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Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation

Description: One approach being proposed to more cost-effectively achieve national air quality goals is a "multi-pollutant" strategy -- a framework based on a consistent set of emissions caps, implemented through emissions trading. This report discusses this strategy and related legislation.
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Legislative Issues

Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR.
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY2000 Budget Issues

Description: State and local wastewater and drinking water capital needs were the most prominent budgetary issues. Senate and House authorizing and appropriating chairmen expressed concern over the requested 17% decrease in the State and Tribal Assistance Grants account from $3.41 billion in FY1999 to $2.84 billion in FY2000. The conference agreement on H.R. 2684 provides a total of $3.47 billion. For clean water state revolving funds, the conference committee approved the Senate's level of $1.35 billion, about $175 million more than the House approved and roughly $550 million more than requested. The conference agreement included $332 million for special project grants, about $73 million more than the House's proposal, roughly $232 million more than the Senate approved, and about $304 million more than requested. For drinking water state revolving funds, the conference committee approved $820 million, $45 million more than the House's amount and $5 million less than the Senate approved and the President requested. The conference committee also approved the Administration's request of $885 million for state and tribal administrative grants, which is roughly the same as the amount enacted for FY1999.
Date: October 22, 1999
Creator: Lee, Martin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Congressional Budget Act Points of Order

Description: Title III of the Congressional Budget Act (CBA) of 1974 (P.L. 93-344), as amended, establishes the points of order that are used to enforce congressional budget procedures and substantive provisions of a budget resolution. These points of order prohibit certain congressional actions and consideration of certain legislation.
Date: October 22, 1998
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Description: The Senate “pay-as-you-go,” or PAYGO, rule generally requires that any legislation increasing direct spending or reducing revenues be offset. A motion to waive the rule requires an affirmative vote of three-fifths of the membership (i.e., 60 Senators if no seats are vacant). Beginning in 1993, six points of order under the PAYGO rule have been raised against an entire bill or an amendment. Of these six points of order, four were sustained and two fell upon the adoption of a waiver motion.
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Highway Fund Sanctions for Clean Air Act Violations

Description: This report provides information concerning the authority to impose sanctions, lists the 14 areas that have been subject to sanctions since 1990, describes their status as of October 1997, and discusses the role of sanctions and alternatives under the Act.
Date: October 22, 1997
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Terrorism, the Media, and the Government: Perspectives, Trends, and Options for Policymakers

Description: Terrorists, governments, and the media see the function, roles and responsibilities of the media when covering terrorist events from differing and often competing perspectives. Such perspectives drive behavior during terrorist incidents--often resulting in both tactical and strategic gains to the terrorist operation and the overall terrorist cause. The challenge to both the governmental and press communities is to understand the dynamics of terrorist enterprise and to develop policy options designed to serve the interests of government, the media, and the society.
Date: October 22, 1997
Creator: Perl, Raphael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Drug Certification Requirements and Congressional Modifications in 2001-2002

Description: This report provides a brief summary of the existing drug certification requirements for drug producing and drug-transit countries, background on the experience, criticisms, and reform efforts under these provisions; a summary of early congressional options and proposals advanced in 2001, with possible advantages and disadvantages; a summary of later initiatives with legislative activity; and (5) a tracking of legislative action on the major initiatives.
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Clean Air Act Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: The conference report on the energy bill (H.R. 6), which came to the House and Senate floor for action the week of November 17, 2003, contained several Clean Air Act provisions. Most of these are also contained in S. 2095, a revised version of the bill introduced February 12, 2004, and in H.R. 4503, which passed the House June 15, 2004. Most of the air provisions concern the gasoline additives MTBE and ethanol, used to meet Clean Air Act requirements that reformulated gasoline (RFG) sold in the nation’s worst ozone nonattainment areas contain at least 2% oxygen, to improve combustion.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom accomplished a long-standing U.S. objective, the overthrow of Saddam Hussein, but replacing his regime with a stable, moderate, democratic political structure has run into significant difficulty. That outcome would contribute to preventing Iraq from becoming a sanctuary for terrorists, a key recommendation of the September 11 Commission report (Chapter 12, Section 2). During the 1990s, U.S. efforts to change the regime covertly failed because of limited U.S. commitment, disorganization of the Iraqi opposition, and the vigilance of Iraq’s several overlapping security services. Previous U.S. Administrations had ruled out a U.S. military invasion to change the regime, believing such action would be risky and that Iraq did not necessarily pose a level of threat that would justify doing so. President George W. Bush characterized Iraq as a grave potential threat to the United States because of its refusal to abandon its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs and its potential to transfer WMD to terrorist groups. After a November 2002-March 2003 round of U.N. WMD inspections in which Iraq’s cooperation was mixed, on March 19, 2003, the United States launched Operation Iraqi Freedom to disarm Iraq and change its regime. The regime fell on April 9, 2003.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Grants Information for Constituents

Description: This report mainly discusses about the Grants Information for Constituents and key sources of information on government and private grants for state and community projects.
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: Gerli, Merete F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assistance After Hurricanes and Other Disasters: FY2004 and FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations

Description: After a series of devastating hurricanes struck Florida and other states in the summer of 2004, the 108th Congress passed two emergency supplemental appropriations statutes that provide a total of $16.475 billion to areas stricken by the hurricanes and other natural disasters. The House and Senate quickly approved legislation (H.R. 5005) the day after President Bush submitted a request on September 6 for $2 billion in FY2004 funding, largely in response to the devastation caused by Hurricanes Charley and Frances in Florida. The other issue that was a matter of public debate focused on a proposed amendment in the House to fully offset the cost of the FY2005 supplemental through a proportional reduction in discretionary funds; the House rejected the amendment.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Bea, Keith & Chite, Ralph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Airborne Laser (ABL): Issues for Congress

Description: This report examines the airborne laser (ABL) program and budget status. It also examines a variety of related issues, including the questionable maturity of ABL technologies, the number of ABL platforms the United States should acquire, and to what degree the United STates should invest in alternative technologies in the event that the ABL may not prove successful. This report does not provide a detailed technical assessment of the ABL program (see CRS Report RL30185, The Airborne Laser Anti-Missile Program).
Date: October 22, 2003
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Hildreth, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Farm Credit Services of America Ends Attempt to Leave the Farm Credit System

Description: This report discusses Farm Credit Services of America's (FCSA) attempt at leaving the Farm Credit System (FCS) — a government-sponsored enterprise — to be bought by a private company. The option to leave the System is allowed by statute under the Farm Credit Act of 1971, as amended, but has been exercised only once, and did not involve an outside purchaser.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Monke, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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