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Göttingen Wind Tunnel for Testing Aircraft Models

Description: Given here is a brief description of the Göttingen wind tunnel for the testing of aircraft models, preceded by a history of its development. Included are a number of diagrams illustrating, among other things, a sectional elevation of the wind tunnel, the pressure regulator, the entrance cone and method of supporting a model for simple drag tests, a three-component balance, and a propeller testing device, all of which are discussed in the text.
Date: November 1920
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Horizontal Buoyancy in Wind Tunnels

Description: Note presenting an examination of horizontal buoyancy in wind tunnels, including an examination of the relative flow, static pressure gradient, horizontal buoyancy computation, and methods of computation in practical use are provided.
Date: November 1920
Creator: Zahm, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Vortices and the Related Principles of Hydrodynamics

Description: Here, conceptions concerning vortices are illustrated by the simplest possible examples. Mathematical formulas and similar means of presentation, which, for the most part, do not help the understanding of persons not versed therein, have been avoided as much as possible. Instead, the author has endeavored to demonstrate the phenomena by means of simple geometrical and mechanical illustrations. For the sake of clarity, the author chiefly considers currents in one plane only, a situation that can be readily represented by diagrams. Some of the peculiarities of vortices in three dimensional flow are briefly discussed.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Betz, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experiments With Slotted Wings

Description: Note presenting an investigation of various aspects of slotted wings, including some theoretical and experimental results and characteristics of certain slotted wings currently in production.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Lachmann, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Investigation on the Effect of Raked Wing Tips

Description: This investigation was carried out by request of the United States Air Service in the wind tunnel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The results are here published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics as it is thought that they may be of general interest. Wings of the R.A.F. 6 section are tested with various angles of rake, and it is found that although rake has very little effect, a positive or negative rake of 30 degrees is the best.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Choice of Wing Sections for Airplanes

Description: "The subject of the choice of an airfoil section is by no means a closed one, and despite the impossibility of making a single rule serve, it is quite practicable to deduce in a strictly rational manner a series of rules and formulas which are capable of being of the greatest use if we but confine ourselves to the consideration of one element of performance at a time. There are seven such elements of performance which are here taken up in turn. The seven are of different relative importance in different types of airplanes. The seven elements are: maximum speed regardless of minimum; maximum speed for given minimum; maximum speed range ratio; maximum rate of climb; maximum absolute ceiling; maximum distance non-stop; and maximum duration non-stop" (p. 1-2).
Date: November 1921
Creator: Warner, Edward P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Simplifying Assumptions, Reducing the Strict Application of Classical Hydrodynamics to Practical Aeronautical Computations

Description: Note presenting a general method followed to simplify the numerical work in hydrodynamics, which consists of neglecting quantities of a lower order of magnitude. Four of the solutions covered in this report include the theory of the lateral air forces on airship hulls, theory of wing sections in a two-dimensional flow, theory of wings with a finite span, and propeller theory.
Date: November 1924
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Structural Weight of Aircraft as Affected by the System of Design

Description: Various details of design or arrangement of the parts of airplane structures are shown and discussed, the use of these devices having resulted in the production of structures of adequate strength, yet of a weight less than one-half of the usual construction.
Date: November 1924
Creator: Hall, Charles Ward
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Altitude Chamber for the Study and Calibration of Aeronautical Instruments

Description: "The design and construction of an altitude chamber, in which both pressure and temperature can be varied independently, was carried out by the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of studying the effects of temperature and pressure on aeronautical research instruments. Temperatures from +20c to -50c are obtained by the expansion of CO2from standard containers. The chamber can be used for the calibration of research instruments under altitude conditions simulating those up to 45,000 feet" (p. 1).
Date: November 1925
Creator: Reid, H. J. E. & Kirchner, Otto E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tests on Riveted Joints in Sheet Duralumin

Description: In making tension tests, the slippage of the joints was noted at three points across each joint. In addition, stress strain curves were obtained for plain tension specimens, and a chemical analysis was made of the sheet.
Date: November 1923
Creator: Rettew, H. F. & Thumin, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Distribution of Loads Between the Wings of a Biplane Having Decalage

Description: "It is known that in a biplane the load is not distributed equally between the wings. The presence of one wing will affect the lift characteristics of the other wings. A designer must know the total load that each wing carries in order that he may design an adequate structure. The purpose here is to determine the distribution of loads between the wings of a biplane at various angles of decalage, when the gap/chord ratio is one, and there is no stagger" (p. 1).
Date: November 1927
Creator: Mock, Richard M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tests of Artificial Flight at High Altitudes

Description: "If we wish to form an accurate idea of the extraordinary progress achieved in aeronautics, a comparison must be made of the latest altitude records and the figures regarded as highest attainable limit some ten years ago. It is desirable, for two reasons, that we should be able to define the limit of the altitudes that can be reached without artificial aid. First, to know to what extent the human body can endure the inhalation of rarified air. Second, the mental capacity of the aviator must be tested at high altitudes and the limit known below which he is able to make reliable observations without being artificially supplied with oxygen" (p. 1).
Date: November 1920
Creator: Gradenwitz, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Establishment of Aviation Schools

Description: Report presenting a discussion of the creation of a suitable aviation school and some of the characteristics that should be considered in terms of hiring personnel, creating a curriculum, and obtaining equipment.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Kempe, Erich
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The danger of stalled flight and an analysis of the factors which govern it

Description: A definition of "stalled fight" is presented as well as a detailed discussion on the how and why it occurs. Some suggestions are made to prevent its occurrence such as carrying an air speed instrument in the airplane.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Hopf, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Traffic Airships With Special Reference to Economy

Description: The first part of this report details the efficiency and economy of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Leyensetter, Walther
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aeronautic Instruction in Germany

Description: This report contains a list of the courses relating to aeronautics announced in Germany, both in the technical high schools and in the universities.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Bouche, Henri
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Photographic Recording of Small Motions

Description: Methods and equipment for recording small and sometimes rapid motions by photographic means are described, and the efficacy of photographic recording in such instances is evaluated. The optical system consisting of the light source, the mirror or prism for transmitting motion to the emergent beam, and a means of bringing the rays into focus on the film are discussed. Attention is given to the critical issue of mirror mounting.
Date: November 1920
Creator: Norton, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Italian and French Experiments on Wind Tunnels

Description: Given here are the results of experiments conducted by Colonel Costanzi of the Italian Army to determine the influence of the surrounding building in which a wind tunnel was installed on the efficiency of the installation, and how the efficiency of the installation was affected by the design of the tunnel. Also given are the results of a series of experiments by Eiffel on 34 models of tunnels of different dimensions. This series of experiments was started in order to find out if, by changing the shape of the nozzle or of the diffuser of the large tunnel at Auteuil, the efficiency of the installation could be improved.
Date: November 1920
Creator: Knight, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Resistance Measurements on Actual Airplane Parts

Description: "For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine" (p. 1).
Date: November 1923
Creator: Weiselsberger, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of Climbing Ability

Description: "The vertical distribution of the pressure, temperature, and density of the atmosphere varies from day to day. Thus, rates of climb on different days cannot be compared directly, but must be corrected with reference to a standard rate of diminution of air density with increasing altitude. The following problem, therefore, has to be solved" (p. 1).
Date: November 1923
Creator: Blasius, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Wind Tunnel Tests of Five Strut Sections in Yaw

Description: In the first series of wind tunnel tests, the drag and cross wing force of all the struts were measured at a wind speed of 30 mph and at angles of yaw from 0 degrees to 20 degrees. To determine the magnitude of the VL effect, each strut was tested at zero yaw and at a series of speeds ranging from 15 to 38 mph. Although designed as fairings for cables, part of these sections gave such high crosswind forces that they seemed to have possibilities as airfoils.
Date: November 1923
Creator: Warner, Edward P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Pressure Measurements During Flight

Description: The general idea was to record the air pressure on the spot, that is, without intervening tubes, by some simple automatic registering device. This was therefore made in such small dimensions that it could be inserted into the wing between the ribs and stand in direct connection with the pressure openings. The results of different experiments are presented along with the best locations for locating the instruments for recording the pressure.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Pröll, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Preliminary Study of Airplane Performance

Description: Flight tests were carried out at the Langley Field laboratory of the NACA, on several airplanes for the purpose of determining their relative performance with the same engine and the same propeller. The method used consisted in flying each airplane on a level course and measuring the airspeed for the whole range of engine revolutions. In general the results show that a small change in the wing section or the wing area has but a slight effect upon the performance, but changes in those parts which cause the structural resistance have a very important effect.
Date: November 1922
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Brown, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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