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Executive Branch Reorganization Initiatives During the 112th Congress: A Brief Overview

Description: This report describes the ways that executive branch reorganization can occur as a result of Administration and congressional actions, and describes recent initiatives in the context of that typology. The report concludes with some observations regarding federal reorganization efforts.
Date: May 26, 2011
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imports from North Korea: Existing Rules, Implications of the KORUS FTA, and the Kaesong Industrial Complex

Description: This report examines the issue of U.S. imports from North Korea in three parts: U.S. rules and practices governing imports from North Korea. North Korea's exports to South Korea (via the KIC) and China, its dominant export markets. The KORUS FTA's potential effect on U.S. imports of North Korean content.
Date: May 24, 2011
Creator: Manyin, Mark E.; Grimmett, Jeanne J.; Jones, Vivian C. & Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Oversight Manual

Description: Throughout its history, Congress has engaged in oversight of the executive branch - the review, monitoring, and supervision of the implementation of public policy. The first several Congresses inaugurated such important oversight techniques as special investigations, reporting requirements, resolutions of inquiry, and use of the appropriations process to review executive activity. Contemporary developments, moreover, have increased the legislature's capacity and capabilities to check on and check the Executive. Public laws and congressional rules have measurably enhanced Congress's implied power under the Constitution to conduct oversight.
Date: May 19, 2011
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.; Oleszek, Walter J. & Tatelman, Todd B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Description: This report is divided into two segments. The first section provides the most recent information on the FY2011 continuing resolution. The second segment focuses on the (1) history and recent trends, including the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the past 35 years; (2) CR types by duration; (3) major substantive legislative provisions included in some CRs; and (4) funding gaps.
Date: April 26, 2011
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, focusing particularly on the influence of the Taliban and other militant groups and on the leadership of Afghan President Hamid Karzai. This report also discusses the U.S.-Afghanistan relationship, in both the short and long term, and U.S. efforts under the Obama Administration to provide military, reconstructive, and stabilization aid.
Date: May 9, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Description: The "digital divide" is a term used to describe a perceived gap between "information haves and have-nots," or in other words, between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications and information technologies and those who do not. Whether or not individuals or communities fall into the "information haves" category depends on a number of factors, ranging from the presence of computers in the home, to training and education, to the availability of affordable Internet access.
Date: April 12, 2011
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G. & Gilroy, Angele A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in the country of Panama, which has made notable political and economic progress since the 1989 U.S. military intervention that ousted the regime of General Manuel Noriega from power. The United States has close relations with Panama, stemming in large part from the extensive linkages developed when the canal was under U.S. control. This report describes the U.S.-Panama relationship at length, including trade relations.
Date: April 22, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in the country of Panama, which has made notable political and economic progress since the 1989 U.S. military intervention that ousted the regime of General Manuel Noriega from power. The United States has close relations with Panama, stemming in large part from the extensive linkages developed when the canal was under U.S. control. This report describes the U.S.-Panama relationship at length, including trade relations.
Date: May 11, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Description: Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba.
Date: May 17, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Côte d'Ivoire Post-Gbagbo: Crisis Recovery

Description: Côte d'Ivoire is emerging from a severe political crisis that followed a disputed November 28, 2010, presidential runoff election between former president Laurent Gbagbo and his, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara. Both claimed electoral victory and formed opposing governments. Their rivalry spurred a full-scale civil military conflict in early March 2011, after months of growing political violence. The main conflict died down days after Gbagbo's arrest by pro-Ouattara forces, aided by United Nations (U.N.) and French peacekeepers, but limited residual fighting was continuing to occur as of April 20.
Date: April 20, 2011
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions has been accomplished through a series of elections that began in 2005. However, disputes regarding various communities' claims on power and economic resources has contributed to popular frustration and continued political unrest. This report discusses these issues.
Date: April 19, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system that is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament).
Date: June 10, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative Procedures for Adjusting the Public Debt Limit: A Brief Overview

Description: Almost all borrowing by the federal government is conducted by the Treasury Department, within the restrictions established by a single, statutory limit on the total amount of debt that may be outstanding at any time.1 In a few instances, agencies such as the Tennessee Valley Authority operate within their own borrowing limits established separately in law. For years, the public debt limit has been codified in Section 3101(b) of Title 31, United States Code. Periodic adjustments in the debt limit take the form of amendments to 31 U.S.C. 3101(b), usually by striking the current dollar limitation and inserting a new one. In the past, such changes to the debt limit have been either permanent or temporary.
Date: May 2, 2011
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Algeria: Current Issues

Description: This report examines the current state of Algeria, including the country's associations with terrorism, despite steady decreases of domestic terrorism; the lessening in power of the Algerian military; and growing oil revenues.
Date: April 13, 2011
Creator: Arieff, Alexis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan.
Date: May 5, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: Iraq's political system is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament). With U.S. diplomatic help, on November 10, 2010, major ethnic and sectarian factions agreed on a framework for a new government, breaking the long deadlock. The agreement, under which Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki is serving a second term, was implemented when a broad-based cabinet was confirmed on December 21, 2010.
Date: May 18, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Côte d'Ivoire Post-Gbagbo: Crisis Recovery

Description: Côte d'Ivoire is emerging from a severe political-military crisis that followed a disputed November 28, 2010, presidential runoff election between former president Laurent Gbagbo and his, former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara. Both claimed electoral victory and formed opposing governments. Their rivalry spurred a full-scale civil military conflict in early March 2011, after months of growing political violence. Armed conflict largely ended days after Gbagbo's arrest by pro-Ouattara forces, aided by United Nations (U.N.) and French peacekeepers, but limited residual fighting was continuing to occur as of April 20.
Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Global Challenge of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria

Description: This report examines formal interagency collaborative arrangements and activities, which are intended to enhance joint efforts and cooperation among independent federal agencies with shared responsibilities and overlapping jurisdictions. This report highlights some of the current challenges posed by HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria, as well as several crosscutting policy issues that the 112th Congress may consider as it determines U.S. global health funding for these three diseases, including: Health Systems Strengthening, Country Ownership, Research and Development, Monitoring and Evaluation; and Bilateral vs. Multilateral Support.
Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: Kendall, Alexandra E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Power Plant Design and Seismic Safety Considerations

Description: This report presents some of the general design concepts of operating nuclear power plants in order to discuss design considerations for seismic events. This report does not attempt to conclude whether one design is inherently safer or less safe than another plant. Nor does it attempt to conclude whether operating nuclear power plants are at any greater or lesser risk from earthquakes given recent updates to seismic data and seismic hazard maps.
Date: May 2, 2011
Creator: Andrews, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Construction Sector in the U.S. Economy

Description: The construction sector is a major component of the U.S. economy. During the past decade, construction was a prime beneficiary of low interest rates and the housing-led economic boom, but was also one of the largest casualties of the subsequent financial crisis. Construction spending comprised about 7%-8% of U.S. annual economic output from 1995 to mid-2000, reaching nearly 9% of gross domestic product at the peak of the housing run-up in 2006, before declining to about 5% in 2010. Likewise, construction employment ranged from a low of about 4.6 million during the early 1990s to a high of 7.7 million during the 2006 housing boom, and was about 5.5 million in early 2011.
Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: Kirchhoff, Suzanne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Osama bin Laden's Death: Implications and Considerations

Description: This report discusses issues and questions related to the killing of Osama bin Laden (OBL), which are multifaceted and may have operational, regional, and policy implications. Operational policy issues include congressional notification, legal considerations, and current and future military activities.
Date: May 5, 2011
Creator: Rollins, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues

Description: Recent Congresses and the Obama Administration have taken numerous actions to promote "insourcing," or the use of government personnel to perform functions that contractors previously performed on behalf of federal agencies. Among other things, the 109th through the 111th Congresses enacted several statutes requiring the development of policies and guidelines to ensure that agencies "consider" using government employees to perform functions previously performed by contractors, as well as any new function.
Date: May 5, 2011
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Maskell, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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