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Do-It-Yourself Ecology

Description: This report deals with how to develop a good environment.
Date: May 25, 1970
Creator: Environmental Action Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Murgatroyd-an Ibm 7090 Program for the Analysis of the Kinetics of the Msre

Description: An addition is presented for the IBM-7090 program MURGATROYD to produce a rough graph of reactor power versus time. A sample of output is included for the case given as an example. (J.R.D.)
Date: May 25, 1962
Creator: Nestor, C. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

Description: Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented.
Date: May 25, 1977
Creator: Kusler, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Flood Safety of the Mixed Spectrum Superheater

Description: Calculations are presented which show that the reactivity effect of flooding and unflooding the fast superheating section of the Mixed Spectrum Superheater can be made small by the addition of epithermal poisons to the superheater. The reactivity effects of flooding superheater sections ranging in size from 1.25 to 3.5 ft cubes and containing U/sup 23/5/sup >/oxide or Pu/sup 239/ oxide fuel and various amounts o f the epithermal poison europium were calculated. Reactivity changes during several postulated flooding processes are given. Methods for deterthination of fissile and fertile material and poison cross sections in the resonance- region are discussed. (auth)
Date: May 25, 1961
Creator: Reynolds, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defense Acquisitions: Knowledge of Software Suppliers Needed to Manage Risks

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) is increasingly reliant on software and information systems for its weapon capabilities, and DOD prime contractors are subcontracting more of their software development. The increased reliance on software and a greater number of suppliers results in more opportunities to exploit vulnerabilities in defense software. In addition, DOD has reported that countries hostile to the United States are focusing resources on information warfare strategies. Therefore, software security, including the need for protection of software code from malicious activity, is an area of concern for many DOD programs. GAO was asked to examine DOD's efforts to (1) identify software development suppliers and (2) manage risks related to foreign involvement in software development on weapon systems."
Date: May 25, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Deaf and hard of hearing children can face significant challenges developing the language and literacy skills needed to succeed in school and become self-sufficient adults. The federal government supports these children through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, which awards grants to states to develop systems to screen and diagnose newborns and infants for hearing loss and refer them for appropriate interventions. Also, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) supports and funds early intervention and special education services for children with disabilities, including deafness and hearing loss. To better understand how federal programs support deaf and hard of hearing children, GAO was asked to examine the: (1) extent of hearing loss among children, (2) settings in which these children are educated, (3) factors that help deaf and hard of hearing children acquire language and literacy skills, and (4) challenges to providing appropriate interventions for these children. GAO analyzed data on hearing loss; reviewed research literature; interviewed educators, national organizations, parents, and state and federal officials; and examined relevant federal laws and regulations. A draft of this report was provided to the Departments of Education and Health and Human Services for review and comment. Each provided technical comments, which were incorporated into the report, as appropriate. GAO makes no recommendations in this report."
Date: May 25, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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VA Health Care: Steps Taken to Improve Practitioner Screening, but Facility Compliance with Screening Requirements Is Poor

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In March 2004, GAO reported on gaps in VA's requirements for screening the professional credentials and personal backgrounds of health care practitioners (GAO-04-566). GAO found that VA's requirements did not ensure thorough screening of VA practitioners. VA concurred with four recommendations GAO made to improve practitioner screening. GAO was asked to determine the extent to which (1) VA has taken steps to improve practitioner screening by implementing GAO's recommendations and (2) VA facilities are in compliance with VA's practitioner screening requirements. GAO reviewed VA's current practitioner screening policies to determine if gaps remain, interviewed VA officials, and sampled about 60 practitioner files at each of seven VA facilities selected based on size and geographic location."
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Combating Terrorism: Law Enforcement Agencies Lack Directives to Assist Foreign Nations to Identify, Disrupt, and Prosecute Terrorists

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Three U.S. national strategies, developed in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, directed U.S. law enforcement agencies (LEA) to focus on the prevention of terrorist attacks. The strategies called for LEAs to intensify their efforts to help foreign nations identify, disrupt, and prosecute terrorists. GAO was asked to assess (1) the guidance for LEAs to assist foreign nations to identify, disrupt, and prosecute terrorists and (2) the extent to which LEAs have implemented this guidance."
Date: May 25, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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File Sharing Programs: The Use of Peer-to-Peer Networks to Access Pornography

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing programs represent a major change in the way Internet users find and exchange information. The increasingly popular P2P programs allow direct communication between computer users who can access and share digital music, images, and video files. These programs are known for having the functionality to share copyrighted digital music and movies, and they are also a conduit for sharing pornographic images and videos. Regarding these uses of P2P programs, GAO was asked to, among other things, determine how many P2P programs are available to the public and which are the most popular P2P programs; determine the ease of access to pornographic files on popular P2P programs and the risk of inadvertent exposure; describe how P2P program filters operate and determine their effectiveness; and determine how the effectiveness of filters offered by P2P programs compares to filters provided by leading Internet search engines. In commenting on a draft of this report, DHS officials agreed that that our report accurately represented the work performed by the Cyber Crimes Center."
Date: May 25, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Disability Employment: Further Action Needed to Oversee Efforts to Meet Federal Government Hiring Goals

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) and the Department of Labor (Labor) have taken steps to implement the executive order and help agencies recruit, hire, and retain more employees with disabilities. OPM provided guidance to help agencies develop disability hiring plans and reviewed the 66 plans submitted. OPM identified deficiencies in most of the plans. For example, though 40 of 66 agencies included a process for increasing the use of a special hiring authority to increase the hiring of people with disabilities, 59 agencies did not meet all of OPM’s review criteria, and 32 agencies had not addressed plan deficiencies as of April 2012. In response to executive order reporting requirements, OPM officials said they had briefed the White House on issues related to implementation, but they did not provide information on deficiencies in all plans. While the order does not specify what information these reports should include beyond addressing progress, providing information on deficiencies would enable the White House to hold agencies accountable. OPM is still developing the mandatory training programs for officials on the employment of individuals with disabilities, as required by the executive order. Several elective training efforts exist to help agencies hire and retain employees with disabilities, but agency officials said that more information would help them better use available tools. To track and measure progress towards meeting the executive order’s goals, OPM relies on employees to voluntarily disclose a disability. Yet, agency officials, including OPM’s, are concerned about the quality of the data. For example, agency officials noted that people may not disclose their disability due to concerns about how the information may be used. Without quality data, agencies may be challenged to effectively implement and assess the impact of their …
Date: May 25, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Disaster Assistance Workforce: FEMA Could Enhance Human Capital Management and Training

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has taken steps to enhance its management of the Disaster Assistance Employee (DAE) program, such as through the establishment of a credentialing program, the FEMA Qualification System (FQS); however, management controls and training could be strengthened. For example, FEMA does not monitor how the regions implement DAE policies and how DAEs implement disaster policies across regions to ensure consistency. FEMA’s Administrator noted that due to differences in how regions operate, it is problematic to deploy someone based in one region to another during a disaster. Establishing a mechanism to monitor both the regional implementation of DAE policies and procedures and DAE’s implementation of disaster policies could help provide FEMA with reasonable assurance that disaster assistance is conducted in accordance with policy and implemented consistently."
Date: May 25, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defense Infrastructure: Documentation Lacking to Fully Support How DOD Determined Specifications for the Landstuhl Replacement Medical Center

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Department of Defense (DOD) officials considered current beneficiary population data, contingency operations, and most of the expected changes in troop strength when planning for the replacement medical center. However, recently announced posture changes in January 2012 have yet to be assessed for their impact on the facility. DOD estimates that the replacement medical center will provide health care for nearly 250,000 beneficiaries. A majority of those who are expected to receive health care from the center come from within a 55-mile radius of the facility. DOD officials told us that because the replacement medical center was designed for peacetime operations—with the capacity to expand to meet the needs of contingency operations—reductions in ongoing contingency operations in Afghanistan would not have an impact on facility requirements. At the time of this review, DOD officials said they were in the process of assessing proposed changes in posture to better understand their possible impact on the sizing of the replacement medical center."
Date: May 25, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Smithsonian Institution: Much Work Still Needed to Identify and Repatriate Indian Human Remains and Objects

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The National Museum of the American Indian Act of 1989 (NMAI Act), as amended in 1996, generally requires the Smithsonian Institution to inventory and identify the origins of its Indian human remains and objects placed with them (funerary objects) and repatriate them to culturally affiliated Indian tribes upon request. It also creates a special committee to oversee this process. According to the Smithsonian, two of its museums--the American Indian and the Natural History Museums-- have items that are subject to the act. GAO was asked to determine (1) the extent to which the Smithsonian has fulfilled its repatriation requirements, (2) how the special committee provisions have been implemented, and (3) the number of human remains and objects that have been repatriated and reasons for any that have not. GAO reviewed museum records, including 171 repatriation case reports, and interviewed Smithsonian, Repatriation Review Committee, and tribal officials."
Date: May 25, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Nanotechnology involves the ability to control matter at the scale of a nanometer--one billionth of a meter. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. In this context, GAO (1) identified examples of current and potential uses of nanomaterials, (2) determined what is known about the potential human health and environmental risks from nanomaterials, (3) assessed actions EPA has taken to better understand and regulate the risks posed by nanomaterials as well as its authorities to do so, and (4) identified approaches that other selected national authorities and actions U.S. states have taken to address the potential risks associated with nanomaterials. GAO analyzed selected laws and regulations, reviewed information on EPA's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program, and consulted with EPA officials and legal experts to obtain their perspectives on EPA's authorities to regulate nanomaterials."
Date: May 25, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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VA Health Care: Selected Credentialing Requirements at Seven Medical Facilities Met, but an Aspect of Privileging Process Needs Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is responsible for determining that over 36,000 physicians working in its facilities have the appropriate professional credentials and qualifications to deliver health care to veterans. To do this, VA credentials and privileges physicians providing care at its medical facilities. In this report, GAO determined the extent to which selected VA facilities complied with (1) four VA credentialing requirements and five VA privileging requirements and (2) a requirement to submit information on paid malpractice claims. GAO also determined (3) whether VA has internal controls to help ensure the accuracy of information used to renew clinical privileges. GAO reviewed VA's policies, interviewed VA officials, and randomly sampled 17 physician files at each of seven VA medical facilities."
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defense Inventory: Actions Needed to Improve Inventory Retention Management

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Maintaining the right amount and types of items in its inventory--a key aspect of supply chain management--has been a long-standing challenge for the Department of Defense (DOD) and has been on GAO's list of high-risk areas since 1990. DOD retains inventory above its normal operating requirements for various reasons including for contingency purposes or because it is more economical to keep items than dispose and repurchase them later. DOD's inventory levels have grown in recent years to almost $80 billion in fiscal year 2005. GAO was asked to assess the management of contingency retention inventory to determine whether (1) the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Defense Logistics Agency have followed inventory guidance and (2) DOD is providing oversight of inventory across these components. Also, GAO provided an update on the progress DOD has made in implementing GAO's past recommendations on the components' management of economic retention inventory."
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Pollution: Air Quality and Respiratory Problems in and Near the Great Smoky Mountains

Description: A briefing report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Concerns have been growing about the air quality, visibility, and respiratory illnesses around the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which straddles the border between North Carolina and Tennessee. This report analyzes recent trends in and contributing factors to (1) visibility impairments, (2) ground-level ozone, and (3) respiratory illnesses. This report also examines the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) plans to reduce its emission of regulated pollutants from generating electricity. Visibility impairments and ozone are largely attributable to the following three types of emissions: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. The counties that border the park generally have slightly higher mortality rates from two types of respiratory illness. The three types of emissions interact in the atmosphere to form ozone gas and sulfate particles, which are linked to respiratory illnesses. In response to federal laws and other factors, TVA is making substantial environment-related investments and expects to reduce its annual emissions of sulfur dioxide by 40 percent and its "ozone-season"' emissions of nitrogen oxides by 70 percent between 1999 and 2005."
Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Secure Border Initiative: Controls over Contractor Payments for the Technology Component Need Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 2005, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiated a multibillion-dollar contract to secure part of the nation's borders, the Secure Border Initiative (SBI). At that time, SBI was to include a single solution technology component; SBInet. DHS assigned the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) responsibility for overseeing the SBI contract, including SBInet. In January 2011, DHS announced that it was ending SBInet, and replacing it with a new technology portfolio. GAO was asked to (1) assess CBP's controls over payments to the prime contractor under the original SBInet program, and (2) provide information about the SBI program prime contractor's reporting against small business subcontracting goals. GAO assessed CBP controls against federal standards for internal control and relevant federal regulatory provisions, and summarized data on contractor performance against small business contracting goals."
Date: May 25, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DOD and VA Pharmacy: Progress and Remaining Challenges in Jointly Buying and Mailing Out Drugs

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) have made important progress, particularly during the past year, in their efforts to jointly procure drugs to help control spiraling prescription drug costs. Although their collaborative efforts have been impressive, the two agencies have largely targeted generic drugs, which comprise less than 10 percent of their combined expenditures. More dramatic cost reductions could be achieved through procurements of high-cost brand-name drugs, although doing so can be more complex and time consuming to garner the necessary clinical support and provider acceptance on therapeutic interchangeability. Nonetheless, DOD's greatly expanded retiree drug benefit and the formularies being developed by both agencies should provide added joint procurement opportunities for such drugs. Also, VA and DOD have shown that flexible approaches to developing joint solicitations can take into account differences in their health systems while still maximizing drug discounts. In GAO's view, their joint activities could be further enhanced by periodically conferring with private managed care pharmacy experts and reporting to Congress on their joint procurement activities. Top management at DOD and VA need to stay focused on their joint procurement and distribution activities as leadership changes continue at the two agencies. VA and DOD have also made progress in their efforts to conduct a consolidated mail outpatient pharmacy pilot. The sooner the pilot proves feasible, the sooner DOD can begin to realize the financial and quality of care benefits associated with the transfer of its refill workload."
Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear Cleanup: DOE Should Reevaluate Waste Disposal Options Before Building New Facilities

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Unless the Department of Energy (DOE) revisits its disposal needs and its current option for disposing of wastes off-site, it could miss opportunities to reduce cleanup costs at the Fernald, Oak Ridge, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sites and at other sites, such as Paducah, that might propose the development of new on-site facilities. Building in a decision checkpoint before major investment decisions are finalized could identify instances in which the use of off-site disposal would be less expensive, or when the cost difference no longer outweighs the long-term risks associated with on-site disposal. Such validation of the cost comparison is especially important in instances in which DOE is aware that the scope or timeframe of the cleanup effort has changed dramatically. Remaining open to new proposals for off-site disposal would also inject an element of competition into this process. Thus, even if the validation did nothing more than confirm the original decision to dispose of the wastes on-site, it has the potential to ensure that costs are kept to a minimum."
Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Securities Investor Protection: Steps Needed to Better Disclose SIPC Policies to Investors

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 created the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) to help protect customers against losses from the failure of a securities firm. However, the large number of claims denied in several recent SIPC liquidation proceedings has raised concerns that some SIPC policies and practices may unduly limit the actual protection afforded customers. This report discusses (1) the basis for SIPC policies involving unauthorized trading and the extent that these policies are disclosed to investors; (2) the basis for SIPC policies involving the affiliates of SIPC member firms and the extent that these policies are disclosed to investors; (3) SEC oversight of SIPC; and (4) the disclosure rules for SIPC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and state insurance guarantee associations, as well as the related implications for consumers as the financial services industry consolidates."
Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Global Health: Joint U.N. Programme on HIV/AIDS Needs to Strengthen Country-Level Efforts and Measure Results

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Despite efforts by the international community to reduce the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world and the primary cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), funded in part by the United States, is one important international effort against the disease. UNAIDS was established by the United Nations (U.N.) in 1996 to provide coordinated U.N. action and to lead and promote an expanded global response to the worldwide epidemic. This report (1) assesses UNAIDS' progress, especially at the country level, toward increasing the coordination and commitment of the U.N. and global community; (2) assesses UNAIDS' progress in providing technical assistance and information and in developing a monitoring and evaluation plan to measure results; and (3) identifies factors that may have affected UNAIDS' progress. GAO found that UNAIDS has made progress in increasing U.N. coordination and enhancing the global response to the worldwide HIV/AIDS epidemic, but its country-level efforts need to be strengthened. UNAIDS has provided financial and technical support to about 50 HIV/AIDS technical networks worldwide, but has not been as successful in tracking the funding and actions host governments and others have taken to address the AIDS problem. UNAIDS has also been unable to follow its intended model of U.N. reform, whereby a single Secretariat together with several U.N. agencies would marshal the U.N. and global community's resources to address the AIDS epidemic."
Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Federal Pensions: Judicial Survivors' Annuities System Costs

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed certain aspects of the Judicial Survivors' Annuities Systems (JSAS), which provides annuities to the surviving spouses and dependent children of deceased federal judges and other judicial officials who participate in JSAS."
Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defense Inventory: Approach for Deciding Whether to Retain or Dispose of Items Needs Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "As of September 1999, the Department of Defense (DOD) reported that it owned secondary inventory worth about $64 billion and that $9.4 billion of that inventory is more economical to retain than to dispose of and possibly repurchase later. This report focuses on whether DOD's economic retention decisions are sound. GAO found that military components (other than the Air Force) have developed models to help make economic retention decisions on secondary inventory. However, none of the components now use their economic retention models. Instead, they and the Air Force use ceilings to limit the amount of economic retention inventory they hold. Components have not properly documented their approaches to economic retention decisions. For example, common model factors vary and assumptions are inconsistent and out of date. In addition, DOD lacked sound analytical support for the maximum levels it now uses. As a result, the components cannot depend on their models or ceilings to determine retention inventory levels without review and improvement. They also have not reviewed their approaches annually. As a result, the Department does not have a sound basis for its approach to manage items held in economic retention status. Consequently, the Department cannot guarantee that inventories held in economic retention are the right amount."
Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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