining evidence with source citations. It is organized in two volumes: "Volume I describes the facutal results of the Special Counsel's investigation of Russia's interference in the 2016 presidential election and its interactions with the Trump Campaign [...] Volume II addresses the President's actions towards the FBI's investigation [...] and related matters, and his actions towards the Special Counsel's investigation" (pp. 2-3).
Date: March 2019
Creator: Mueller, Robert S., III, 1944-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The ANCO System for Boron Isotope Enrichment Progress Report for Period Ending September 20, 1955

Description: A new gas-liquid countercurrent system (the ANCO system from Anisole-Complex) for the enrichment of boron isotopes has been developed. It is believed that use of this systems will result in a considerably lower unit cost for enriched boron-10 than was previously possible. The system utilizes the exchange reaction between BF3 (gas) and BF3·anisole (liquid) to concentrate boron-10 in the liquid phase. The single stage isotopic separation factor for this system has been found to vary from 1.039 at 0°C to 1.029 at 30°C. The isotopic exchange reaction has been shown to be rapid. Vapor pressures of the complex as a function of temperature have been measured and the heat of formation of the complex determined. Laboratory experiments show that quantitative removal of the BF3 from the complex can be accomplished by heating. A complete miniature ANCO plant was constructed and operated in the laboratory to test the feasibility of the system. The system was found to operate efficiently with a minimum of attention, and to enrich the isotopes of boron as expected. Based upon the experience obtained with the laboratory ANCO unit, a pilot plant large enough to utilize a 6-inch diameter exchange column was designed. The design calculations of the major pieces of equipment are presented.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Healy, R. M.; Joseph, K. F. & Palko, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-Thermal-Conductivity Fin Material for Radiators

Description: This report is the result of a study to develop heat-resistant fin materials possessing a high thermal conductivity for air radiators. Since an economical and commercially feasible product was desired, the investigation was restricted primarily to a study of electroplated copper, clad copper, and copper alloys. Sheet material 0.008 to 0.010 in. thick was evaluated for fabricability and for metallurgical stability and thermal conductivity at 1500°F. From the results of the rests it was concluded that: (1) electroplates were unsatisfactory; (2) clad-copper fins possessing a thermal conductivity of 50% of that of copper are commercially feasible; (3) copper-aluminum alloys possessing a thermal conductivity approaching that of copper at 1500°F are possible. Service tests of clad copper and the copper-aluminum alloys indicate that the choice of materials will be dictated by the requirements of the radiator, since each presents some unique problems.
Date: January 24, 1957
Creator: Inouye, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending March 10, 1956

Description: This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of the research on circulating-fuel reactors and ether ANP research at the Laboratory under its Contract W-7405-eng-26. The report is divided into three major parts: I. Reactor Theory, Component Development, and Construction, II. Materials Research, and III. Shielding Research.
Date: June 13, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cromer, S. J. & Miller, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biology Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending February 15, 1956

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biology Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes a summary of scholarly output from the division and departmental activities in cytology and genetics, mammalian genetics and development, microbial protection and recovery, mammalian recovery, pathology and physiology, general physiology, biochemistry, enzymology and photosynthesis, microbiology, plant biochemistry, and biophysics.
Date: April 20, 1956
Creator: Hollaender, Alexander & Carson, Stanley F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thorex Thorium Nitrate Product Specifications

Description: Activity and ionic impurity specifications are presented for Thorex thorium nitrate products. Two sets of specifications are given, one set for direct handling during refabrication of production reactor thorium metal slugs and the second for refabrication of future power reactor thorium metal elements by semi-remote technics. Consideration was given to the health hazard problems associated with each process step between the Thorex process and final refabricated source material in order to arrive at these specifications.
Date: May 24, 1956
Creator: Arnold, E. D. & Wischow, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending December 20, 1955

Description: Semiannual Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemistry Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work in inorganic and physical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, chemical physics, chemistry of separation processes, radiation chemistry, and reactor chemistry.
Date: April 13, 1956
Creator: Taylor, E. H. & Bredig, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of Trivalent Uranium in Fluoride Salt Mixtures by the Modified Hydrogen Evolution Method

Description: The hydrogen evolution method for the determination of uranium trifluoride which was developed by Manning, Miller and Rowan has been used for the determination of trivalent uranium in this laboratory for the past three years. The method has been applied to many different sample types supposedly pure UF3, mixtures of UF3 and UF4 and the large variety of mixtures of fluoride salts that have been investigated as possible nuclear fuels. These mixtures contained alkali metal, beryllium and zirconium fluorides. Several modifications have been made that have substantially improved the performance and ease of operation of the method. These improvements include the use of (1) an inexpensive, long-lasting source of pure carbon dioxide, (2) vacuum to assist in purging the system of gases that are insoluble in potassium hydroxide solution, (3) deaerated acid that has an extremely low quantity of non-absorbable gases, (4) slower flow rates of purging gas, (5) a sampling technique to minimize contamination, and (6) more dilute absorber solution to reduce film error. It is the purpose of this report to show the effect of these modifications and the applicability of the method various sample types that contain uranium trifluoride.
Date: February 26, 1956
Creator: White, J. C.; Meyer, A. S., Jr.; Vaughan, W. F.; Ross, W. J. & Manning, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bulk ThO2, a Reactor Material

Description: Thorium, a fertile material, is of interest to the Reactor Program in the production of U233. Thorium can be extracted and processed to a very pure bulk metal for fabrication into solid fertile elements. There are advantages, technical and economic, for using fabricated bulk thorium dioxide rather than the metal in some applications. It is the purpose of this paper to point out these advantages and to present briefly the technology related to fabrication, radiation damage and chemical processing of ThO2.
Date: May 24, 1956
Creator: Johnson, J. R. & Warde, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HRP Radiation Corrosion Studies

Description: A fifth in-pile loop experiment, L-4-8, was completed. The loop operated in-pile for a total of 1637 hr, during which time the LITR energy output was 4377 Mwhr. The average fission power in the loop based o cesium analyses was 622 w when the LITR was at full power (3 Mw). Based on oxygen data, the generalized corrosion rate for the first 300 hr was 4.0 mpy; the rate for the remaining 1357 hr was 0.7 mpy. The nickel data gave parallel results. The corrosion of the type 347 stainless steel, Zircaloy-2, and Ti-55AX [unintelligible] exposed in the core and in in-line holders was generally consistent with that observed in previous in-pile loop experiments. Some differences with steel were attributed to the fact that this was the first loop containing steel specimens operated with 0.04 m H2SO4 present in the uranyl sulfate charge solution (0.17 m UO2SO4, 0.03 m CuSO4). Stress specimens, made from the alloys Zircaloy-2, type 17-4 PH stainless steel, and Ti-C-130-AM, were exposed in care, in-line, and pressurizer locations. Microscopic examination and average weight loss gave no indication of effects attributable to the stressed condition of the specimens.
Date: August 21, 1956
Creator: Baker, J. E.; Bradley, N. C.; Jenks, G. H.; Olsen, A. R.; Savage, H. C. & Walter, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fission Product Activities in Irradiated Natural Uranium, Enriched Uranium, and Thorium

Description: Calculated data and graphs describing the effects of batch thermal-neutron irradiations on the buildup of fission products in natural uranium, enriched uranium, and thorium are presented together with empirical equations and plots correlating total fission product activities and/or decontamination factors. Fluxes of 1012-1015 are considered.
Date: March 28, 1956
Creator: Arnold, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Combined Distillation-Electrochemical Method for Recovery of Hydrofluoric Acid

Description: Electrodialysis in an ion-exchange membrane cell was shown to be technically feasible for the concentration of an azeotropic mixture of HF and water. A flowsheet is presented for recovery of anhydrous HF by distillation and electrodialysis of the azeotropic residue. In the electrodialysis step, 2.6 kwhr of energy per pound of anhydrous product was consumed, with electricity at 1¢ per kilowatt-hour, the total operating cost of the electrodialysis equipment alone, including amortization, would be 6¢ per pound of HF.
Date: May 25, 1956
Creator: Marinsky, J. A. & Giuffrida, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography of ORNL-BSF Reports Pertinent to Swimming Pool Type Reactor Design (Revised)

Description: Much of the shielding work carried out with the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) has yielded data of particular interest for the design of swimming pool type reactors, However, it is often difficult for a reactor designer to locate such data since it may be recorded in a report primarily concerned with shielding problems. Therefore, this memorandum presents a bibliography of reports from the Bulk Shielding Facility arranged according to the application of data to the various aspects of reactor design.
Date: April 13, 1956
Creator: Maienschein, F. C. & Johnson, E. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electronuclear Research Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending September 20, 1955

Description: The installations of the beam deflector in the ORL 86-inch Cyclotron is sufficiently complete to allow initial testing the system permits the optional use of high-current internal targets. A survey of [illegible] cross sections made with 14-Mev neutrons indicates qualitative agreement with statistical theory. An internal-conversion ion spectrograph and a fission-fragment spectrograph were built and put in operation. The [illegible] functions severed proton-induced reactions of possible use in isotope production were measured. A capsule-type target is being used for the irradiation of chemical compounds. Nuclear physics research with 26-Mev nitrogen lens from the ORNL 63-inch Cyclotron concerned the following: a theoretical interpretation of elastic nitrogen-nitrogen scattering a detailed investigation of some nitrogen-nitrogen nuclear reactions; the measurement of reactions across sections in boron and aluminum; and the identification and the energy spectre of protons and alpha particles resulting from nitrogen-induced reactions with light elements. A study is being made of the practicality of a fixed-frequency cyclotron to accelerate protons to about 1 [illegible] for application in [illegible] research. Phase compensation would be obtained with an unusual magnetic-field configuration which has eight [illegible] cycles with about 72 deg of spiral, Also, a proposal was made to convert the 44-in. proton cyclotron a new 48-in. magnet would permit the acceleration of heavy ions to energies up to 81 Mev.
Date: November 1955
Creator: Livingston, Robert S. & Howard, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of a Cubic Oxide Protective Film on Zirconium

Description: Observations of the effects of neutron damage to zirconium oxides led to the conclusion that the cubic form of ZrO2 is more stable to such damage than the monoclinic form. It has been reported that zirconium corrodes more rapidly in certain liquids when exposure is made under radiation (neutrons and fission products). It is well known that on heating monoclinic ZrO2 a transformation, monoclinic to tetragonal (very similar to cubic), occurs at about 1500°C. The transformation involves sufficient atomic rearrangement that pieces of ZrO2 normally crack and crumble. It is suggested that the effects of neutrons on monoclinic ZrO2 may be similar so that a protective oxide film on the metal would be destroyed soon after its formation. It might be possible, therefore, that the protective oxide film on zirconium metal which is normally monoclinic might be less resistant to corrosion under radiation damage than a similar film which was cubic.
Date: February 21, 1956
Creator: Johnson, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Some Experiments Relating Ion Diffusion in a Plasma to the Neutral Gas Density in the Presence of a Magnetic Field

Description: In some recent experiments the ion density in a plasma was measured as a function of radial distance from a d-c arc source of ions for the magnetic field intensities from 2500 to 14000 oersted. The diffusion coefficient appeared to very inversely as the square of the magnetic field strength, D~1/H2. The absolute value of D was shown to be approximately that which would be predicted by the collision diffusion theory when account is taken of the shorting effect of the end walls. The purpose of this report is to continue the examination of ion diffusion in a plasma and field experimentally the relation between the diffusion coefficient and the neutral gas pressure for a constant magnetic field.
Date: June 15, 1956
Creator: Reidigh, Rodger V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary Results of APPR Critical Experiments, Part I.

Description: This memorandum is the first in a series reporting progress in the program of critical experiments in the ORNLArmy Package Power Reactor Project. The critical assembly, designated as CA-25, is analogous to the APPR design core and consists of 45 fuel boxes, in a 7 x 7 array with the corners removed, contaIned in a large water tank. Two sides of each box are slotted for the insertion and positioning of any desired loading of eighteen plates of fuel, structural material, and poison. The array is submerged in water to provide a moderated and reflector. Enriched uranium metal, in two-mil-thick foils 2.5 x 22 in, is encased in type 304 stainless steel sheets, 2.7 x 23 x 0.0105 in., to form fuel plates. Stainless steel plates, 2.7 x 23 x 0.025 in. are used to simulate additional steel in the APPR core. It is, therefore, possible to maintain an essentially constant metal to water ration in the assembly when the fuel content is varied. The fuel is distributed as uniformly as possible in all boxes and a symmetrical distribution of materials is maintained in the core at all times. Fuel plates containing half-width (1.25 in) uranium foils are provided for making small changes in loading
Date: November 25, 1955
Creator: Williams, D. V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Scattering of Co60 Gamma Rays: Theory Versus Experiment

Description: For Co60 source at 15 meters, the air-scattered gamma dose rate predicted by theory is excerpted from ORNL-1575, pp. 167-203. This is compared with experimental measurements for the same source and comparable geometry reported by Convair in CVAC-170T. After applying an appropriate correction for ground scattering as estimated in Mart-55-16T (Convair), the two results are found to be in substantial agreement.
Date: April 17, 1958
Creator: Moran, Rubert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ORNL Mortal Recovery Plant: Processing of ORNL Graphite Reactor Fuel Elements During the Period July and August, 1955

Description: From July 7 to August 31, 1955, 20 tons of uranium and 1,200 g of plutonium were recovered in 47 days of plant operation at an average rate of 833 lb/day of uranium and at a cost of $2.60/lb of uranium. Uranium and plutonium recoveries were, respectively, 99.9 and 95.5 per cent.
Date: November 11, 1955
Creator: Brooksbank, R. E.; Chandler, J. M. & Hylton, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Methods of Analysis of Anisole-BF3 Solution

Description: The methods of analysis given in this report are those which were used in the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analyzing samples which were derived from the experimental work on the separation of the isotopes of boron by chemical exchange. The samples consisted principally of boron trifluoride solutions in anisole (methyl phenyl ether, CH30C6H5). The boron concentration ranged from a few parts per million to 5 or 6 per cent. Boron was determined on all samples. During the early stages of the project, iron and copper were occasionally determined, while a limited number of aqueous solutions and water extracts of anisole solutions of BF3 were analyzed for fluoboric and hydroxyfluoboric acids, boric acid, total boron, and total fluoride. Boron was determined by the use of either a spectrophotometric or volumetric method, depending on the amount available. Initially, if the amount of sample and boron concentration were such as to provide a total of at least 2 to 4 mg of boron, the volumetric method was utilized and found to be satisfactory. For smaller amount, the spectrophotometric method was used. Later, because of its greater speed and simplicity, the spectrophotometric method was used for samples in the intermediate range of 4 to 20 mg of boron in preference to the volumetric method. The latter method includes a step which requires four hours for hydrolyzing fluoboric acid completely to boric acid. This time-consuming step is avoided by the use of the spectrophotometric method. Iron and copper were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Orthophenanthroline was used as the chromogenic reagent in the determination of iron, whereas sodium diethylidithiocarbamate was used for determining copper. A special technique, developed by Wamser (1), was used, with some modifications, for the determination of fluboric and hydroxyfluboric acids, boric acid, and fluoride in a …
Date: January 11, 1956
Creator: House, H. P.; Lund, J. R.; French, J. R.; Meyer, A. S., Jr.; Lynn, E. C.; Brady, L. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 10, 1955

Description: This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of the research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory under its Contract W-7405-eng-26. The report is divided into three major parts: I. Reactor Theory, Component Development, and Construction, II. Materials Research, and III. Shielding Research. The ANP Project is comprised of about 530 technical and scientific personnel engaged in many phases of research directed forward the achievement of nuclear propulsion of aircraft. A considerable portion of this research is performed in support of the work of other organizations participating in the national ANP effort. However, the bulk of the ANP research at ORNL is directed toward the development of a circulating-fuel type of reactor. The design, construction, and operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART), with the cooperation of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, are the specific objectives of the project. The ART is to be a power plant system that will include a 60-Mv circulating-fuel reflector-moderated reactor and adequate means for heat disposal. Operation of the system will be for the purpose of determining the feasibility, and the problems associated with the design, construction, and operation, of a high-power, circulating-fuel, reflector-moderated aircraft reactor system.
Date: March 12, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cremer, S. J.; Miller, A. J. & Savelainen, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Technology of Uranium Dioxide a Reactor Material

Description: Consideration has been given to various forms of fissionable material for use in atomic reactors, including the pure metals, their alloys and compounds. Of particular interest is the dioxide of uranium which is refractory and corrosion resistant in some environments.The oxide is useful in both granular and bulk forms. Small grains of uranium oxide can be mixed with other materials to form matrix type elements where they serve either as a convenient or necessary form of fuel or fertile material. For other applications the oxide may be fabricated in bulk form such as pellets, rods, plates, or blocks.There is a need for knowledge of the properties of the properties of this oxide, particularly as it affects fabrication in the various forms required. This knowledge is also required by reactor designers and engineers. There is in addition a challenging field for basic studies of sintering rates, oxidation behavior and other phenomena. Fabrication techniques have been developed to produce uranium oxide in various forms with consideration given to the economy of production. The continued application of basic knowledge of these materials has led to simpler. more practical means of fabrication and has thus widened the scope of their use in atomic reactors.
Date: February 21, 1956
Creator: Johnson, J. R.; Doney, L. M.; Fulkerson, S. D.; Taylor, A. J.; Warde, J. M. & White, G. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Separation of Isotopes Section Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending June 30, 1955

Description: The countercurrent gas-liquid system BF3(g)—anisole·BF3(l) for the concentration of boron isotopes has been studied. The single-storage separation factor varies from 1.039 at 0°C to 1.029 at 30°C. Rate of exchange is rapid, and, with efficient contacting equipment, complete exchange may be obtained in less than 15 sec. A total separation of 1.525 has been realized in laboratory equipment. The critical-product reflux reaction is quite efficient. Only about 55 moles of BF3 remain in each million moles of effluent solvent under laboratory conditions. The vapor pressure of BF3 over the complex rises sharply as the temperature is increased. At 0°C the pressure is 150 mm Hg, and at 40°C the pressure has risen to 1800 mm Hg. From vapor-pressure measurements, an approximate upper limit of ΔH= -12kcal per mole of complex was calculated for the reaction [equation not transcribed]. Qualitative tests indicate good resistance of anisole to decomposition by BF3 under plant conditions. The uncatalyzed exchange of boron between BF3 and BCl3 was found to be too slow to be exploited in a countercurrent system. The single-stage, equilibrium separation factor for the Nitrox system is a function of acid concentration. At 26°C the factor ranges from 1.064 with 1 M acid to 1.020 with 15 M acid. A contractor is described for studies on gas-liquid equilibria. A product-end refluxer for the Nitrox system, NO(g) vs HNO3(aq), was designed and operated and was found to be satisfactory for use in this exchange system. The nitrogen-isotope separation factor for the system NO(g) vs FeNO++(aq) was found to be 1.009 at 16.5°C. The N13 concentrated in the liquid phase. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes between aqueous ammonium hydroxide and metal-ammonia complexes adsorbed on Dowex 50 resin is being studied. The separation factors for complexes of Ni, Cu, and Zn have been measured; further experiments …
Date: February 23, 1956
Creator: Clewett, G. H. & Drury, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of Traces of Uranium Metal by Decomposition of the Hydride

Description: Two methods were developed for the determination of uranium metal in UF3 with other fluoride compounds. A simplified method of determination which has a relatively high degree of precision (coefficient of variation 2 per cent) is carried out by decomposing the hydride in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide and subsequently measuring the hydrogen over an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide. The ignition of the hydride in an atmosphere of oxygen and volumetric measurement of the water at reduced pressures provide a more sensitive method of determination. The coefficient of variation of the latter procedure is 7 per cent. The yield of gas from the reaction of the hydride with ammonia and gaseous hydrogen chloride was found to be neither stoichiometric nor reproducible.
Date: November 9, 1955
Creator: Meyer, A. S., Jr.; McDowell, B. L. & White, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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