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DOE Advanced Controls R&D Planning Workshop, June 11, 2003, Washington DC: Workshop Results

Description: On June 11, 2003, representatives from universities, federal and state government agencies, Department of Energy national laboratories, and the private sector attended a one-day workshop in Washington, DC. The objective of the workshop was to review and provide input into DOE's assessment of the market for advanced sensors and controls technology and potential R&D pathways to enhance their success in the buildings market place. The workshop consisted of two sessions. During the morning session, participants were given an overview on the following topics: market assessment, current applications and strategies for new applications, sensors and controls, networking, security, and protocols and standards, and automated diagnostics, performance measurement, commissioning and optimal control and tools. In the sessions, workshop participants were asked to review the potential R&D pathways, identify high priority activities, and outline a five year path for each of these activities. Priorities were as follows: largest and quickest impact; best use of finite resources; greatest likelihood for market penetration; and ability to replicate results. The participants identified several promising R&D opportunities.
Date: April 13, 2005
Creator: Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter …
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: LUDLAM, T. & ARONSON, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design a high-q optical cavity for the project of laser notching h- beam at 38.5 mhz

Description: Ray matrix formalism is used to represent a two-mirror resonator with a thermal lens in the middle. By tracking a ray vector, which starts from the place where the laser and H{sup -} beams intercept, through the optical cavity, the cavity property can be analyzed. The cavity design can be optimized in such a way that at the interception, the spacious jitter of the laser beam caused by the cavity misalignment is the minimum.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Yang, Xi & Ankenbrandt, Charles M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Seismic Monitoring for the United Arab Emirates

Description: There is potential for earthquakes in the United Arab Emirates and in the Zagros mountains to cause structural damage and pose a threat to safety of people. Damaging effects from earthquakes can be mitigated by knowledge of the location and size of earthquakes, effects on construction, and monitoring these effects over time. Although a general idea of seismicity in the UAE may be determined with data from global seismic networks, these global networks do not have the sensitivity to record smaller seismic events and do not have the necessary accuracy to locate the events. A National Seismic Monitoring Observatory is needed for the UAE that consists of a modern seismic network and a multidisciplinary staff that can analyze and interpret the data from the network. A seismic network is essential to locate earthquakes, determine event magnitudes, identify active faults and measure ground motions from earthquakes. Such a network can provide the data necessary for a reliable seismic hazard assessment in the UAE. The National Seismic Monitoring Observatory would ideally be situated at a university that would provide access to the wide range of disciplines needed in operating the network and providing expertise in analysis and interpretation.
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Rodgers, A. & Nakanishi, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY.

Description: The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine.
Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: MOSS, STEVEN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-Energy X-Ray Imager for Laser-Fusion Research at the National Ignition Facility

Description: X-ray imaging will be an important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). However, high neutron yields will make x-ray imaging much more difficult than it is at smaller facilities. We analyze the feasibility and performance of a High-Energy X-Ray Imager (HEXRI) to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at NIF, with particular emphasis on spatial-resolution, field of view, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios. Using a pinhole about 4 {micro}m in diameter a resolution of 5.8 {micro}m is achieved at 9 keV, limited by restrictions in the pinhole positioning. The resolution varies between 8.5 and 4.5 {micro}m in the 5-20 keV spectral range. Different options for the scintillating materials have been evaluated with the goal of having a sufficiently fast phosphor screen to allow time gating for minimizing neutron-induced background. Signal/Background (SBR) and Signal/Noise (SNR) ratios (limited to x-rays) have been calculated for different commercially-available scintillators, both showing adequate values with either a tantalum or a platinum pinhole substrate.
Date: April 18, 2005
Creator: Tommasini, R & Koch, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2004 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

Description: During the 2004 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Implementation Program (HEU-TIP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2004, there were 200 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 200 person-trips, 183 person-trips were SMVs and 17 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Eight person-trips from the SMV trips were continuation trips of TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIP. The LLNL Safety Laboratories' Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TIP monitors.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Radev, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The May 18, 1998 Indian Nuclear Test Seismograms at station NIL

Description: The last underground nuclear tests were conducted by India and Pakistan in May 1998. Although the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has not entered force, an International Monitoring System (IMS), established by the treaty is nearing completion. This system includes 170 seismic stations, a number of them originally established by IRIS. The station IRIS station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan) is close to a planned IMS primary station and recorded some very interesting seismograms from the May 18, 1998 Indian test. We carefully calibrated the path to NIL using a prior Mw 4.4 that occurred on April 4, 1995 about 110 km north of the Indian test site. We used joint epicentral location techniques along with teleseismic P waves and regional surface waves to fix the epicenter, depth, mechanism and moment of this event. From these we obtained a velocity model for the path to NIL and created explosion synthetic seismograms to compare with the data. Interestingly the observed Rayleigh waves are reversed, consistent with an implosion rather than an explosion source. The preferred explanation is that the explosion released tectonic stress near the source region, which can be modeled as a thrust earthquake of approximate Mw 4.0 plus a pure explosion. This tectonic release is sufficient to completely dominate the Rayleigh waves and produce the observed signal (Walter et al. 2005). We also examined the explosion at high frequencies of 6 6-8 Hz where many studies have shown that relative P/S amplitudes can discriminate explosions from a background of earthquakes (Rodgers and Walter, 2002). Comparing with the April 4 1995 earthquake we see the classic difference of relatively large P/S values for the explosion compared to the earthquakes despite the complication of the large tectonic release during the explosion.
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Bowers, D & Selby, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiochemical Assays of Irradiated VVER-440 Fuel for Use in Spent Fuel Burnup Credit Activities

Description: The objective of this spent fuel burnup credit work was to study and describe a VVER-440 reactor spent fuel assembly (FA) initial state before irradiation, its operational irradiation history and the resulting radionuclide distribution in the fuel assembly after irradiation. This work includes the following stages: (1) to pick out and select a specific spent (irradiated) FA for examination; (2) to describe the FA initial state before irradiation; (3) to describe the irradiation history, including thermal calculations; (4) to examine the burnup distribution of select radionuclides along the FA height and cross-section; (5) to examine the radionuclide distributions; (6) to determine the Kr-85 release into the plenum; (7) to select and prepare FA rod specimens for destructive examinations; (8) to determine the radionuclide compositions, isotope masses and burnup in the rod specimens; and (9) to analyze, document and process the results. The specific workscope included the destructive assay (DA) of spent fuel assembly rod segments with an {approx}38.5 MWd/KgU burnup from a single VVER-440 fuel assembly from the Novovorenezh reactor in Russia. Based on irradiation history criteria, four rods from the fuel assembly were selected and removed from the assembly for examination. Next, 8 sections were cut from the four rods and sent for destructive analysis of radionuclides by radiochemical analyses. The results were documented in a series of seven reports over a period of {approx}1 1/2 years.
Date: April 25, 2005
Creator: Jardine, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Distribution and Flux of Fish in the Forebay of The Dalles Dam in 2003

Description: In spring and summer 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory led a team that conducted mobile and fixed hydroacoustic surveys in the forebay of The Dalles Dam for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Portland District, for the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program. The surveys provided information on the distribution and movement of smolt-sized fish relative to ambient factors such as flow, bathymetry, or diel cycle in the forebay at The Dalles Dam. This information is intended to provide baseline data for the development of a surface bypass alternative for juvenile salmon at The Dalles Dam. We sampled the forebay of The Dallas Dam one day and night each week for six weeks in the spring and another six weeks in the summer. In general, during the day in the spring, the greatest densities of smolt-sized fish were observed in the thalweg of the main channel from the Washington bank, to the east side of the powerhouse, along the powerhouse, and concentrated in the areas next to the sluiceway. Fish density was lower on the Washington side of the river and west of mid-powerhouse (north spillway side). The spring night distribution was similar, with a few notable differences. The density of fish was high on the east side of the powerhouse and along the face of the powerhouse, and more fish were detected on the north spillway side. The distribution of sub-yearling sized fish in summer followed the same general patterns as spring, except that summer fish had a greater presence on the east side of the powerhouse and on the north spillway side. The vertical distribution of fish was also determined. In spring 80% of fish were above 5.6 m of depth during the day and above 4.7 m in the night. The summer fish were similarly distributed in …
Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: Faber, Derrek M.; Hanks, Michael E.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Skalski, John R. & Dillingham, Peter W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HIF VNL Progress Report to DOE, April 22, 2005

Description: We have made progress in learning to use the code Hydra to do detailed modeling of targets for Accelerator Driven High Energy Density Physics. Hydra is a state-of-the-art 3D, radiative transfer hydrodynamics modeling code developed at LLNL. In particular, we have carried out two-dimensional simulations of a 23 MeV, 1 mm radius Neon beam striking a 48 micron thick Aluminum foil at 10% solid density, and observed the heating of the foil by the beam. The Bragg peak was chosen to fall near the center of the foil, and as expected, rarefaction waves propagated symmetrically inward (at a speed of order the sound speed), as the heated material flowed outward and cooled. Foams allow relatively high temperatures to be attained over longer timescales, and the foils behaved, at least qualitatively, as predicted by previous analysis. Design of a number of configurations, ion species, and material compositions will be carried out using this code. Further, calculations by our collaborators at Tech-X corporation have compared results from the SRIM code (a code for understanding detailed energy deposition and scattering of ions in a cold solid) with cold dEdX curves published by Northcliffe and Schilling in 1970. The latter publication was used for making previous analytic estimates of ion energies and foil widths for experiments in which relatively large regions of uniform temperature are reached in the foil. The two sources agreed well, giving some confidence to our analytic estimates, and allowing us to rule out dE/dx discrepancies in early runs of the Hydra code that gave anomalous results. The anomalies were later found to arise from improperly set parameters in the input deck for Hydra.
Date: April 21, 2005
Creator: Barnard, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

Description: A trend towards ''green'' building with a focus on energy efficiency is sweeping the United States homebuilding industry. An integrated systems-design approach leads to homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices. Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the country are taking the lead on this approach to home building for affordable housing. This approach supports Habitat's goals of supplying quality housing and reducing the energy cost burden on families in Habitat homes--goals that are especially important in these days of increasing energy costs.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Norton, P.; Stafford, B.; Carpenter, B.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Science & Technology Review May 2005

Description: Articles in this month's issue include: (1) Einstein's Legacy Alive at Livermore--Commentary by Michael R. Anastasio; (2) Applying Einstein's Theories of Relativity--In their efforts to understand the cosmos, Livermore physicists must account for the relativistic effects postulated by Albert Einstein; (3) Locked in Rock: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide Underground--Livermore scientists are examining technologies to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide by burying it deep underground; (4) Modeling the Subsurface Movement of Radionuclides--Using data from past underground nuclear tests, a Livermore team is modeling radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site; and (5) Novel Materials from Solgel Chemistry--Livermore chemists are developing a method for fabricating solgels to better control the physical properties of the new materials.
Date: April 5, 2005
Creator: Aufderheide, M B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Consumer Views on Transportation and Energy (Second Edition)

Description: This report has been assembled to provide the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with an idea of how the American public views various transportation, energy, and environmental issues. The data presented in this report have been drawn from multiple sources: surveys conducted by the Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that are commissioned and funded by EERE, Gallup polls, and other sources.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Kubik, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy Management and Control System: Desired Capabilities and Functionality

Description: This document discusses functions and capabilities of a typical building/facility energy management and control systems (EMCS). The overall intent is to provide a building operator, manager or engineer with basic background information and recommended functions, capabilities, and good/best practices that will enable the control systems to be fully utilized/optimized, resulting in improved building occupant quality of life and more reliable, energy efficient facilities.
Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: Hatley, Darrel D.; Meador, Richard J.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R. & Wouden, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of the Energy Performance of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's Philip Merrill Environmental Center

Description: The Chesapeake Bay Foundation designed their new headquarters building to minimize its environmental impact on the already highly polluted Chesapeake Bay by incorporating numerous high-performance energy saving features into the building design. CBF then contacted NREL to perform a nonbiased energy evaluation of the building. Because their building attracted much attention in the sustainable design community, an unbiased evaluation was necessary to help designers replicate successes and identify and correct problem areas. This report focuses on NREL's monitoring and analysis of the overall energy performance of the building.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Griffith, B.; M., Deru; Torcellini, P. & Ellis, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Response Of A CVD Diamond Detector To ''Typical'' Deuterium-Tritium NIF Implosions For Areal Density Measurement

Description: CVD diamond detector signals from Deuterium-Tritium implosions have been simulated in order to study the feasibility of measuring areal density using the ratio of downscattered to primary neutrons during the ignition campaign at the NIF. Simulated neutron spectra for three ''typical'' DT implosions were weighted with the CVD diamond sensitivity to obtain an estimated signal at several distances from the target chamber center. The 14 MeV peak was found to have an amplitude about three orders of magnitude larger than the down-scattered signal for the three spectra. At a target to detector distance of 17 m (just outside the target bay wall) and for a 1 cm{sup 2} wafer, signals are large enough to be recorded, well above any background and electronic noise. The uncertainty in the areal density measurement comes mainly from the uncertainty in the CVD diamond energy dependent sensitivity, the accuracy of the background simulation, and the effect of the saturation of both detector and electronics after the large 14 MeV peak. Nevertheless, the results found in this study are encouraging, and the remaining sources of uncertainty should now be addressed.
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Dauffy, L S; Lerche, R A & Phillips, T W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets

Description: One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gravitational effects of the planet on the radial velocity of its parent star. This technique has fundamental limitations: it is most sensitive to planets close to their star, and it determines only a planet's orbital period and a lower limit on the planet's mass. As a result, all the planetary systems found so far are very different from our own--they have giant Jupiter-sized planets orbiting close to their star, where the terrestrial planets are found in our solar system. Such systems have overturned the conventional paradigm of planet formation, but have no room in them for habitable Earth-like planets. A powerful complement to radial velocity detections of extrasolar planets will be direct imaging--seeing photons from the planet itself. Such a detection would allow photometric measurements to determine the temperature and radius of a planet. Also, direct detection is most sensitive to planets in wide orbits, and hence more capable of seeing solar systems resembling our own, since a giant planet in a wide orbit does not preclude the presence of an Earth-like planet closer to the star. Direct detection, however, is extremely challenging. Jupiter is roughly a billion times fainter than our sun. Two techniques allowed us to overcome this formidable contrast and attempt to see giant planets directly. The first is adaptive optics (AO) which allows giant earth-based telescopes, such as the 10 meter W.M. Keck telescope, to partially overcome the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. The second is looking for young planets: by searching in the infrared for companions to young stars, we can see thermal …
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Macintosh, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design report of the laser system for notching H- beam at booster injection RF frequency in the 750-keV Linac

Description: With the requirement for more protons per hour from Booster, the radiation is a limiting factor. The most important periods in a Booster accelerating cycle are injection and transition crossing. The laser notching H{sup -} beam at the Booster injection RF frequency can make a bucket-to-bucket transfer from Linac to Booster possible, and this should remove most of the capture loss at injection and the early beam loss in the cycle. Besides that, the variation of the laser pulse length can change the notch length of the H{sup -} beam such that the bucket area filled by the beam can be controlled, and this can be applied to control the longitudinal emittance of the Booster beam.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Yang, Xi & Ankenbrandt, Charles M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Third Edition

Description: This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Aabakken, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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IN SITU NON-INVASIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLE SIZE AND GEOSTATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.

Description: I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the following: (1) It is a non-destructive method, i.e., no samples of any kind are taken. A neutron generator placed above the ground irradiates the soil, stimulating carbon characteristic gamma-ray emission that is counted by a detection system also placed above the ground. (2) The INS system can undertake multielemental analysis, so expanding its usefulness. (3) It can be used either in static or scanning modes. (4) The volume sampled by the INS method is large with a large footprint; when operating in a scanning mode, the sampled volume is continuous. (5) Except for a moderate initial cost of about $100,000 for the system, no additional expenses are required for its operation over two to three years after which a NG has to be replenished with a new tube at an approximate cost of $10,000, this regardless of the number of sites analyzed. In light of these characteristics, the INS system appears invaluable for monitoring changes in the carbon content in the field. For this purpose no calibration is required; by establishing a carbon index, changes in carbon yield can be followed with time in exactly the same location, thus giving a percent change. On the other hand, with calibration, it can be used to determine the carbon stock in the ground, thus estimating the soil's carbon inventory. However, this requires revising the standard practices for deciding upon the number of sites required to attain a given confidence level, in particular for the purposes of upward scaling. Then, geostatistical considerations should be incorporated in considering properly the averaging effects of …
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: WIELOPOLSKI, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

Description: The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.
Date: April 28, 2005
Creator: Carlson, Thomas J. & Abernethy, Cary S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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